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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
MONROE C. GUTMAN LIBRARY
THE train of thought which runs through the following Work has been familiar to the Author's mind for upwards of twentysix years. Nearly twenty years ago, he intended to address the public on this subject; but he is now convinced that, at that period, the attempt would have been premature, and consequently unsuccessful. He took several opportunities, however, of suggesting a variety of hints on the necessity of new-modelling and improving the system of education-particularly in the London "Monthly Magazine," the "Edinburgh Christian Instructor," the "Christian Recorder," the "Perth Courier," and several other publications, as well as in several parts of his former volumes. Of late years the attention of the public has been directed to this subject more than at any former period, and even the British Legislature has been constrained to take into consideration the means by which the benefits of education may be more extensively enjoyed. It is therefore to be hoped, that the subject will now undergo a deliberate and unbiassed consideration, corresponding to its interest and importance.
In endeavouring to establish a new system of education-although every requisite improvement could not, in the first instance, be effected,-yet nothing short of a comprehensive and efficient system should be the model after which we ought to copy, and to which all our arrangements should gradually ap proximate. To attempt merely to extend the present, in many respects inefficient and limited system, without adopting those improvements which experience and the progress of society have rendered necessary, would be only to postpone to an indefinite period what must ultimately be established, if society is expected to go on in its progress towards perfection.
In the following volume the author has exhibited a brief outline of the whole series of instructions requisite for man, considered as an intelligent and moral agent destined to immortality-from the earliest dawn of reason to the period of manhood. But it is merely an outline; for the subject, considered
in all its bearings, is the most extensive and interesting that can occupy the attention of mankind. Should the present volume, however, meet with general approbation, some more specific details in reference to the subjects here discussed, and to other topics connected with the improvement of society, may afterwards be presented to the public.
Several excellent works have lately been published on the subject of education, some of them recognising the leading principles which are here illustrated. But the author has, in every instance, prosecuted his own train of thought, without interfering with the sentiments or language of others, unless where it is acknowledged. Some of the works alluded to he has not had it in his power to peruse; and the same current of thought will sometimes occur to different writers on the same subject.—The greater part of this work was composed before the author had an opportunity of perusing the excellent treatise of Mr. Simpson, entitled, "Necessity of Popular Education"-a work which abounds with liberal and enlightened views, and which recognises the same general principles which are here illustrated. But the two works do not materially interfere; and the one may be regarded as a supplement or sequel to the other, both having a bearing on the same grand object.
It was originally intended to offer a few remarks on classical learning, and on the system of education which prevails in our colleges and universities; but the size to which the volume has swelled has rendered it expedient to postpone them to a future opportunity. For the same reason, the "Miscellaneous Hints in reference to the Improvement of Society," and the remarks on "Mechanics' Institutions," have been much abridged, and various topics omitted which were intended to be particularly illustrated.
The author intends proceeding with his promised work "On the Scenery of the Heavens," as soon as his present engagements will permit.
BROUGHTY FERRY, NEAR DUNDEE, }
Present state of Education in different Countries, 24.
Education during the dark ages-erection of colleges-era of the Reformation
and the effects produced by it, 24-26. Education in the United States of America,
26-30,-in Silesia, Wirtemberg, Bavaria, Prussia, &c. 30-34,-in France, 34,-
Spain, 36,-Russia, 37,-Switzerland, 37.
Strictures on the mode in which Education has generally been conducted, 38.
Different views of the object of education-absurd practices in relation to it-
deficiencies in the mode of religious instruction-summary of the usual scholastic
process, 38-44.-Errors and deficiencies. 1. No communication of ideas, 44. 2.
School-books not adapted to the capacities of youth-specimens of their contents,
46-immorality and absurdity of some of these selections, 47. 3. Injudicious exer-
cise of the memory-Shorter Catechism, &c. 50-53. 4. Absurd attempts at teach-
ing Grammar-Mr. Smellie's remarks on this subject, 54.-Fastidiousness in regard
to the art of Writing, 55. Strictures on the mode of teaching Arithmetic, 56-Va-
rious circumstances which render education disagreeable to the young,-want of
ample accommodation-long confinement in school-undue severity-hurrying
children from one book to another-attempts to teach several branches at one time,
&c. 58-63. Glaring deficiencies in the present practice-attributable to the sys-
tem more than to the teachers, 63-66.-Miscellaneous remarks, 66.
