The punishment of them

that worship the beast.
made all nations drink of the wine commandments of God, and the faith
of the wrath of her fornication. of Jesus.

9 And the third angel followed 13 And I heard a voice from heathem, saying with a loud voice, If ven saying unto me, Write, Blessed any man worship the beast and his are the dead which die in the Lord image, and receive his mark in his || from henceforth: Yea, saith the ! Or, from forehead, or in his hand,

Spirit, that they may rest from their saith the 10 The same shall drink of the labours; and their works do follow Spirit, l’es. wine of the wrath of God, which is them. poured out without mixture into the 14 And I looked, and behold a cup of his indignation; and he shall white cloud, and upon the cloud one be tormented with fire and brim- sat like unto the Son of man, having stone in the presence of the holy on his head a golden crown, and in angels, and in the presence of the his hand a sharp sickle. Lamb:

15 And another angel came out of 11 And the smoke of their tor- the temple, crying with a loud voice ment ascendeth


for ever and ever: to him that sat on the cloud, - Thrust c Joel 3. 13. and they have no rest day nor night, in thy sickle, and reap: for the time who worship the beast and his image, is come for thee to reap; for the har- . and whosoever receiveth the mark of vest of the earth is || ripe.

1 Or, dried. his name.

16 And he that sat on the cloud 12 Here is the patience of the thrust in his sickle on the earth; and

saints: here are they that keep the the earth was reaped. hath enticed all nations to drink of the cup of her spi- solation, that, if the fiery trial should proceed to its last ritual fornications, and thereby hath caused them to stage, even temporal death, this death shall be blessed; drink of that cup of God's wrath and vengeance, which shall introduce the martyr to an eternal freedom from belongs to those grievous offences. Bp. Hall.

pain and trouble, and his sufferings on earth shall be 9-11. And the third angel followed] Another angel recompensed with everlasting rest and glory. Dear made proclamation of most terrible Divine judgments Woodhouse. upon all Christians, who, after the light of the Reforma- Blessed are the deadfrom henceforth: &c.] From tion, and the preaching of true religion had been be- this time forward, he says, considering the extremity stowed upon them, should wilfully, and by a love for and cruel circumstances of this last and severe persecuworldly and vicious gratifications, comply any longer tion, we may reckon those who are already dead (prowith the injunctions of this Babylonish community, and vided that they died in the Lord) to be very happy; in embrace the worship of this idolatrous church, threat that they did not live to see and suffer those things, ening them with the same destruction that was soon which will then befall the faithful servants of God. hereafter to fall upon it. Which destruction is here Thus the particular sense of these words is, to declare described under the same images which Moses formerly the happy estate of those saints and martyrs who were used to describe that of the rebellious nation of the Jews, already dead, in and for the faith of Christ, and should and of their land, Deut. xxix. 22, 23, and which Isaiah not live to see those cruel and fearful sufferings, which used to set forth God's judgments on the oppressors of should afterwards come upon the Christians. And this His people, Isai. xxxiv. 5, 9, 10. This last angel, and is grounded upon the general truth, that “they are his solemn denunciations, are an emblematical prediction happy which die in the Lord.”. Abp. Tillotson. of the high spirit and courageous preaching of Luther, Yea, saith the Spirit, that they &c] Here two and the train of reformers following his example; where- particulars are given, as reasons and grounds why they by a foundation is laid for the ruin of the antichristian that die in the Lord are declared to be in so blessed a doctrine and worship, to be completed in God's due condition : for good men, when they are departed this time. Pyle.

life, “rest from their labours,” are freed from all the 10. shall drink of the wine of the wrath &c.] Here labours and pains with which they were exercised in is a terrible description of most severe punishment, to this world; and also they reap the comfort and reward which there is scarcely any thing equal in the whole of of all the good which they have done in this world, sacred writ. Wine “without mixture, or not diluted “their works do follow them," or go along with them, with water, causes more complete intoxication. Jos. to receive the reward which God hath promised to His Mede.

