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were rubbed off with the finger; and were probably occa- 767.

Houbigant thinks, that the words before sioned, as in the vegetable disease, by too great heat, and the Lord, and beside the testimony, have no relation to the the exclusion of air.

convention-tent, or testimonial tables; but to a tent, and See Zoonomia, vol. ii. chap. ii. 1.3. 12. testimony prior to them.—"For," argues Bishop Wilson on PHYTOLOGIA, sect. xiv. 1. 8.

the same idea, we must not imagine Israel was till then without a place of public worship, called before the Lord,

or Testimony.(Sce Geddes' Crit. Remarks on Exod. 763. [Ps. Ixxviii. 27.) In the year of the world 3505, it

xvi. 32—34).--We may however safely admit, that, though rained flesh in Italy. (FUNCTIUS' General Chronological

the direction for laying up the manna might with propriety History, rol. i. p. 6.)-See Lecil. i. 14, on feathered

be given now, it was not absolutely necessary that it should fowls.

be ultimately fulfilled till the convention-tent, &c, were actuConcerning those feathers, which, as the Scythians say, so

ally made. As things are generally ordered a considerable cloud the atmosphere that they cannot penetrate nor cven

time before they can possibly be executed, who can posidiscern what lies beyond them, my opinion, says Hero- tively say that the order and execution hereafter detailed, DOTUS, is this : In those remoter regions there is a perpetual were not even prior to the fall of the manna given to 'Moses, fall of snow, which, as may be supposed, is less in summer

and by him communieated also to Aaron ?-Along with this than in winter. Whoever observes snow falling continually,

manna was lain up the rod that budded; which rod with the will easily conceive what I say; for it has a great resemblance | seething pot of manna, it seems, was afterwards seen by to feathers. These regions therefore, he adds, which are

Jeremiah in a way we shall hereafter attempt to describe. thus situated remotely to the north, are uninhabitable from the

Sce Jer. i. 11, 12, 13: uiremittiug severity of the climate ; and the Scythians, with the neighbouring nations, mistake the snow for feathers.

Melpomene, c. xxxi.

THE ROCK IN HOREB.

764. (Erod. xvi. 15.) And when the Israelites saw this, they said one to another, Manna, What is this ? For they

768. (Exod. xvii. 6.) And the LORD said to Moses, knew wot what it was.

Behold I will stand before thce upon the rock in Horcb; The Septuagint, JOSEPHUS, JEROME, Faoius, VATABLUS,

and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water MERCER, GROTIUS, &c. See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 328.

out of it, that the people may drink.

As this rock, visited, drawn, and described As when the Europeans first landed at a certain point of by Norden, Shaw, Pococks, and others, was only a selfSouth America, they enquired of the natives the name of

block of red granite, fifteen feet long, ten broad, and twelve their country: the natives, not understanding what was said high; the water which supplied two millions of

persons, to them, in their own language asked the strangers what they

could not in any natural way have sprung out of the stonesaid, the word for which is peru. This the Europeans, in slab, but must necessarily have descended thereon from the their turn, not understanding, took as a direct answer to their pillar of the cloud above, upon it, as from a water-spout. question, and ever after called the place Peru.

Accordingly, says Paul, they drank of that spiritual Rock Ibid.

which followed them (Exod. xiv. 19); and that Rock was CHRIST. Compare Deut. xxxii. 4, 15, 18, 31, with

1 Cor. x, 4. 765. [Exod. xvi. 18.] From 2 Cor. viii. 14, 15, compared with what is written in Josephus, it appears that the

769. [Num. xx. 11.) A fragment of a rock, at Malta, manna that fell daily, and did not putrefy, was to the whole host of Israel an homer a-piece, and no more. (Antiq. b.iii.

constantly distils water from the lower, and most pointed ch. i. $ 6, Note.)- The Hebrew cphah or bushel, and their

pari, and it is very evident that the drops from this porous bath for liquids, were equally large.

stone are caused by the vapors it continually absorbs; the Exod. xvi. 36. SMITH's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 391.

weight of which, in their condensed state, uaturally forces a passage through the bottom of the rock.

BOISGELIN's Malta, vol. i. p.76. 766. (Exod. xvi. 32–34.] Fruits may be preserved in their native bloom and perfection through the winter in an

770.

