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Words of transition, of every class, as 'however,' besides,' therefore,' and the like, should in accordance with this principle be thrown, whenever practicable, into the middle of the sentence;--should be, in other words, postpositive and not prepositive. So, likewise, merely explanatory members or phrases should be neither the first nor the last on the mind, unless they are to be made emphatic.

But the unbending syntax of our language allows but little liberty to the orator in this respect. It is here incomparably inferior to the ancient languages which, by the multiplicity of their inflections, admitted readily any desired arrangement of the words and phrases. It is, however, even here superior to some other modern languages; and without offending against its essential principles, the orator may impart much energy to discourse by authorized deviations from the ordinary structure of the sentence.

As the subject is naturally the first thing to be presented to the mind, our language requires that ordinarily it be placed first in the sentence. But sometimes it is the predicate in whole or in part, or the mode of the copula, upon which the orator wishes the attention more particularly to be fixed. To accomplish this inversion, in the first place, we have certain words and forms of expression which are used for this purpose alone and are in themselves utterly destitute of meaning; such as," there," " there is,” “it is."

There is a feeling of the sublime in contemplating the shock of armies, just as there is in contemplating the devouring energy of a tempest; and this so elevates and engrosses the whole man, that his eye is blind to the tears of bereaved pa nts, and his ear is deaf to the piteous moan of the dying, and the shriek of their desolated families. There is a gracefulness in the picture of a youthful warrior burning for distinction on the field, &c.

It gives me pleasure to advance a farther testimony in

behalf of that government with which it has pleased God, who appointed to all men the bounds of their habitation, to bless that portion of the globe that we occupy.

It is the gospel of Jesus Christ, which has poured the light of day into all the intricacies of this contemplation.

Again, when the predicate is separated in part or in whole from the copula the predicate or a part of it may be placed first.

Great is Diana of the Ephesians.

His faithful dogs howl on his hills, and his boars which be used to pursue, rejoice. Fallen is the arm of battle; the mighty among the valiants is low!

Farther, the qualifying parts of a sentence, when they are to be made emphatic, may be placed first without violating the principles of the language.

So deeply were they impressed with the sense of their wrongs, that they would not even accept of life from their oppressors.

Once more, in the objective relation of the sentence, our language ordinarily requires that the object follow its verb. For the sake of energy, however, inversion is often allowable here.

All that I have and all that I am and all that I hope in this life, I am now ready here to stake upon

it. $347. ANACOLUTHON is a figure in which, for the sake of energy, the orator drops the grammatical form with which he had commenced and adopts another not syntactically reconcilable with it.

This figure, common in thu classical writings, is rarely allowable in our language. Only strong passion can warrant it, as it seems to imply such a degree of emotion in the speaker as to destroy the recollection of grammatical forms § 348. APOSIOPESIS is a figure in which the feelings of the speaker induce him to interrupt the expression and leave the sentence incomplete.

This figure, by its direct address to the imagination of the hearer, is often one of great power.

Demosthenes employs it frequently with much effect; as in his address to Aeschines: 0 thou--by what name can I properly call thee?

Must I remember? why she would hang on him
As if increase of appetite had grown
By what it fed on; yet, within a month-
Let me not think-Frailty thy name is woman.

$ 349. SENTENTIOUSNESS is a deviation from that continuousness in style which thought naturally requires, $ 295. It characterises that discourse which is broken up into short and abrupt sentences.

The women, in their turn, learned to be more vain, more gay, and more alluring. They grew studious to please and to conquer.

They lost somewhat of the intrepidity and firmness which before were characteristic of them. They were to affect a delicacy and a weakness. Their education was to be an object of greater attention and care. A finer sense of duty was to arise.

After all, what is high birth? Does it bestow a nature different from that of the rest of mankind? Has not the man of ancient line, human blood in his veins? Does he not experience hunger and thirst?

Besides, Sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery. Our chains are forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston. The war is incvitable, and let it come. I repeat it, Sir, let it come.

$ 350. There are certain general principles which

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apply to the use of figures and which should be care. fully observed.

The first respects the occasion of using them; it requires that they never be introduced unless there be fit and suitable ground for them in the feelings of the speaker.

So far as figures appear to be sought after, they indicate labor and affectation which are in themselves most hostile to energy. The proper rule to be observed in reference to propriety in the use of figures, is that, while familiarity be obtained by previous study with the various kinds of figures, such only be actually employed in discourse as spring up naturally at the time.

$ 351. The second principle respects the number of figures; it forbids a too frequent repetition of them, and, especially, the frequent repetition of the same figure.

$ 352. The third principle respects the relation to be observed to the ordinary essential properties of style; it requires that figurative expressions should be in conformity with the necessary principles that govern those properties.

Figures are deviations from the ordinary forms of speech, but can never be properly violations of its essential properties. In the use of figures, accordingly, the principles of etymology, syntax and lexicography, for example, should never be violated. No real energy is gained to discourse by the introduction of a figure which is unintelligible or obscure.

9 353. The fourth principle respects the quality of the figure itself; it requires that it be ever congruous and complete in itself; and at the same time be extended no farther than is necessary for distinct apprehension.

The liability to an offense against this principle is greatest in the case of the representative figures. Whenever these are presented confusedly and with incongruous features they offend rather than impress. So, also, while offensive abruptness and incompleteness are to be avoided, the figure should never be extended farther than the imagination of the hearer needs in order to grasp it intelligibly and fully. In the simile or comparison, for instance, to carry out the figure into every possible resemblance weakens as well as disgusts, and is fatal to energy.

The following extracts exemplify violations of this principle:

I am convinced that the method of teaching which approaches most nearly to the method of investigation, is incomparably the best, since not content with serving up a few barren and lifeless truths, it leads to the stalk on which they grow.—Burke.

There is not a single view of human nature which is not sufficient to extinguish the seeds of pride.--Addison.

Men must acquire a very peculiar and strong babit of turning their eye inwards, in order to explore the interior regions and recesses of the mind, the hollow caverns of deep thought, the private seats of fancy, and the wastes and wildernesses, as well as the more fruitful and cultivated tracts, of this obscure climate.--Shaftsbury.

These are the first-fruits of my unfledged eloquence, of which thou hast oft complained that it was buried in the shade.

Upon thy mirror, earth's majestic view,
To paint thy presence, and to feel it too.

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