Hints in reference to a comprehensive and improved system of Education, 68.
General view of what an enlightened education should embrace, 69. Defects
in our treatises on this subject, 70-Man's eternal destiny overlooked, &c. 70.
On the Education of the young during the period of INFANCY.-Gradual opening
of the infant mind, 71. Manner in which its ideas are increased, 72-rapidity of
its progress and acquisitions, 73.-1. Physical education of infants, importance of.
74.-Food of infants; remarks on nursing, 75. Propriety of paying attention to
the effects of air and light, 76.-Cleanliness-anecdote of a Russian, 78-79.
Clothing of children, simplicity of dress-covering of the feet-directions in regard
to shoes, illustrated by figures, 79-83.-Sleep and exercise of children, 83.-Atten-
tion requisite to direct their pronunciation, 85.-2. Moral instruction of infants, 85
Means of acquiring an absolute authority over them, 85. Plan recommended by
Dr. Witherspoon, 86. Anecdote of Mr. Cecil-rule for securing authority-obsta
cles which prevent mothers from acquiring it-general violation of parental
authority illustrated-Abbot's "Mother at Home" recommended-anecdote ex
tracted from that work, 87-92. Importance of attending to truth in the education
of children, 92-truth and falsehood in pictorial exhibitions, 93. Illustrative anec-
dote from Mr. Abbot, 94. General rules on this subject, 95. Habit of incessantly
finding fault with children, 95.-Children should feel the consequences of their
conduct, and be guarded against vanity and self-conceit, 96-98. Danger of fright-
ening children, illustrated by an appalling fact, 99. Necessity of harmony in the
conduct of parents towards their children, 99.-3. Intellectual instruction of infants,
200. Objects, natural and artificial, which should be presented to their view-
mode of conveying a knowledge of the qualities of objects, 102-communication
of ideas by engravings, 103. Experiments on this subject, with a boy about two
years old, 104-106. Importance of imparting correct ideas to the infant mind, 107.
Maternal associations, 108.
On Infant Schools, 108.
Objects of infant schools, 109.-Proper situation for such institutions, and the
apparatus requisite for conducting them, 109-111.-Method of teaching vocal
music, the alphabet, arithmetic, and the facts of sacred history-figure of the Arith-
meticon, 111-114. Advantages which would flow from the universal establish-
ment of infant schools-increase of useful information-formation of intellectual
habits-foundation laid of moral conduct-certainty of success when judicious
moral training is attended to, 114-118. Moral effects of infant teaching, illus-
trated by examples, 118-119. Infant schools, beneficial to general society and
counteractive of juvenile delinquency, 120. Social habits cultivated with safety,
122. Influence of infant schools on Missionary operations-infant schools in Africa,
122-124-such institutions ought to be universally established for all ranks, 125.
Qualifications of teachers in order to render them efficient, 126. Origin and pro-
gress of infant schools, 127.
Introductory remarks, 128-plan, situation, and arrangement of school-room, illus
trated with cuts, 128-131. Idea of a seminary on a large scale, 132. School
furniture-Apparatus and Museum-systematic sets of engravings, 132-134. De-
scription of a new Optical Diagonal Machine, with figures, 135-136-suggestions
to engravers on this subject, 136. Beneficial effects of such schools, 137. School-
books, and the principles on which they ought to be constructed, 138. Specimens
of subjects for elementary books, 140-objections obviated, 141. Outline of a
school-book for the advanced classes, drawn up twenty-six years ago, 143-capacity
of children for understanding judicious selections, 146-third series of school-books,
comprising popular systems of the sciences, &c. 147. Historical class-books, with
remarks on the manner in which history should be taught, 148-propriety of em-
bellishing school-books with engravings-Dictionaries and portable Cyclopedias,
SECTION I. English Reading.-Specimen of lessons for children, and the mode
in which they should be taught, 151. Lesson on the Peacock, with engraving, 153.
Lesson on the philosophical toy termed the Sagacious Swan, with remarks, 154.
Lesson for the advanced classes-description of volcanoes, with engravings, 156.
Questions on the losson, 158. Manner in which such questions should be formed
and arranged, 160. Sets of miscellaneous questions, 160. Lessons o. objects, 161
-163. SECTION II. Writing and Composition.Mr. Buchanan's plan for teach-
ing writing on slates, (with a cut,) 163. Professor Jacotot's plan, 164. Specimeur