Moses smote the (same) rock at two dif. exhausted glass; and eggs, which in the air soon grow

ferent times : 1, at Rephidim, the eleventh station, in the stale and putrid, retain their goodness a long time in vacuo. first year after the Exodus ; 2, in the desert of Sim, the -Seed, also, sown in earth kept under an exhausted receiver, thirty-third station, in the fortieth year after the departure will not grow at all.

from Egypt. Wonders of Nature and Art,

Univer. Hist. vol. ii, p. 514. vol. ii. p. 168:

Y

THE LORD APPEARING ON MOUNT SINAI.

(Exod. xix. 18.) And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire,

771. (Exod. xx. 18.)

Jove with storms
Envelop'd Ida ; flash'd his lightnings, roar'd
His thunders, and the mountain shook

Cowper's Iliad, b, xvii. l. 699.

procceded from God, is either in a gaseous, fuid, or solid state ; and that, to conceive of God as a Being prior to, and distinct from his works, you must not thik of particles constructible into gases, fluids, and apparent solids, but of an indivisible uupored Spirit, producing such particles, and filling completely all their substances and interstices as they are variously compounded.—God is called Fire, the father of light; Christ the Light, and the Holy Ghost the Spirit: not only as these thinys are used for representations, but as they are his agents; their substances, their actions, their glory His, though created and material. Every atom is a solid substance: of wbich some sorts are compounds or solids of substances; other sorts gross fluids of substances; and another sort in grains, spirit of substances : this sort, loose, constitutes the subtilest fluid fire, and light of substances : of the last sort there is a created Auid substance (spirit), in and by which the orbs move. Which system the first Heathens kuew to be a machine composed of three parts, yet took it for their

772. (Exod, xis 18, 19.] The thunder of the torrid zone is much more terrible than that we are generally acquainted with. With us, the flash is seen at some distance, and the noise shortly after ensues ; our thunder generally rolls on one quarter of the sky, and one stroke pursues another. But here it is otherwise ; the whole sky, all around, seems illuminated with unremitted flashes of lightning ; every part of the air seems productive of its own thunders; and every cloud produces its own shocks. The strokes come so thick, that the inhabitants can scarce mark the intervals; but all is one unremitted roar of elementary confusion.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c.

vol. i. p. 378.

and all the attributes the heathens then gave to it.

Hutchinson's Principia, part ii. p. 32.

777. [Exodxvi. 7.) The Apostle says, (Heb. i. 3,) The Lord Jesus is the brightness of the Father's Glory, and the express Image of His Person ; and, as no man has seen God at any time, we must necessarily conclude, that Christ, the investing Glory, was the visible agent, in all the extraordinary and miraculous interferences, which took place both in the Patriarchal times, and under the Law.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Gen. xvi. 7.

773. (Exod. xix. 18, 20.] All the peaks in the world may be considered as real electric needles.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 204,

778. [Exod. xix. 19. Moses spoke, and God answered 774. (Deut. i. 6.) Horeb is the lower of the two summits

him by a voice] In this intercourse, the action of speech was of Sinai.-Josephus says, that Horel (the western bill)

from Moses, the reaction from God. We have an evidence abounded in excellent pastures, but that these had “ hitherto”

of such intercourse within ourselves. When a natural truth been untasted, from the popular idea that the Divinity suggests itself, it is iminediately answered by a spiritual truth dwelled there ; on which account the shepherds were afraid

in the inner man. This correspondence, however, has no place to approach it.

in the wicked. Having no spiritual mind filled with the inAntiq. b. ii. ch. 12. § 1. fluence of God, the Divine reaction is from without them and

continually against them : hence their misery!

775. (Exod. xix. 18.) As we were admiring the beauties of nature near Setran in Norway, evening came on, and I was suddenly struck with a phenomenon, says Mr. Coxe, which never occurred to me except in Switzerland, and which

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. I at first mistook for a meteor. It was a gleam of the setting sun, illuminating the snow-capped summits of the distant [Exod. xx. 1-3.) God spake all these words, saying, mountains, and appearing like a flame of fire skirting the I am the LORD thy GOD:- Thou shalt have no other distant horizon.

gods before me. 2 Peter iii. 12.

PINKERTON's Voy. and Trav.
part xxiv. p. 370.