obedient servants. Abp. Tillotson. 12. Here is the patience of the saints : &c.] Herein 14. and behold a white cloud, &c.] The sure exethe patience and perseverance of the saints shall be ma- cution of Divine judgments, denounced against the nifested and perfected, that, notwithstanding all the evils corrupters of the Christian religion, was further conof persecution, they continue constant in obedience to firmed by another vision ; Christ Himself being reprethe commands of God, as the rule of their religion, and sented as sitting on a bright cloud which was spread steadfastly maintain the truths of Christ's revelation, in under Him, as a seat of judgment. He appears like the opposition to all other doctrines and worship, by what- Son of man in the visions of Daniel, Dan. vii. 13, with soever authority imposed. Lowman.

a golden crown on His head, the ensign of royalty 13. And I heard a voice &c.] The voices of the angels and sovereign power; and to express the meaning and had pronounced the punishments of those who, for design of His appearance to judgment, He bears in His worldly purposes, receiving the antichristian mark, deny hand a sharp sickle, as for reaping corn. Lowman. their Lord. A voice from heaven, from the throne itself, 15. -- for the harvest of the earth is ripe.) This repreconfirms these denunciations, adding thereto this con- sentation of the judgments of God, under the figures of





The harvest of the world.

The seven last plagues. 17 And another angel came out of

the temple which is in heaven, he 1 The seven angels with the seven last plagues.
also having a sharp sickle.

3 The song of them that overcome the beast.
18 And another angel came out

7 The seven vials full of the wrath of God.
from the altar, which had power over
fire; and cried with a loud cry to


ven, great and marvellous, seven
him that had the sharp sickle, saying, angels having the seven last plagues ;
Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and ga- for in them is filled up the wrath of
ther the clusters of the vine of the God.
earth; for her grapes are fully ripe. 2 And I saw as it were a sea of

19 And the angel thrust in his glass mingled with fire: and them
sickle into the earth, and gathered that had gotten the victory over the
the vine of the earth, and cast it into beast, and over his image, and over
the great winepress of the wrath of his mark, and over the number of

his name, stand on the sea of glass, 20 And the winepress was trod- having the barps of God. den without the city, and blood came 3 And they sing a the song of a Exod. 15. 1. out of the winepress, even unto the Moses the servant of God, and the horse bridles, by the space of a thou- song of the Lamb, saying, Great and sand and six hundred furlongs. marvellous are thy works, Lord God

a harvest and vintage, ver. 18, is not unusual in the vials. At the sounding of the seventh trumpet, chap. Prophets, and is copied particularly from the Prophet xi. 15, &c., a general intimation is given of God's taking Joel, who denounced God's judgments against the ene- unto Him His great power” and “ destroying them that mies of His people in like terms, Joel iii. 13. What destroy the earth ;” but the particulars are reserved for particular events are signified by this “harvest,” and this place. If then these seven last plagues coincide in #vintage,” it appears impossible for any one to deter- time with the seventh and last trumpet, they are all yet mine beforehand; time alone can make the discovery, to come ; for the sixth trumpet is not yet past, nor the for these things are yet in futurity. But it may be ob- woe of the Turkish or Ottoman empire yet ended; and served, that these two signal judgments will as certainly consequently there is no possibility of explaining them come, as harvest and vintage succeed in their season; in such a manner, as when the prophecies may be comand in the course of Providence the one will precede the pared with histories, and their truth evinced by ocular other, as in the course of nature the harvest is before demonstration. The many fruitless attempts which have the vintage; and the latter will surpass the former, and hitherto been made to explain them, are a further proof be attended with a more terrible destruction of God's that they cannot well be explained, the best interpreters enemies. Bp. Newton.

having failed in this part more than in


other. But, 18. - another angel which had power over fire;] before the vials are poured out, the scene opens with a Having the office of inflicting Divine vengeance. Gro- preparatory vision, which is the subject of this chapter. tius.

Bp. Newton. 20. And the winepress was trodden without the city,] seven angels having the seven last plagues ;] As To tread the winepress is a prophetick description of seven angels sounded the seven trumpets, so the same destruction. See Isai. lxii. 3. The images in this vision number are appointed to pour out the seven vials; and, are extremely strong and expressive : the largest wine- in order to shew that these judgments are to fall on the presses used generally to be in some places out of the kingdom of the beast, the true worshippers of God and city. Lowman.

faithful servants of Jesus, who had gotten the victory even unto the horse bridles,] This is a strong over the beast, and had never submitted to his tyranny hyperbolical way of expressing vast slaughter and effu- or religion, are described like unto the children of Israel sion of blood. Similar expressions occur in other writ- (ver. 2—4.) after their deliverance and escape out of ings. Bp. Newton.

