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house, a garden, and, in most instances, a few acres of ground, corresponding to the glebes of the Scottish clergy. The law requires that the children should be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic; and it is specially enacted, that they shall be instructed in the principles of German grammar and composi tion. The books used in the schools of Wirtemberg and Baden, are very superior to those used in similar establishments in this country. They consist of geographical, biographical, and histori cal works, and elementary treatises on moral science, natural history, and the principles and practice of the most important and useful arts. In all the large schools, the boys and girls are kept separate. The girls, in addition to reading, writing, and arithmetic, are taught all sorts of needlework, the knitting of stockings, the making of clothes, &c.; receiving at the same time lessons in the art of cookery, the management of children, and other departments of domestic employment. The supervision of the schools is intrusted, in every parish or commune, to a com. mittee, consisting of a few of the principal inhabitants; the clergy of the parish, whether Protestants or Catholics, being always ex officio members of the committee. This body is intrusted with the duty of inspecting the school, and is bound to see that the master performs his duty, and that the children attend. No par ticular system of religion is allowed to be taught in any of the schools of Wirtemberg, and most of the other Germanic States. The tuition of this important branch is left entirely to the clergy and the parents of the children, so that the sons and daughters of Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, Quakers, &c. frequent the schools, and live in the utmost harmony.
The greatest desire prevails among the lower classes that their children should enjoy the advantages of the excellent education provided for them; but the government, not trusting entirely to this feeling, has enacted regulations, by which every individual is compelled to send his children to school, from the age of six to fourteen years. The public functionaries transmit regularly to government, once every six months, a list of the children in their respective districts, who have attained their sixth year; and they are bound to see that they are sent to school. In the event of the parents being unable to pay the school fees, a statement to that effect is prepared by the parochial authorities, and the fees are paid by the public.
In Bavaria, the beneficial consequences resulting from the establishment of a system of national education, have been more apparent than in any other European country. Half a century ago, the Bavarians were the most ignorant, debauched, and slo
venly people, between the Gulf of Genoa and the Baltic; but, during the last thirty years, no people has ever made a more rapid advancement than they have done, in the career of knowledge and of civilization. The late and present kings of Bavaria, have not only swept away myriads of abuses, and established a representative system of government, but they have laid the only sure foundations of permanent and real improvement, in the organization of an admirable system of national education. A school has been established in every parish, to which every one is obliged to send his children, from the age of six to fourteen; Lyceums, Colleges, and Universities have also been instituted, for the use of those who are desirous of prosecuting their studies; and every facility is afforded for the acquisition of the best instruction, at the lowest price. The following is a summary view of the principal seminaries in this country :-Three universities, seven lyceums, eighteen gymnasia, twenty-one colleges, thirtyfive preparatory schools, sixteen houses of education, seven for higher branches, two boarding-schools for girls, seven normal schools, one school for foreigners, two schools of law, two veterinary schools, two schools of midwifery, and two royal schools. The public, or national schools, amount to 5394; the inspectors to 286; the teachers to 7114; and the pupils of all classes, to about 498,000; and, since the population of Bavaria is about four millions, it follows, that not less than one-eighth of the entire population is at school, which is a higher proportion than what attends the schools in Scotland.
Mr. Loudon, the talented editor of the "Gardener's Magazine," who travelled over most parts of Wirtemberg, Bavaria, and Baden, in 1828, bears the most unqualified testimony to the excellence and efficiency of the system of public instruction adopted in these countries, and the beneficial effects which have resulted from its operation. "From what I have seen," says he, "of Wirtemberg, I am inclined to regard it as one of the most civilized countries in Europe. I am convinced that the great object of government is more perfectly attained here, than even in Great Britain; because, with an almost equal degree of individual liberty, there are incomparably fewer crimes, as well as far less poverty and misery. Every individual in Wirtemberg reads and thinks; and to satisfy one's self that this is the case, he has only to enter into conversation with the first peasant he meets; to observe the number and style of the journals that are everywhere circulated, and the multitude of libraries in the towns and villages. I did not meet with a single beggar in Wirtemberg, and with only one or two in Bavaria and Baden. The dress of the inhabitants of Wir
temberg, as well as those of a great part of Bavaria and Baden, appeared to me to indicate a greater degree of comfort, than 1 had ever observed in any other country, with the exception, perhaps, of Sweden, and the Lowlands of Scotland."
The above sketches were written two or three years ago. Since that time, M. Victor Cousin's "Report of the State of Public Instruction," has been published, and translated into English by Mrs. Austin. This report, which fills nearly 340 pages, contains a very full, but rather dry detail, of the whole machinery of education in Prussia. From this document it appears, that, in 1831, there were 22,612 schools, and 27,749 schoolmasters and mistresses-that the total number of children under fourteen years of age was 4,767,072; the number between seven and fourteen years, 2,043,030, out of which, the number of children attending school was 2,021,421, or nearly a sixth part of the whole population, which is estimated at about twelve and a half millions. It does not appear, from this report, that infant schools are established in Prussia, or any institutions for the instruction of young persons from the age of fourteen to twenty, or upwards; nor can we learn, from any thing stated in it, that an intellectual principle is uniformly acted upon in the details of education. The system presents too much of a military spirit and character, throughout all its departments, corresponding to the nature of a despotic government; and it would require a very considerable modification, before it could, with propriety, be adopted in a republic or a limited monarchy. Many deficiencies in the system likewise require to be supplied. Yet, notwithstanding all its defects, it has already produced a benign influence on the know. ledge and moral conduct of the inhabitants of that country; and, in a short time, if Britain does not immediately bestir herself in the cause of education, the Prussian population will be among the most enlightened inhabitants of Europe.