779. (Exod. xx. 17.] Though the Jews reckon the same number of cominandments as we do, and call them by way of

excellency the Ten Words, or decalogue; yet they join the 776. [Deut. iv. 24.) Suppose you would contemplate God, first and second into one, and divide the last, which is against as he is in Himself, prior to all creation. You must lay it coveting, into two. down as a fundamental principle, that every thing which has

Univer. Hist. vol.ii. p. 554. 784. (Exod. xx. 4.] In China, it is unlawful to make a likeness of the emperor.

BRETON's China, vol. iv. p.95.

780. (Exod. xx. 4.) Numa forbad the Romans to represent the Deity in the form of either man or beast. Nor was there among them formerly any image or statue of the Divine Being. During the first hundred and seventy years they built temples, indeed, and other sacred domes, but placed in them no figure of any kind, persuaded that it is impious to represent things divine by what is perishable, and that we can have no conception of God but by the understanding.

LANGHORNE's Plutarch, vol. i. p. 173.

785. [Exod. xx. 3.) The word God (applied to deceased men) which I transcribe from the works of the missionaries, says M. Breton, would be more correctly expressed by the Latin Divus, that is Blessed.

Ibid. vol. i. p. 103.

(Exod. xx. 4.] Thou shalt not make unto thee any grareu image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the irater under the earth.

786. [Exod. xx. 55, 6.) I the LORD thy God am a jealous 781. [Deut. xii. 3.) At first the Law prohibited the Jews God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children from so much as naining the objects of the worship of the

unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate heathens by their (respective) names; and (in Deut. xii.

me ;

and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love 6—10) we find a decree among the Jews to excommunicate me, and keep my commandments. such a should study the (vain) philosophy of the Gentiles. See Hutchinson's Introduc. to part ii.

Fit, quoque, ut interdum similes existere avoruin of his Principia, p. 9,

Possiut, et referant proavorum sæpe figuras;
Propterea, quia multimodis primordia multis
Mixta suo celant in corpore sæpe parentes,

Quæ patribus patres tradunt a stirpe profectâ.
782
Their names were appropriate animals,

LUCRETIUS. trees, flowers, plants, &c., characterizing in the antient Heraldry, the particular Castes to which their deified High

Even here below an unjust man attains no felicity : PRIESTS, or Kings had in their lifc-time, respectively be

Nor he whose wealth proceeds froin giving false evidence: longed.

Nor he who constantly takes delight in mischief.-
See an account of these animals, Deut. xiv. Iniquity once committed, fails not of producing fruit to him

who wrought it ;
If not in his own person, yet in his sons,

Or if not in his sous, yet in his grandsons. 783. [ Deut. iv. 16–18.] The excavations into the antient

Laws of Menu, tombs in Siberia, are (in 1815) continued with diligence, and the antiquities found in them are sent in succession to Peters- ---By this it appears, argues Sir William Jones, that if a burgh. They consist of articles made of massive gold, in person prosper unjustly, though his injustice - may not be drinking vessels, vases, diadems, military decorations, cui- || known, his children may expect to be deprived of that prosrasses, shields, ornaments for the head, idols, and images of | perity; and it does not long descend in his family. For animals. (Public Prints.)Those animals, when examined instance, a man by undetected fraud acquires wealth ; of and compared, will be found to be such as, manifesting pecu- which Providence deprives his son, or his grandson : now his liar symptoins at the approach of atmospherical changes, have son, or his grandson, are hereby reduced, only to the level been lately described by a German naturalist as the Fore. of what in fact they ought to have been originally; they tellers of Weather. He reckons 20 mammiferæ, 37 birds, suffer no real or actual loss; they are indeed deprived of 7 amphibia, 1 fislı

, 20 insects, and 3 worms. He has what their father acquired, but this deprivation merely plaoes formed the whole of this augury, or divining system, into them in that situation which they ought not to have quitted : thirty-five rules, established, it seems, by his own know- to use a military phrase, they have been unjustly "proledge; and which he presents to the public as infallible, moted,” but they are now "reduced to the ranks.” forming in his opinion an important part of meteorology and rural economy.--These probably, and others with similar peculiarities, were the sacred Animals of antiquity, figured or embalmed in cemeteries and in temples, near the statues, 787,

The seed which is from the father, is the the images, the idols of men thus deified, as it were, in con- first receptacle of life; but such a receptacle as it was in sequence of discovering their respective, their useful instincts. the father, for it is the form of his love. Hence it follows,