Egypt. For, as the children of Israel, (Exod. xv.) having the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs.] passed through the Red sea, stood on the shore, and, Mr. Mede ingeniously conjectures, that this is meant as seeing their enemies overwhelmed with the waters, sang the measure of the estates belonging to the Roman the triumphant song of Moses, so these, having passed church, called St. Peter's patrimony, which extended through the fiery trials of this world, “stand on the sea two hundred Italian miles, which is exactly " a thousand of glass mingled with fire,” which was mentioned before, and six hundred furlongs. Bp. Newton.

chap. iv. 6, and seeing the vials ready to be poured out

on their enemies, sing a song of triumph for the maniChap. XV. ver. 1. And I saw another sign &c.] God's festation of the Divine judgments; which is called “the judgments on the kingdom of the beast, or antichristian song of Moses, and the song of the Lamb,” the words empire, are hitherto denounced, and described in general being in great measure taken from the song of Moses terms under the figures of “harvest” and “vintage." and other parts of the Old Testament, and applied in a A more particular account of them follows under the Christian sense. Bp. Newton. emblem of “seven vials,” which are called “the seven 3. And they sing the song of Moses] As the Israelites last plagues,” for in them is filled up the wrath of God. sang the praises of God for their deliverance at the Red These seven last plagues must necessarily fall under the sea, in a hymn composed by Moses, so these saints, seventh and last trumpet, or the third and last woe trum- having obtained a greater deliverance and salvation by pet, so that, as the seventh seal contained the seven Christ, sang a hymn of praise, in the same spirit with trumpets, the seventh trumpet comprehends the seven that of Moses. Lowman.

pour out




b Ps, 145. 17.

The seven vials of God's wrath. REVELATION.

The angels pour out their vials. DOAMENI Almighty; Þjust and true are thy angels, Go

your ways,

and ways, thou King of saints.

the vials of the wrath of God upon 4 Who shall not fear thee, O the earth. c Jer. 10.7. Lord, and glorify thy name? for

2 And the first went, and poured
thou only art holy: for all nations out his vial upon the earth ; and there
shall come and worship before thee; fell a noisome and grievous sore upon
for thy judgments are made manifest. the men which had the mark of the

5 And after that I looked, and, be- beast, and upon them which worship-
hold, the temple of the tabernacle of ped his image.
the testimony in heaven was opened : 3 And the second angel poured

6 And the seven angels came out out his vial upon the sea; and it be-
of the temple, having the seven came as the blood of a dead man:
plagues, clothed in pure and white and every living soul died in the
linen, and having their breasts girded sea.
with golden girdles.

4 And the third angel poured out
7 And one of the four beasts gave his vial upon the rivers and fountains
unto the seven angels seven golden of waters; and they became blood.
vials full of the wrath of God, who 5 And I heard the angel of the
liveth for ever and ever.

waters say, Thou art righteous, o
8 And the temple was filled with Lord, which art, and wast, and
smoke from the glory of God, and shalt be, because thou hast judged

able to enter into the temple, till the 6 For they have shed the blood of
seven plagues of the seven angels saints and prophets, and thou hast
were fulfilled.

given them blood to drink; for they

are worthy. 2 The angels pour out their vials

full of wrath.

7 And I heard another out of the
6 The plagues that follow thereupon. 15 altar say, Even so, Lord God Al-
Christ cometh as a thief. Blessed are they mighty, true and righteous are thy
that watch.

the temple saying to the seven his vial upon the sun; and power


6. And the seven angels came out &c.] The seven angels upon the earth.” It produces “ a noisome and grievous come out of the temple, to denote that their commission sore,” and in this respect resembles the sixth plague of is immediately from God; clothed, like the high priest, Egypt, Exod. ix. 10. Bp. Newton. but in a more august manner, “in pure and white linen,” In the prophetick style, both publick and private to signify the righteousness of these judgments, and vices, and their consequences, are frequently compared “having their breasts girded,” to shew their readiness to bodily distempers. Pyle. to execute the Divine commands, “with golden girdles," 3. and it became as the blood of a dead man:] Beas emblems of their power and majesty. Bp. Newton. came as congealed blood, so that no ereature could live

