and the court as well as other persons, FROM AN AMERICAN ARTIST. seem more fond of going there on that


Suppose one to be sitting alone in the

evening, fatigued with the studies of the No. II.

day, and tired with staying at home, in Residence at Florence-its theatres—the Per- this case he has only to bend his steps gola the grand duke - ceremonial and

to the Pergola; there let him listen to etiquette when he attends the theatre-the antiquity of the house of Lorraine-sketch of the voice of Signora Shutz, and sun his its history.

soul in the eyes of Signora del Sere; The monuments of Florence do not then if the singing and the tragic powers constitute its only claim to distinction of the first do not shake his in most soul among the cities of Italy. The salu- -more than this, if the smiles of the brity of the climate, the beauty of the second do not with resistless force at environs, a degree of liberty which you once ravish his heart, to whatever degree enjoy nowhere else in Italy, the satisfac- it may have been compromised when he tion of seeing all the principal news- entered the theatre, he must be made of papers of London and Paris, the noblesterner stuff than most other people. establishments for the promotion of sci

On passing along the street in which ence and the arts, are circumstances the theatre is situated, you find yourself which attach many strangers to Florence; in the hands of power, four sentinels add to these solid advantages, that it is being stationed in the front of the buildthe residence of a gay nobility and a ing. On entering, a string of argumagnificent court, and you have an ments in favour of good order, in the amount of attractions which no city in shape of as many muskets, held each by Italy can equal.

a soldier, is the first object you encounFrom the monuments I pass to the

ter in one of the vestibules through theatres. Of these I propose to give which you have to pass, and others are you some account, in the course of which stationed farther on, in different parts of I shall make some remarks on the Venus the establishment. of the grand-ducal gallery, and have

The Salle of the Pergola, is a pleasing more to say on the divinity of the Per. and rather elegant specimen of theatrigola, the two most remarkable person- cal architecture; and, as like all others ages in Florence after the grand-duke. in Italy, it differs considerably from Of the eight theatres, which serve to

those in France, England, and the amuse the evenings of the Florentine United States ; the pit is arranged as in public, the principal is the Teatro della other theatres, but the elevation, instead Pergola, (the Pearl), appropriated to of first boxes, and then galleries, is dithe performance of operas. It is, as are

vided into five tiers of boxes, one above some of the others, honoured with the another, all on the same plan. The titles of Imperiale and Reale, and the boxes are all separated by partitions, so books (which they sell at the door) of that each forms an apartments where the plays which are performed there, people sit at their ease, converse and bear on the title-page, Sotto la prote- receive visits. Many of them are zione di sua Altezza Imperiale and Reale private property, and have the arms of Lepoldo, secondo Gran-Duca di Toscana," the family on the door, and the owners etc., etc., etc., (under the protection of of them may be said to be at the same his imperial and royal highness Leopold time at home and at the opera. the Second, Grand-Duke of Tuscany); The composition of the Salle is simple etc., etc., etc. The establishment re- but well conceived, and the grand difficeives an annual sum from the grands culty in all theatres, of connecting that duke, as the receipts alone would not be part of the elevation which forms the sufficient to defray the expenses, which the fronts of the boxes with the ornamental amounts paid the principal performers, façade of the stage is pretty well got over. and the cost of decorations, render very The material is superb, the whole elevaheavy; and he also lends them his sol- tion being stuccoed with scaliogla, a diers whenever the opera requires any costly substance, generally employed military display. It is here that the only in the apartments of a palace, and whole fashionable world is assembled, seldom met with out of Italy. Its marand the court is frequently present.

ble hue affords an adınirable ground to The theatres are open almost every the gilded ornaments, which are modestly day, but they are more open, if I may employed, and to the crimson drapery so say, on Sunday, than on other days, of the royal box. As a composition of