See a reference to this work in the Month. that the evils called hereditary are derived from fathers ; and

Mag. for Feb. 1815, p.59. therefore from grandfathers and great-grandfathers, succes

sively, to their posterity. This also experience teaches; for || 792. [Exod. xx. 11.) As the Sabbath was meant to be to there is in all nations a similarity, as to their affections, with the Israelites a sign of their acknowledging the Creator of their first progenitor; a greater similarity in families; a heaven and earth for their God, so the man who broke the still greater in houses. Such indeed is the similarity, that Sabbath was considered as guilty of disowning that God, generations are distinguished from each other, not only by the worship of whom was a fundamental principle of their their minds, but by their faces.

polity. See SweDENBORG on Divine Love, n. 269.

Smith's Michaelis, vol.iii. p. 167.

788.

There are some hereditary strokes of charaeter, by which a family may be as clearly distinguished, as by the blackest features of the human face.

JUNIUS.

793.

The sacred period of seven days, is in use among the Chinese, who seem also aborigines of the elevated plain of Tartary, but who have long had intimate communications with Hindostan and Thibet.

HUMBOLDT's Researches in S. America.

789. [Exod. xx. 7.) Thou shalt not take the name of

The week of seven days was unknown in America, as well the LORD thy God in vain.

as in part of Eastern Asia.

Ibid. By the name of God is signified God with all the Divine which is in Him, and proceeds from Him; also the Word, which is the proceeding Divine: and all the spiritual things of the Church, which are from the Word. This

794. [Exod. xxxi. 15.) From the testimony of Ilerodotus name is profaned by those who jest from the Word, and con

there is reason believe, that the Egyptians of the remotest cerning the Word, or from the Divine things of the Church

antiquity reckoned their days by sevens, as was done in the and concerning them; by those who understand and acknow

time of Noah, and even by Adam hiinself. ledge Divine truths, and yet live contrary to them; by those

ABBE Pluche, Hist. of the Heatens, who apply the literal sense of the Word to confirm evil loves,

vol. ii. p. 32. and false principles; by those who with their mouths speak things pious and holy, and also in their tone of voice and gesture counterfeit affections of the love of such things, and yet in their hearts do not believe and love them; by those

795. (Exod. xvi. 23.] It hence appears, that the Sabbath who attribute to themselves things Divine ; by those who

was from the beginning obligatory, and observed by the Pa

triarchs. acknowledge the Word, and yet deny the Lord's Divinity;

Geddes' Critical Remarks, p. 24. and, lastly, by those who first acknowledge Divine truths and live according to them, but afterwards recede and deny them. When things holy are thus mixed with profane, they cannot otherwise be separated, than by the destruction of the vhole.

796. [Deut. v. 14, 15.] From Ezek. i. we learn, that the See SWEDENBORG on Divine Pro

Angelic Sun turns round like the natural sun. The natural vidence, nn. 226—231.

sun, we kuow, from observation, turns any particular spot

that is in his atmospheres, once round bis axis in 25 days: This is that sin of profanation against the Holy Spirit,

the spiritual sun, we learn from Ezek., revolves also on his

axis; and from this (Deut. v. 12—16) and every other prewhich has no forgiveness, or remission of its evil, either in this world or in that which is to come. See Mark iii. 29.

cept respecting the sabbath, we may gather that, such revolution being completed in seven days, Jesus Christ, as exhi

bited in the outermost wheel of that sun, comes regularly 790. Jehovah will not leave the man unpu.

round every seventh day, to be to our earth the Lord of the aished, who utters his name with a falsehood.

Sabbath, Matt. xii. 8. During the Adamic Church, the Grand SMITH's Michaelis, vol. iv. p. 101.

Man from our earth as fixed in the innerınost wheel, caused the Sabbath to be every Thursday, as it still is in Africa : in the Noaich Church, it was on Friday, as among the Mahoine

tans : in the Jewish Church, it was regularly on Saturday; 791. [Exod. xx. 8.) Remember the sabbath day, to keep pensation, it necessarily falls on what is called the Lord's

and in the Christian Church, advancing a day in every disit holy.

day, or Sunday. Laying aside every consideration on the

See No. 579. score of religion, the institution of the sabbath has heen productive of great physical and moral advantages; no less essential to humanity, than to policy.

BRETON's China, vol. iii.p. 107.

