where he can again steal a glance of her lovely face, by one look of which being, as he deemeth, encou. raged to better hope, he reneweth his suit with fresh warmth, renouncing his past rebellion as a grievous sin, the which he is to expiate by tenfold en creased love. Nevertheless she, willing to shew her power, thus marvellously confirmed and increas, ed, demeaneth herself as haughtily as before, and, haply, to punish his late treasonous lapse and falling off, seemeth to cast upon others more soft and favourable looks : whereat our lover, being stung with envy and jealous wrath, doth encounter the chiefest of his rivals with sharp and angry words, which growing into keener and more deadly rage, they agree to decide which is the worthiest by trial of arms; and having met in some retired place, either on horseback or on foot, attended by their squires, a furious combat ensueth, in which the valour of both shineth out worthy of their noble birth, and of that love wherewith it is more especially inflamed and spurred on : After various turns of fortune, and many wounds on both sides, our lover doth, with dif. ficulty, master his adversary, to whom he sheweth no less courtesy in defeat than fierceness in fight. After a time, having recovered of his wounds, at hearing whereof the lady hath shewed as much grief and pity as beseemeth a modest maiden to shew for man, he appeareth before her, his arm scarfed, and his cheeks yet pale from loss of blood, and, kneeling at her feet, imploreth forgiveness for past faults, and voweth constancy and love, not shorter than he hath life to feel them, and breath to utter; while she, without speaking a word, doth by looks and silent blushes, in some sort confess herself propitious to his vows; whereof, having passed a probation of years, one or more, he arriveth at the end of his wishes, and obtaineth her con



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sent to be his wedded wife. Lastly, their noble parents being well satisfied with this union of their noble blood, the marriage is celebrated, with much ceremony and pomp at the castle of the bride's princely father, whereat there is all manner of good cheer, of dancing, and of minstrilsy for many days.”

This theory of ancient love and courtship, instead of simplifying the matter, makes it much more difficult than, in modern practice at least, it is actually found. The lóver, now-a-days, finds but little of that stately pride and maiden shyness above described ; nor is he obliged to cultivate poetry to celebrate his mistress, nor to meet any rival attended by his squire, nor to suffer wounds and loss of blood for her sake, nor to go through a probation of years, one or more. All he has to do is, to dance with the lady at a ball, say a few soft things to her in plain prose, then meet her father attended by his lawyer, go through a probation of deeds and settlements, and so proceed to the bridal ceremony, and to good cheer and jollity for as short or as long a time as he thinks proper.

The second theoretical description, which I shall lay before my readers, is so far different from the first, that it renders a very confused and intricate business, as I have been told it is, perfectly clear and obvious to the meanest capacity. This, however, is by no means owing to any want in the theoretical situation of that incident or bustle which nccurs in the real; on the contrary, the events are infinitely more numerous and astonishing in the first than in the latter, though the art of the theorist carries the imagination through them all with wonderful distinctness and regularity. The instance to which I allude is the description of a battle, given by the ingenious Mr. A. Boyer, in his French Dictonary, under the word " Battaile."


“ The two armies being in sight, the cannon roar on each side ; and the signal of the fight being given, they both move, snd begin the encounter. In the height of danger, the generals shew their intrepidity, by preserving their cool temper, and by giving their orders without emotion and without hurry. In the close engagement, the officers perform wonders, and shew extraordinary valour and judgment; and seconded by their men, who fight like lions, they cut the enemy in pieces, kill and overthrow all they meet in their way, break through battalions, and bear down squadrons. Upon the point of being overpowered by numbers, they resolutely sustain the effort of the enemy; and the generals, being informed by their aids-de-camp of what passes on that side, cause succours to march thither with all speed, revive the spirits of the soldiers by their presence, rally the broken battalions, bring them again to the charge, repulse the enemy, drive them before them, regain the ground they had lost, retrieve the whole affair, pursue the enemy close, trample them under foot or ride over them, entirely disable them, put all that resist to the sword ; and, after having sustained continual discharges of cannon and small shot, and gained an entire and complete victory, cause a treat to be sounded, and lie on the field of battle, while the air resounds with the flourishes of trumpets.”

The above description is contained in an edition of Mr. Boyer's learned and useful work, now become exceedingly scarce. It is there given in French and English ; but I choose to publish the translation only, as I mean it for the sole use of our British commanders, from whose practice, at the time of its first publication, (about the beginning of this century) the description was probably taken. Perhaps, in some late campaigns, our generals had consulted other dictionaries, containing a much less animated and decisive definition of a battle, than that which I have transcribed from the ingenious Mr. Boyer.



Ah vices! gilded by the rich and gay.


IF we examine impartially that estimate of pleasure, which the higher ranks of society are apt to form, we shall probably be surprised to find how little there is in it either of natural feeling or real satisfaction. Many a fashionable voluptuary, who has not totally blunted his taste or his judgment, will own, in the intervals of recollection, how often he has suffered from the insipidity or the pain of his enjoyments; and that, if it were not for the fear of being laughed at, it were sometimes worth while, even on the score of pleasuae, to be virtuous.

Sir Edward .... to whom I had the pleasure of being introduced at Florence, was a character much beyond that which distinguishes the generality of English travellers of fortune. His story was known to some of his countrymen, who then resided in Italy ; from one of whom, who could now and then talk of something beside pictures and operas, I had a particular recital of it.

He had been first abroad at an early period of life, soon after the death of his father had left him master of a very large estate, which he had the

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