colours, this interior is extremely chaste, in the mind of the sovereign ; in this the material itself undisguised by paint, case the royal pleasure is expressed by a forming the greater part of the surface, clapping together of the royal hands, on and the painted ceiling, the central com- which signal the performers immediately partment of which exhibits silver stars on come forward and repeat the passage; a blue ground, being entirely in keeping but no clapping from the royal box, and with the clear white of the elevation, no repetition of a passage can ever take The polished surface of the scaliogla, the place. curtains on the fronts of the boxes, the Leopoldo Secondo, the reigning granddelicacy of the painted and gilded orna- duke of Tuscany, who sits on the throne ments, the finish of the whole, and the of the Medicis, and tramples under foot nicely with which it is kept, give to this the trophies of the republic of Florence, Salle the air of the interior of an apart. descends, as your readers are aware, ment in some vast palace, much more in from the ancient family of the dukes of keeping with the object of such Lorraine, to the government of which edifice than the uncomfortable out-of- they were raised toward the middle of door aspect of some theatres. In the the eleventh century; and where, for centre of the great arch which divides the seven hundred years which preceded the Salle from the stage, is a sort of their elevation, they acted not an inconsegment of the face of a clock, which siderable, or indeed inglorious part, indicates the hour to both the audience among the secondary princes of Europe. and the actors. Close to this are placed Besides carrying on, on their own acthe arms of the grand-duke, appearing to count, as many wars as other princes in indicate that the whole establishment is their situation, they frequently engaged in the possession of the prince. The in the wars and expeditions of the kings most imposing object is the box of the of France and the emperors of Germany; grand-duke, placed directly opposite the sometimes on one side, sometimes on stage, where it occupies the space of six another, without any more regard to the ordinary boxes, having the length of interests of their subjects than any other three and the height of two, rich in set of men, in stations so elevated, have crimson and gold, and surmounted by generally exhibited. Thus Jean the the grand-ducal crown. The interior First fought against the English at the forms a saloon, superbly decorated, with battle of Poitiers, in 1356, where, after a ceiling vaulted and painted, and gay performing prodigies of valour, and with mirrors and wax-lights. What having two horses killed under him, he with the unreasonableness of the dimen- was taken prisoner and carried to Engsions, the regal ornaments, and the luxe land. René the Second, defeated in the of the interior, it enriches the general year 1477, in a furious battle fought aspect of the Salle, and reigns throughout under the walls of Nancy, the famous the whole, in opposition to that coldness Charles le Témeraire, duke of Burof colour, and want of relief, which gundy, in which the latter lost his life. would otherwise be obtrusive features. Having inherited the claims of d'Anjou, Close to the stage, between the pilasters René the First, to the crown of Naples, on the right side, is another box of the he was the first of this family who placed same size with the ordinary ones, simi. in his arms the crowns of Hungary, larly ornamented with curtains and a Naples, Jerusalem, and Arragon. crown, though with less state than the Finally, Charles the Fourth rendered a first ; this is the private box of the grand more important service to Europe, by duke, the other being reserved for ex- defeating in 1683, as commander of the traordinary occasions.

imperial forces, the Turkish army of two When the sovereign enters, all hats hundred and forty thousand men, which immediately come off, and are kept off had laid siege to Vienna. while he remains in the theatre, and he Then there was Thierri le. Vaillant, is always received with more or less ap- Ferri le Luitteur, Charles le Hardi, plause. During the performance, his and I know not how many other pugnapresence makes itself felt in a very pecu- cious personages, in whom the combaliar way; when any passage pleases to tive qualities of the race seem to have such a degree, that its repetition is been exhausted; for the present granddesired by the audience, they make a duke, fortunately for his subjects, is en-> great deal of noise mixed with cries of tirely free from any military mania, and "ancora,” but they might continue to whatever may be his sensations when cry until next morning, unless a senti- he reads the exploits of his ancestors, or ment of approbation has also been excited when he contemplates their monuments


in the church of the Cordeliers at Nancy, thinking how far from improbable are his appearance, as he sits in his box at events which might in one day change the opera, is that of a man entirely in- the political aspect of Tuscany, erase disposed to follow their example.