France. Notwithstanding the numerous scientific characters which have appeared in this country, and the discoveries and improvements they have made in the physical and mathematical sciences-the provision for public instruction, particularly in the southern departments, is very defective. The Revolution of 1789 annihilated almost every existing institution, and those for public instruction among the rest. For a period of nearly five years, a whole nation of thirty millions of people remained without any regular education. It was, indeed, enacted by a law of the 13th September, 1791, "That a system of public instruction should be organized; that the public schools should be open to every one; and that no fees should be charged for the elementary
branches. But, amidst the commotions and demoralizing scenes of that period, this law, like many others, was never carried into offect; and, at this moment, France, with the exception of Spain and Portugal, is worse provided with the means of elementary instruction, than any other countries in Europe. In the "Bulletin des Sciences Geographiques," vol. xiv. for 1828, it is stated, that "in France, the number of children of an age to frequent primary schools is nearly 6,000,000. Of this number scarcely a million and a half receive instruction." Thus, without adverting to the circumstance of ten millions of adults who can neither read nor write, according to a recent calculation-there are four millions and a half of young Frenchmen, who do not receive even the first rudiments of education. The children at school, in the thirty-two departments of the north, are reckoned at 740,846; and in the fifty-four departments of the south, only 375,931, which is little more than one-thirtieth of the population. In Paris there are to be distinguished two populations,the population already enlightened, which comprehends, at most, about 100,000 souls; and the population which still remains to be enlightened, which amounts to nearly 800,000. Societies and individuals at Paris and other populous towns, exerted them. selves to supply so great a want; but their efforts being openly opposed by the clergy, and secretly by the late government, were not so successful as they might otherwise have been. Schools, upon the Lancasterian plan, were introduced by the government at Paris, and other large towns; but the benefits of the system were extended only to professed Catholics;-none but Catholic teachers were employed, and the Protestants were left to educate their children the best way they could. In consequence of this deficiency of instruction, ignorance and superstition, irreligion and immorality, prevail over a large portion of the kingdom, even amidst the light of literature and science with which they are surrounded; and a considerable period must elapse before the mental darkness can be dispelled, and the moral mischief it has produced be completely eradicated. It is to be hoped, now that the influence of the Catholic priests has been diminished, and liberal measures of policy introduced, that a more extensive system of elementary instruction will be established; and we are happy to understand that the attention of the Government of Louis Philip has been directed to this object, and that measures have been brought forward in order to its accomplishment. In the year 1831, M. V. Cousin was sent as a deputation to Prussia from the government of France to acquire a knowledge of the details and regulations connected with the Prussian system of
education. Since his return, numerous schools have been established on the principles of the Prussian system, and there is now a prospect, that, in the course of a few years, an efficient system of education will be established in that country.-According to the latest statistical accounts, the number of children who are learning to read, now amounts to 2,000,000: the number of primary elementary schools is 35,007; of superior primary schools, 370; of private schools, 9092: total, 44,269. The number of boys attending these schools is, 1,175,248; and of girls, 731,773. The total expense of primary instruction is 10,162,706 francs, or about £423,446. Of this expense there is paid by the Communes, 7,693,793 fr.; by the Departments, 2,063,072 fr.; and by the State, 405,841 fr.; or about £16,910-a very paltry sum when compared with the magnitude and importance of the object.
Spain." In this country there are few establishments for the diffusion of the first rudiments of knowledge. The lower classes seldom learn to read or write; those above them are as seldom instructed in any thing but those two accomplishments, and the elements of arithmetic. Such as are intended for the learned professions attend a Latin school for three or four years; and since the expulsion of the Jesuits, these schools are not numerSome private establishments, for the instruction of the boys in Latin, were rising at the time of the French invasion, and a desire of improvement in the method of teaching was showing itself among the teachers."* When we consider that the education of youth in this country is committed chiefly to monks, we may rest satisfied, that, in general, its plan and objects are very limited and defective. Nor is the system much improved, when the student proceeds to the university. He is there taught little else but the logic and natural philosophy of Aristotle, and the theology of Thomas Aquinas. If a Spaniard, therefore, attain to any thing like true knowledge, he must either leave his country in the search, or teach himself in the best way his fancy may devise. The same remarks, with a slight modification, will apply to the neighbouring kingdom of Portugal, where Papal superstition and tyranny exist in all their fulness and rigour. As the numerous swarms of priests, monks and friars, that infest this country, are almost universally ignorant, and not unfre quently vicious,-as they are bigoted in the extreme to the established religion and its childish ceremonials, and as the general diffusion of knowledge would strike at the foundation of their ecclesiastical system,-it cannot be supposed that they will show
* Quarterly Journal of Education, vol. i.