of use.

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the Uniformity of Use, (sect. 17.) which suggests the Four kinds
propriety of making those parts similar, which have
precisely the same use; 2dly, the Uniformity of
Form, which, from its being more strongly allied to Of form.
character, and often even taking the place of it, I have
called characteristic uniformity. (Id. sect. 20, 26,
&c.) 3dly, Uniformity of Position, (sect. 29,) which of posi-
as contributing to that distinctness, which so mate-
rially aids the due effect of other excellencies, points
out to us, that we should generally make parts nearly
in a line, or nearly equi-distant, perfectly so, avoiding
useless distinctions. 4thly, Uniformity of Proportion, of propor-
(sect. 30,) which may be called harmony, and direct
our attention to the avoidance of all contrasts in

portion, for which no good cause can be assigned.

28. As character arises from a peculiar use of the The great other qualifications of composition, and their modifica- characters, tions, it must be evident, that the varieties in it will be very numerous ; and when we consider the variety of the prejudices, and feelings of individuals, it is not to be wondered at, that different people should admire and of different characters; (id. sect. 32 ;) it is, however, the business of the Architect, and of every artist, to analyse, and distinguish ; he must do away with preju. dices of every kind, whether in the contemplation of Artist the human form, id. sect. 33,) the objects of nature, avoid preor the fashion of the times. (Id. sect. 34.)

judice, and 29. Still, however, great benefit will arise to the his mind

by study. architectural artist from a knowledge of the other Unnecesarts and of nature, as enlarging his conceptions of capitulato things: though as physiognomy, pathognomy, the essay 8. distinction of characteristic form in the male, and

variety of




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Characters produced



female of the human race, and some other subjects alluded to in the eighth essay, do not immediately belong to Architecture, it is not necessary here to notice them : we may proceed therefore to the consideration of architectural character.

30. The character of lightness, which first occurs hy propor. to us, can never be beautiful, unless combined to a

certain extent with some other character, as of grace, and elegance : (Essay 8, sect. 68.) The same may be said of heaviness, which is admirable in a very few instances, unless combined with strength, and dignity.

(Sect. 69.) By dia

31. Diathesis, and a character of strength seem capable of producing many modifications of dignity, (id. sect. 70,) though perhaps the purest, uncombined with greatness, and boldness, may arise from the diathesis of position.

32. Form and proportion will at least produce five and propor

definite characters, neatness, prettiness, handsomeness, strength, and solidity ; I say definite, because we can at least form some distinctive idea of them, (id. sect. 73, &c.) though that idea cannot be quite satisfactory to every mind, as every mind will be governed by its own taste, and feelings; and perhaps the mind of

the Architect will best produce that particular chaduce a cha- racter which most suits his own frame of feeling. It

can only here be urged, that perhaps the most perfect, and perhaps the most difficult characters, are produced by a combination of the greatest number of primitive qualities of composition. It is also desirable to learn, what style will produce particular characters.

33. By the addition of more vigorous diathesis we

Bu form


An artist

will pro

racter best suited to his mind,

blest cha

obtain the more noble characters, such as dignity, The nogreatness, boldness, grandeur, sublimity, beauty, rich- racters. ness, and luxuriance.

34. Greatness arises principally from well-contrasted Greatness. proportion, or in fact symmetric, and eurithmic diathesis, particularly the former, combined with appropriate taxis ; but as symmetric diathesis is liable, as we have before seen, to a great number of deceptions, we must take care, that those deceptions rather act in favour of, than militate against the character of greatness; one of the most common, and least complicated cases, in which symmetric deceptions destroy the appearance of greatness, arises from the use of sculpture, which must necessarily make a building appear less than it is, when of colossal dimensions. (Essay viii. sects. 82, &c.) Boldness or simplicity of scheme, style, or order, will very much promote greatness, (id. sect. 86,) as will also harmony of proportions. (Id. sects. 88, 89.)

35. The character of boldness arises principally Boldness. from well-contrasted projections, with, of course, rational taxis ; the projections may be either those from the profile of the design, (id. sect. 92,) or that of the design itself (id. sects. 93, 94,) from the wall, which boldly throws out and exhibits the full force of the composition.

36. We now come to the consideration of the sub. The sublime. As far as my humble investigations have led me, (id. sects. 96 to 102,) I am inclined to think, that in all the arts greatness, boldness, and dignity, or at least some modification of them, are the three characters, that combined produce the sublime, though


erent qualities, remotely at variance in each art,

: Pirm the foundation of these three characters in L'? art separately: in Architecture we have already

Sivered each of these characters in a manner, that vai ead us to the contemplation of the different

is of the sublime, that may by possibility exist in iziltecture; and perhaps we shall be more assist

II our notion of the sublime in Architecture, by

y, it arises from diathetic greatness, energetic les and dignified strength, which are modifica2. as i greatness, boldness, and dignity, better adapt2 the principles of our art.

Grandeur may, perhaps, be distinguished from e urime, by being less austere, and more rich. Jio Ret. 103.)

I'le beautiful, (id. sect. 105,) may be analysed

isiny a combination of the qualities above neved to belong to the neat, the pretty, and the wisie: richness is derived from ornament : luxuwille is only a degree beyond it, approaching often

e jumbast.

Monticence may be said to combine every retter, properly relieved, and can only exist 11 say extensive, as well as perfect design.

mi may be desirable to recall our attention to to resistion in section 110, in the essay on chazeer rust the three characters of sublimity, gran1.12. th buiticence, may be said to possess very

En pers of the three characters of greatness, hvishganity, only that in sublimity dignity postos. da grandeur boldness, and in magnifi


of rules for

41. What has here been said on the subject of cha- Imbecility racter, eminently shows the imbecility of rules in character. such a subject, and how necessary it is for the Architect to think for himself, when he is aiming at the Talent the

best guide production of any character; it would, indeed, be here. almost as difficult to give rules for it, as it would to instruct the same person to paint in the different manners of Rubens, Vandyke, and Raphael. The essay on character is, however, not perhaps useless, as it will, at least, give us some idea of its nature, and importance, and lead us to make greater investigations as to its power, and its adaptation to our own individual talents.

42. The great benefits, that will accrue from this recapitulation of the whole system, is to bring it at once before our eyes, and to give the opportunity of This recamaking each excellence assume its proper force, brings all

pitulation either in being dependent on, or being more con

to a focus, spicuous than another, and thus to give the Architect the best possible means of applying each to his own purpose : but, as observed before, little benefit would arise, unless the artist considers not only this recapitulation, but also the more minute bearings, that are observable in the essays themselves.

43. By the help of rules of composition, it is not and gives too much to say, that a building of the greatest possi- powers. ble magnificence, extent, and propriety might be constructed with much more advantage, than could be done without them. What a fine opportunity, then, does this noble art offer for the employment of numbers of persons, and how much better would it be, instead of giving 10,0001. for a single picture, the

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