the lions of Lorraine and the balls of Since the last hundred years, the his. the Medicis, from this very Salle of the tory of their family is connected with Pergola, and from all the public edifices important changes in the face of Europe; in Florence, and display an Italian triraised in the person of François Etienne, colour from the walls of Palazzo Pitti, first grand-duke of Tuscany of the house of Lorraine, to the empire, while the younger branch remains grand-dukes of Tuscany ; in the meantime Nancy, their One of the greatest benefactors to the ancient capital, where repose in their city of Bristol, was Mr. John Whitson, gothic tombs, I know not how many a merchant of that place, who in his life generations of their ancestors, has affords a pleasing example of the sucdwindled to the chief town of a French cess in general attendant upon diligence, department; and the people of Tuscany, worth, and honesty. The following after having seen the last of their plebeian anecdote is curious. As Mr. Whitson dukes deposited in the splendid mauso- was one day employed in his private leum of San Lorenzo, may find what closet, he overheard his nephews loudly good they can, in the present state of conversing in another room, and found affairs, in obeying, in the person of their the subject of their discourse turn upon present sovereign, Leopold the Second, himself and the great fortune they were a prince of as illustrious blood as any in to inberit at his death; and at the same Italy.

time they declared they would spend it It is an interesting sight to see this like gentlemen of fashion, in pleasurable individual, descended from so mary and expensive pursuits. The good old princes and warriors, and mixed with gentleman, -upon this, burst in upon the blood of every royal family in Eu- them at once, and with an honest inrope, seated in his box at the Pergola. dignation, told them, that, since he had As I said before, he is always received heard from their own mouths, their with considerable applause, and, on the resolution with respect to his fortune, whole, he deserves it ; for' if he is not they should now hear his : that he had all that he might be, he is not half as been long a witness to the vicious and bad as the other Italian princes, or one. abandoned course of life into which they tenth part as bad as he might be, con- were plunging themselves, and had often sidering the unlimited power of doing remonstrated, to no purpose, against it; evil which is lodged in his hands; indeed, that they now stood self-convicted, and on the contrary, he appears to be a very to prevent the infamy which they might worthy man, and as fit a person for a entail upon him, themselves, and the sovereign as can be found among the public, by such irregular excesses, be royal families of Europe.

was resolved to put it entirely out of What with his palaces, his equipages, their power. He, accordingly, made and his guarda di nobili, there is not a his will soon afterwards, and, after the more magnificent prince in Italy; and death of his wife, left the whole of his persons who come here from the United money to charitable purposes. States, without passing through England and France, are struck with the splendour and extent of his establishments. Most people, if sent in search of misery, First of all, he has in the capital the would look in the wrong place. They Palazzo Pitti, in which he might enter- would pass by palaces and search at the tain and lodge all the sovereigns of Eu- hovels of poverty; but misery must be rope, then palaces and villas in the en

estimated, not by the number of adverse virons, and indeed all over Tuscany, and accidents, but by the degree of morbid estates without end in Tuscany and Bo- sensibility of the sufferer. hemia. His riches, indeed, are enormous, and the illustrious house of Lor. raine was never in a more flourishing There is, perhaps, no misfortune of life condition than at present.

more truly bitter than being shut up, When one considers the splendours without any society to divert ur chagrin, which surround this individual, the state with one who daily excites our disgust in which he moves, the figure which he by a total want of sympathy in every makes at the theatres, one cannot help feeling of the heart.



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THE EXILED QUEEN. adjacent monastery, Queen Isabella with

her son, the young dethroned monarch, (For the Parterre).

was compelled to depart for Cassovia;

and taking the most unfrequented and ISABELLA of Poland, widow of John, perilous roads, in order to avoid the king of Hungary, queen-mother, and Turkish territory, travelled in the regent of that kingdom, had been com- meanest attire and with every token of pelled to abdicate her power by the extreme grief. treason of Friar George, a bold and “ Insomuch," saith the curious old intriguing Croatian of a noble but de- chronicle from which I made this excayed family, who had risen, from a tract. • Insomuch that, one day, passservile office in the Monastery of St. ing a mountain, which separateth TranPaul, by Buda, to be Archbishop of sylvania from Hungary, and going Strigonium and a Cardinal ; but a two- down the side thereof, which was very fold traitor to his queen and her infant rough and tedious, by which ragged way son, who had been bequeathed to his her coach could not pass, she was contutelage, by the too confiding John in strained, during a great shower, to go his last moments,

on foot and down that side with her The regalia of Hungary, (consisting of children and ladies, and that not without a crown made of plates of gold, mounting great labour. on bigh in form of a high-crowned hat, “ Walking in this sort, she greatly enriched with stones and pearls, and complained herself of her adverse forhaving a cross of gold on the top; a sceptre tune, who, not contenting to be conof ivory garnished with gold; and a trarie and opposite to her, in great and mantle of cloth of gold;) having been weightie things, would yet afflict her in demanded at her hands, and by her sur- small and mean matters. She then took rendered, at the Diet of Colosvar, in an a knife and, with the point thereof, to



ease a little her intolerable grief, writ Frederick William's son. When the in the bark of a great tree,

latter was fourteen, his brutal father " Sic Fata volunt !"