7. And one of the four beasts gave &c.] One of the in the sea. The description seems taken from the four living creatures, chap. iv. 6, delivered into their plagues of Egypt; in one of which, Exod. vii. 20, 21, hands the vials or vessels, the symbols of the judgments" all the waters were turned to blood,” &c. The general which they were to execute. Pyle.

meaning of these figurative expressions seems to point 8. And the temple was filled with smoke] In the same out some very great mortality and slaughter. Louma. manner as the tabernacle, when it was consecrated by 5. the angel of the waters] It was a prevailing Moses, Exod. xl. 34, and the temple, when it was dedi- opinion in the East, that a particular angel presided cated by Solomon, 1 Kings viii. 10, were both filled over the waters, as others did over other elements and with a cloud and the glory of the Lord, so that neither parts of nature. Mention was before made, chap. xiv. Moses nor the priests could enter therein: a further 18, of “the angel who had power over fire." Bp. proof of the majestick presence and extraordinary inter- Newton. position of God in the execution of these judgments. 6. thou hast given them blood to drink ;] Thou hast Bp. Newton.

inflicted on them the punishment they have so justly

deserved, and given them blood to drink, by a plentiful Chap. XVI. ver. 1. saying to the seven angels, pour effusion of their own. Lowman. out &c.] In obedience to the Divine command, the seven 8. And the fourth angel-upon the sun ;] As the fourth angels come forth to pour out the vials of the wrath trumpet affected “the sun," chap. viii. 12, so likewise of God upon the earth;” and as the trumpets were so the fourth vial is “poured out upon the sun." An inmany steps and degrees of the ruin of the Roman tense heat ensues, and men blaspheme, &c. Whether empire, so the vials are of the ruin of the Roman church. by this intense heat of the sun be literally meant, unBp. Newton.

common sultry seasons, scorching and withering the 2.- and there fell a noisome and grievous sore] The fruits of the earth, and producing pestilential disorders; first vial is poured out “upon the earth,” as the hail or, figuratively, a most tyrannical and exorbitant exercise and fire of the first trumpet, chap. viii. 1, "were cast of arbitrary power, by those who may be represented as

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1 Or, burned.

The plagues that follow thereupon. CHAP. XVI.

Blessed are they that watch.
was given unto him to scorch men 14 For they are the spirits of
with fire.

devils, working miracles, which go
9 And men were + scorched with forth unto the kings of the earth and
great heat, and blasphemed the name of the whole world, to gather them
of God, which hath power over these to the battle of that great day of
plagues: and they repented not to God Almighty.
give him glory

15 a Behold, I come as a thief. a Matt. 24.43.
10 And the fifth angel poured out Blessed is he that watcheth, and
his vial upon the seat of the beast; keepeth his garments, lest he walk
and his kingdom was full of dark- naked, and they see his shame.
ness; and they gnawed their tongues 16 And he gathered them together
for pain,

into a place called in the Hebrew
11 And blasphemed the God of tongue Armageddon.
heaven because of their pains and 17 And the seventh angel poured
their sores, and repented not of their out his vial into the air ; and there

came a great voice out of the temple
12. And the sixth angel poured of heaven, from the throne, saying,
out his vial upon the great river Eu- It is done.
phrates; and the water thereof was 18 And there were voices, and
dried up, that the way of the kings thunders, and lightnings; and there
of the east might be prepared. was a great earthquake, such as was

13 And I saw three unclean spirits not since men were upon the earth,
like frogs come out of the mouth of so mighty an earthquake, and
the dragon, and out of the mouth great.
of the beast, and out of the mouth of 19 And the great city was divided
the false prophet.

into three parts, and the cities of

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“the sun” in the firmament of the beast, time must dis- 13. — like frogs] Frogs, in ancient authors, are symcover. When the events shall take place, and these bols of impurity, vainglory, imposture, flattery, and things shall all be fulfilled, not only these prophecies of impudence, as Pliny, Philo, and many others observe. the vials shall be better understood, but also those of Pyle. the trumpets, to which they bear some analogy and 15. Behold, I come &c.] As these must of necessity resemblance. Bp. Newton.