797. (Exod. xx. 12.) Honour thy father and thy mother.

An African will sooner forgive a blow, than a term of reproach applied to his ancestors : “Strike ine, but do not curse my mother,” is a common expression even among the slaves.

Mungo PARK's Trav. p. 47.

804. (Judges xix. 29.) Under this government, “mercy and truth are met together, righteousness and peace have kissed each other;" Ps. Ixxxv. 10.-- None of the capital punishments, such as burning alive, cutting the body is pieces, strangling, or crucifixion, so barbarously inflicted by other nations ; have any coupexion, says Michaelis, with the Mosaic law. And, as to the appointment even of an executioner of capital punishments; Moses, he adds, mentions no such office in his laws, although he knew it in Egypt, and though we find it subsequently revived under the Israelitish kings. 1 Kings ii. 25.

Ibid. Vol. iii. pp. 408, 409.

798. [Exod. xx. 13.] Thou shalt not kill.

The Pythagoreans had such a strong sense of humanity that they abstained from shedding the blood even of animals, and froin eating their flesh.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii p. 90.

799.

In Cambia, the Indians will kill nothing, nor have any thing killed; they consequently eat no flesh, but live on roots, rice, fruits and milk.

Fitch.-Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. ix. p. 408, &c.

805. (Num. xxxv. 19.) When indeed the Goël, the only avenger of blood, found the murderer of his kinsman without the limits of his legal asylum, he had the right of putting hiin to death, not merely without any formal trial, but even without any warning. In this case the execution of the criminal, though it might sometimes have been a little barbarous, was so far from being considered an ignominious act, that the point of honor had, time immemorial, required it at the hand of the nearest relation; and every thing reprehensible in this aptient law was remo

noved, when Moses had duly established the LEGAL TRIAL of every suspected murderer.

Ibid., Vol. ii. art. 136.

800, (Acts xv. 29.) We Christians, says Octavius, dread the thoughts of nurder, and cannot bear to look on a carcase; and we so abhor human blood, that we abstain from that of beasts.

MINUCIUS Felix.

801. (Exod. xx. 13.) According to the life-saving spirit of the Gentoo laws, their Brahmins may he degraded, brand

imprisoned for life, or sent into perpetual exile; but it is every where expressly ordained by law, that a Brahmin shall not be put to death on any account whatever.

See Halhad's Preface to Gentoo

Laws, p. 55.

806. [Num. xxxv. 12.) From Pausanias and from Homer we learn, that, among the Greeks, the next relations to the murderer had a right to claim revenge ; so that it was not an usage peculiar to the Jews, Arabs, and other Eastern nations. The custoin was, no doubt, established long before Moses ; and was probably coeval with man in society. It was merciful however, in God, to abate its ferocity as much as possible, by giving temporary asylums to the guilty person, from the immediate pursuit and warm resentnient of the avenger of blood.

See Geddes;

802.

And if Indian women in particular, 807. (Exod. xx. 13.] Even in our times,-under the Rusbe guilty of any thing that deserves punishment, they may sian government established at Kamschatka, “by an edict of be deprived of their liberty, and sold as slaves ; but to hang the late empress CATHERINE, no crime whatever can be them, or put them to death in any other manner, is contrary punished with death." to the laws of India.

Captain King, See No. 243.

BARTOLOMEO's Voyage,
by Johnston, p. 288.

808.

The punishment of death has also in

Russia been abolished in every case, high treason excepted; 803. (Deut. xxxiii. 29.] In the time of Moses, a Theo- and crimes are in that country much rarer than formerly, when cracy, or Divine Government, was unquestionably very con- this punishment was very common. (St. Pierre's Studies spicuous : GUD HIMSELF, (through the medium of his She- of Nature, vol. iv. p. 329.)-And by the penal laws of chinah, the Jehovah of the Hebrews) gave laws to the Pennsylvania no crime is punishable with death, except murIsraelites,-decided difficult points of justice by oracles,-was der perpetrated by wilful premeditation, or in attempts to constantly visible iu the pillars of cioud and fire,--and in- commit rape, robbery, or the like. Every other offence, acflicted punishments not according to the secret procedure of cording to its enormity, is punished by solitary imprisonment Providence, but in the most manifest manner.

of a determined duration. See Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 190.

Weld's Trav, through N. America, vol. i. p. 13.

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