commenced ill-treating him. He beat and underneath

him, kicked him, insulted him, and “ Isabella Regina."

strove once or twice to strangle him. It may be some satisfaction to the The same usage was adopted towards his reader, to learn that the infamous wife and daughter. · He was accustomed Friar George of Croatia, was subse to beat the latter particularly, and once quently assassinated in his strongly endeavoured to throw her out of the fortified castle of 'Binse, on the steep window. His table 'was so meagrely banks of the Sebesse; by which event served that the royal family were almost the queen-mother was enabled to recon• · famished; yet, the good king, fearful quer all her towns and castles, and re- that they should eat more meat than he sume the government of Hungary in the had helped them to, after he had distriname of her son.

buted what he deemed sufficient, used to The tempest and uproar, that distin- spit in the dish. When either of his guished the night in which the traitor children came near him, he would aim Cardinal suffered the retribution of his a great blow at their heads, with his enormous crimes, is thus told in the same crutch, in order to knock them down. chronicle.

Among his occupations were painting. “Now the night was come, which His grenadiers were obliged to sit as was very cloudy and dark; during which models; and, when his portrait had the elements would demonstrate some more colour in it than the original, he sign of the friar's death.

rouged the cheeks of the soldier to cor“For, in that night the winds were respond. When, as often happened, he so horrible and the tempest and raines fell asleep over his task, and the falling so strange, that in man's memory the brush would trail along, and disfigure like was Nothing was the canvass ;

on awaking, he would heard but unaccustomed sounds in the swear that the painter, whom. be kept air, and clapping of doors and windows in the room with him to mix his colours, through all the castle, and that so terri- had spoiled his picture from jealousy of fying as though the world would pre- his talents, and the unhappy artist bad sently have ended.

to suffer a thorough caning thereupon, “ In short, as well in the air, as in the with what patience he could. When his vallies, this supernatural tempest made judges gave decisions which he did not such rude havoc, as though all the furies like, he would rush into the court-room, in hell had been there unchained." and cane, cuff, and kick the offending

H. G. dispensers of justice off the bench. The AN ODD CHARACTER. young Frederick, unable any longer to

endure his tyranny, endeavoured to make On our way from Dresden, we stopped his escape, but was watched, and arrested at Potsdam. I was agreeably surprised, in the act, by the old savage, who did by finding myself in the library of Fre- every thing in his power to have him derick the Great, which is contained in shot for desertion. "Unable to accomthe new palace. All the reminiscences of plish this, he wreaked his vengeance on this great man are, of course, interest. him in a way brutal beyond credulity. ing. Frederick was certainly a great He confined bim in a dungeon, where man, but really I think his father infi- he lay for a long time deprived of all the nitely more of an original. A more necessaries of life, and expecting every outrè animal, I shrewdly suspect, nerer moment to be conducted to the scaffold. sat on a throne. He seems to have been Katt, the companion of young Frea modern Tiberius in miniature-a sort derick's flight, and greatly beloved by of half-tamed Commodus. Can you the prince, was also acquitted by the not see a human bear in this paragraph court-martial; but the wretch, Freextracted from a letter written home on derick-William, instantly reversed the the eve of a battle?

verdićt, condemned Katt to be beheaded, “I give you all, (beginning with my and commanded the execution to take wife), my malediction; and may God place in the presence of the prince. punish you, as well temporally as History rarely delineates a scene more eternally, if you do not bury me, after powerfully striking and dramatic than my death, in the chapel of the palace that which closed Katt's career. He at Potsdam."

was only two-and-twenty, and the most You know, Frederick the Great was tender affection subsisted between the

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