be times of great trouble and affliction, an exhortation 10. And the fifth angel poured out &c.] This is some is here inserted, by way of parenthesis, of the suddengreat calamity which shall fall upon Rome itself, “ the ness of these judgments, and of the blessedness of seat of the beast," and shall darken and confound the watching and of being clothed and prepared for all whole antichristian empire. But still the consequences events. Bp. Newton. of this plague are much the same as those of the fore- 16. – into a place called Armageddon.] The meaning going one; for the sufferers, instead of “repenting of of this name has been variously conjectured. According their deeds,” are hardened like Pharaoh, and still persist to some, it is compounded of two words which signify in their blasphemy and idolatry, and obstinately with the mountain of Mageddo or Megiddo ;' a place which stand all attempts at reformation. Bp. Newton. was famous in the history of God's people for several

12.- upon the great river Euphrates ;] The punish- memorable slaughters, Judg. v. 19; 2 Kings ix. 27; ment figuratively represented by this sixth vial is drying and which therefore became a proverbial expression for up the river Euphrates, so famous as a boundary against a place of destruction and mourning. Lowman, Pyle. the invasions of the Eastern nations, that they might others conjecture that the name Armageddon means a have an easy passage to invade their neighbours; signi- dry, barren, mountainous, desert country, such as was fying that a way should be prepared for the enemies of thought by the Jews to be the abode of unclean spirits this antichristian kingdom, to break in upon it. Low- This meaning of the word accords with what is said at

ver. 12–14. Schleusner. Whether by Euphrates he meant the river so called, 17.— poured out his vial into the air; &c.] The or only a mystical Euphrates, as Rome is a mystical seventh vial is poured out “into the air,” the seat of Babylon: and, whether by the kings of the East be Satan's residence, who is emphatically styled, Eph. ii. meant the Jews in particular, or any Eastern potentates 2, “the prince of the power of the air; so that this in general, can be matter only of conjecture, and not of period shall not only complete the ruin of the kingdom certainty or assurance, till the event shall make the of the beast, but will also shake the kingdom of Satan determination. Whoever they be, they appear to threaten every where. Of this vial, as indeed of all the former, the destruction of the kingdom of the beast; and there- the completion is gradual; and the immediate effects fore, the agents and emissaries of popery, ver. 13, 14, and consequences are 'voices and thunders," &c.. “of the dragon,” the representative of the devil,and these portend great calamities. “And there was a great of the beast,” the representative of the antichristian earthquake :” great earthquakes in prophetick language empire, “ and of the false prophet,” the representative signify great changes and revolutions; and this is such of the antichristian church, “unclean spirits like frogs," an one, as men never felt or experienced before. Bp. are employed to oppose them, and stir up the princes Newton. and potentates of their communion to make their united 19. And the great city was divided &c.] Not only and last effort in a religious war. "Bp. Newton.

“the great city is divided into three parts” or factions,





bJer. 25. 15.

John's vision of

the great whore;
the nations fell: and great Babylon and talked with me, saying unto me, DANDINI
came in remembrance before God, Come hither; I will shew unto thee
bto give unto her the cup of the the judgment of the great whore that
wine of the fierceness of his wrath. sitteth upon many waters:

20 And every island fled away, 2 With whom the kings of the
and the mountains were not found. earth have committed fornication,
21 And there fell upon men

a and the inhabitants of the earth have
great hail out of heaven, every stone been made drunk with the wine of
about the weight of a talent: and her fornication.
men blasphemed God because of the 3 So he carried me away in the
plague of the hail; for the plague spirit into the wilderness : and I saw
thereof was exceeding great. a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured

beast, full of names of blasphemy,

having seven heads and ten horns. 3, 4 A woman arrayed in purple and scarlet, 4 And the woman was arrayed in with a golden cup in her hand, sitteth upon the beast, 5 which is great Babylon, the purple and scarlet colour, and + decked + Gr. gilded. mother of all abominations. 9 The inter- with gold and precious stones and pretation of the seven heads, 12 and the ten pearls, having a golden cup in her

