and bolder than the comparative form which he adopts; « Be not like dumb driven cattle.”

The similE differs only in form from the comparison. The term •simile' turns the mind on the object to which the theme is likened as the prominent thing. In the simile, accordingly, the representative object is presented as the leading theme; and the represented as the subordinate one. In the comparison, on the other hand, the represented object is made the leading theme. Thus, a comparison would be in this form; “As when the thunder rolls in peals; the lightning glances on the rocks; spirits ride on beams of fire; and the strength of the mountain-streams comes running down the hills: so was the voice of battle.” In the simile, the representative object would be presented as the leading theme; as, “ Thou hast seen the sun retire red and slow behind his cloud; night gathering round on the mountain; while the unfrequent blast roared in narrow vales. At length the rain beats hard; and thunder rolls in peals. Lightning glances on the rocks, spirits ride on beams of fire, and the strength of the mountain-streams comes roaring down the hills. Such was the noise of battle.” Differing thus slightly, the simile and comparison are very commonly confounded.

CONTRAST is a figure in which the object is represented by another similar object, but the attention is turned on the opposition or points of difference between them.

Contrast thus involves comparison, since there can be no contrast between things entirely dissimilar; it differs from comparison in this, that while it assumes the resemblance it goes farther and dwells on the points of opposition or dissimilarity.

The destruction of a dangerous error which had widely extended its dominion is a glorious victory won by the friends of truth, armed only with the weapons of faith.

Such a conqueror no streams of blood accompany: in his train are no desolated fields.

The ALLEGORY is but an extended simile, in which the comparative words are omitted.

The allegory, the parable, and the fable belong to the same class of figurative forms of representation; and their distinctions are not nicely observed in the common use of language. It is sufficient to remark of them that the fable is distinguished from the proper allegory by being shorter and also by being narrative or historical. It is founded on an imaginary event; whereas an allegory may be descriptive. The term parable is more strictly confined to allegories either narrative or descriptive, of a moral or religious character, which are, moreover, founded on real scenes or events; as those of Christ.

One of the finest examples of the allegory is in the eightieth Psalm, from the eighth verse to the sixteenth inclusive.

The Pilgrim's Progress by Bunyan is another fine exemplification of the extended allegory.

The ALLUSION is a species of comparison in which, while the comparative words are omitted, the represented object is still made the leading theme; and the comparison is with a real object or event.

By this last characteristic it is distinguished from the allegory, in which, as in the simile, the representative object is the leading theme. It differs from one class of metaphors only in being more extended. Indeed, this class of 'metaphors, referring to a real scene or event, are denominated metaphorical allusions or allusive metaphors; as “ The self-seeking will betray his friend or brother with a Judas-kiss."

When it is said that the allusion always respects a real event or object, it is not meant to exclude such imaginary

objects or events as have been actually described or narrated in works of fiction.

$ 344. The third class of representative figures, or those in which the mental condition of the speaker is represented as different from the reality, may be distributed into three species, according as they respect the personality of the speaker; that of the hearer; or the nature of the thought or feeling represented itself.

The first species is PROSOPOPOEIA, in which the speaker personates another; as where Milo is introduced by Cicero as speaking through his lips; “ Attend, I pray, hearken, O citizens, I have killed Publius Clodius by this sword and by this right hand, I have kept off his rage from your necks, which no laws, no courts of judicature, could restrain,” &c.

It is sometimes joined with personification, in which case inanimate or irrational things are represented as speaking ; as in Cicero's first oration against Cataline, the republic is made the speaker and addresses Cicero himself. “What are you doing? Are you suffering him whom you have found to be an enemy, who you see is to be at the head of

whom you perceive our enemies wait for in their camp as their general, who has been the contriver of this wickedness, the chief of the conspiracy, the exciter of slaves and profligate citizens, to leave the city which is rather to bring him in than let him out? Will you not order him to be imprisoned, condemned, and executed ?" &c.

Sometimes this figure takes the form of a colloquy or & dialogue. This was the ancient sermocinatio. How does God reveal himself in nature?

She answers thee with loud voices, with a thousand tongues: God is love.

The second species is APOSTROPHE, in which the speaker, instead of addressing directly his proper hearer, turns him.

the war,


self to some other person or thing, either really or only in imagination present.

This figure abounds in the orations of Cicero. Thus in his first against Cataline: “I desire, senators, to be merciful, but not to appear negligent in so great dangers of the State; though at present I cannot but condemn myself of remiss

There is a camp formed in Italy at the entrance of Etruria, against the State; our enemies increase daily; but we see the commander of the camp and general of the enemies within our walls, in the very senate, contriving some intestine ruin to the State. If, now, Cataline, I should order

you to be seized and pui to death,” &c. Again, in his defense of Milo, he turns to his brother Quintus and addresses him as if present: “And how shall I answer it to you, my brother Quintus, the partner of my misfortunes, who art now absent?"

The third species of figures of this class which respect a change in the represented conception of the object by the speaker from the reality, includes irony, doubt, and interrogation.

IRONY is a figure in which the speaker represents his thought in a form that properly expresses the directly opposite of his opinion. It is employed mostly for purposes of playfulness or scorn and contempt.

Silence at length the gay Antinous broke.
Constrained a smile, and thus ambiguous spoke:
What god to you, untutored youth, affords
This headlong torrent of amazing words!
May Jove delay thy reign, and cumber late
So bright a genius with the cares of state!

Odyssey, I. 490. • But, Mr. Speaker, we have a right to tax America.' Oh, inestimable right! Oh, wonderful, transcendent right! the assertion of which has cost this country thirteen provinces, six islands, one hundred thousand lives, and seventy millions of money. Oh, invaluable right! for the sake of which we have sacrificed our rank among nations, our importance abroad, and our bappiness at home!

Doubt, also called aporia and dubitatio, is a figure in which the speaker represents himself as in doubt for the purpose of winning a stronger confidence from the hearers. Thus, Cicero in his oration for Cluentius:

I know not which way to turn myself. Shall I deny the scandal thrown upon him of bribing the judges? Can I say, the people were not told of it? &c.

INTERROGATION is a figure in which a strong and confident assertion is represented under the form of an inquiry or demand.

Have any alarms been occasioned by the emancipation of our Catholic brethren? Has the bigoted malignity of any individuals been crushed ? or has the stability of the government or that of the country been weakened? or is one million of subjects stronger than four millions?

$345. Those forms of figurative energy which depenil on the structure of the sentence respect either the order and connection of the parts; or the completeness and length of the entire sentence.

They include inversion and anacoluthon ; aposipesis and sententiousness.

346. INVERSion is a figure in which the arrangement of the parts of a sentence is changed from the usual syntactical order.

The general principle of energy in regard to the arrangement or the parts of a sentence is, that the more important words or phrases be placed first or last, and the less important be thrown into the middle. This principle, indeed, applies also to the arrangement of words in the members.

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