8 The punishment of the whore. 14 hand full of abominations and filthiThe victory of the Lamb.

ness of her fornication :

5 And upon her forehead was a angels which had the seven vials, name written, MYSTERY, BABY


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but " the cities of the nations fall” from their obedience “ committed fornication with all the kingdoms of the to her. Her sins are remembered before God, and, like world.” Nay, not only kings, but inferiour persons, another Babylon, she will soon be made to drink of the “the inhabitants of the earth, have been made drunk bitter cup of His anger. Nay, not only “ the cities fall,” | with the wine of her fornication;" as it was said of anbut (ver. 20) even the works of nature, “the islands” cient Babylon, Jer. li. 7, “the nations have drunken of fly away, and the “ mountains are not found,” which is her wine, therefore the nations are mad.” Fornication, more than was said before, (chap. vi. 14,) that they in the usual style of Scripture, signifies idolatry. Bp. were moved out of their places,” and can import Newton. no less than'an utter extirpation of idolatry. Bp. 3. — I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast,] Newton.

A woman sitting on a beast is a lively and significative 21. - great hailabout the weight of a talent :] Great emblem of a church or city, directing and governing hail often denotes the judgments of God: and the an empire. Cities, it is well known, in painting and weight of it, here represented, “about the weight of a sculpture, as well as in prophetick language, are often talent,” or about 100 lbs, is a strong figure to denote the represented in the form of women: and Rome herself greatness and severity of God's judgments. But still is exhibited in ancient coins, as a woman sitting on a the men continue obstinate, and “blaspheme God be lion. Here the beast is scarlet coloured, for the same cause of the plague of the hail; they remain incorri- reason that the dragon was, chap. xii. 3, “a red dragon," gible under the Divine judgments, and shall be destroyed to denote his cruelty, and in allusion to the distinguishbefore they will be reformed. Bp. Newton.

ing colour of the Roman emperours and magistrates.

The beast is also “full of names of blasphemy, haring Chap. XVII. As the seventh seal and the seventh seven heads and ten horns,” so that this is the very trumpet contained many more particulars than any of same beast which was described in the former part of the former seals, and former trumpets, so the seventh chap. xiii. ; and the woman in some measure answers to vial contains more than any of the former vials ; and the two-horned beast or false prophet: consequently the more we consider, the more we shall admire the the woman is not Pagan but Christian Rome, because structure of this book in all its parts. The destruction Rome was become Christian, before the beast had comof the antichristian empire is a subject of such impor- pletely seven heads and ten horns, that is, before the tance that the Holy Spirit has thought fit to represent it Roman empire experienced its last form of government. under a variety of images. It was declared before, in and was divided into ten kingdoms. The woman is general, (chap. xiv. 8,)“ Babylon is fallen;" but this is arrayed too in “purple and scarlet colour,” ver. 4, this a catastrophe deserving of a more particular description, being the colour of the popes and cardinals, as well as both for a warning to some and a consolation to others. the emperours and senators of Rome. She is also But, before the description of her fall, there is given an “ decked with gold and precious stones and pearls ;" account of her state and condition, that there may be and who can sufficiently describe the pride and grandeur no mistake in the application. Bp. Newton.

and magnificence of the church of Rome in her vestVer. 1. – I will shew unto thee the judgment of the ments and ornaments of all kinds ? She has further great whore &c.] Thu ancient Babylon, which was “a golden cup in her hand,” &c., to signify the specious seated on the great river Euphrates, is described by and alluring arts, by which she bewitches and incites Jeremiah, Jer. li. 13, as “ dwelling upon many waters;' men to idolatry, which is abomination and spiritual forand hence the phrase is borrowed, and signifies, accord- nication. Bp. Newton. ing to the angel's own explanation, ver. 15, ruling over 5. And upon her forehead was &c.] Lewd women many peoples and nations. Neither was this an ordinary used to have their names written on their doors, and prostitute; for with her “the kings of the earth have sometimes on their foreheads. Lowman. committed fornication,” ver. 2, as Tyre, Isai, xxiii, 17, MYSTERY, BABYLON &c.] This is a mys.

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