In Persia, before the conclusion of March; | yards, and its height fifty feet. The insects passed from west orange-flowers, jessamine and roses make their appearance, to east in the direction of the wind, at the rate of six or and barley shews itself in the ear.

seven miles an hour. The whole ground and every tree and PIETRO DELLE VALLE.-Pinkerton's bush, was covered with them; but each individual halted Coll. vol. ix. p. 120.

for a very short time on any one spot. They went in a very close body, and left behind them a very few stragglers. In an hour after the flock had passed, few were to be discovered

in the neighbourhood of the town. The stragglers from the 725.

In Egypt, they do not put their seed into grand body did not extend above a hundred yards on each the ground till November is pretty far advanced, and they

side of it, and were perhaps uot more than one to the cubic reap in March or April; so that their corn takes not more

foot. In the iniddle of the flock four times that number must than four months to ripen.

be allowed to the same space. I could not perceive, says Nat. Delin. vol. iv. p. 138.

BUCHANAN, that in their passage they did the smallest damage to any vegetable; but I was informed, that last year a fock passed, when the crop of iola (Holcus sorghum) was young, and had entirely devoured it. The noise of this immense

number of insects somewhat resembled the sound of a cata726. The diet of the Egyptians consists prin.

ract. At a distance they appeared like a long, narrow red cipally of spelt, a kind of corn which some call zea (far, olyra, cloud near the horizon, which was continually varying its or bearded wheat). (Herodot. Euterpe, xxxvi, Ixxvii.) shape. The locusts were as large as a man's finger, and of -This species of wheat, wbich grows in Egypt, does actu- a reddish color. ally bear, when perfect, seven ears (Gen. xli. 5) in one

Pinkerton's Coll. part xxxiv. p. 595. stalk, as its natural conformation. It has a solid stem, or at Jeast, a stem full of pith. See a figure of it in Frag. to CALMET's Dict. no. cxlvii, p. 108. See No. 615, 292.

729. (Joel ii. 25.] The bruchus pisi is a noxious insect, that in North America destroys whole fields of peas. There is also in Pensylvania a kind of locusts, which about every

seventh year, in the middle of May come oat of the ground 727.

Seed-time and harvest happen in Egypt || in incredible numbers, and make, for six weeks together, otherwise and in other seasons than they generally do in tem- such a noise in the trees and woods, that two persons who perate climes. Instead of sowing there in September or

meet in such places, cannot understand each other, unless October, after having with great toil and pains several times

they speak louder than the locusts can chirp. During that plowed over the lands to be sowed, they were content in

time, they make with the sting in their tails, holes into Egypt to scatter their corn in November on the mud which the

the soft bark of the small branches or twigs; by which Nile had left on the plains, and to cover il by making a furrow

means these branches are ruined. They do no other harm to of no great depth with a very small plough. Whereas the

the trees or plants. In the interval between the years when corn, in almost every other part of the world, is nine or ten

they are so numerous, they are only seeli or heard single in months on the ground, and sometimes eleven, before it is the woods. There is likewise a kind of caterpillars in these gathered ; in Egypt, four or five months are sufficient to get provinces, which, innumerable in some years, eat the leaves in, comparatively at no expense and without trouble, the

from the trees so completely, that the woods in the midst of most perfect and most plentiful harvest.

summer are as naked as in winter. In this manner, great DIODORUS, I. 1; and ABBE PLUCHE,

forests are periodically ruined. Hist. of the Heavens, vol. i. p. 12.

In other years the grass-worms do great damage in several places, both in the meadows and corn-fields. These have been observed to settle, like great armies, chiefly in a fat soil; where the husbandmen take care to entrap thein, by drawing round them narrow channels with almost perpendi. cular sides : when fallen into these ditches, they cannot re

ascend.—These three sorts of insects, it seems, follow each (Exod. x. 13, 14.) And the LORD brought an east

other pretty closely. KALM was assured by many persons, wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and that the locusts came in the first year, the caterpillars in the when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts.

second, and the grass-worms in the last. This, he adds, I And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt.

have found partly true, by my own experience.

See Pinkerton's Coll. of Voy, and

Trav. part liji. p. 505. 728. [Rev. ix. 3.] May 161, 1800, in the evening a flight of locusts passed over Mundium. It extended in length, probably, about three miles; its width was about a hundred

(Exod. x., 22.] And there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days.

735. (Exod. xii. 8.) The Essenes, according to Philo, contented themselves with adding only to their bread a little hyssop.

Long Livers, p. 121.

730. (Exod. x. 23.) We have seen the higher parts of a country, says GEDDES, and the more remote from rivers, perfectly clear when the lower and circumfluvial parts were covered with mist; and we have had almost palpable darkdess in London, when there was none at Hampstead.

Critical Remarks, p. 203.



[Exod. xiii. 21.) And the LORD went before them by

day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by 731. Exod. xii. 8.] And they shall eat the flesh in that night in a pillar of fire, to give them light. right, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.

736. [Exod. xl. 34.) This cloud was not so very deep and In celebrating the marriages of the Ro

thick as is seen in the winter season, nor yet so thin as that man Pontiffs, the ceremony consisted in the young couple's

men might be able to discern any thing through it; but from eating a cake together, made only of wheat, salt, and

it there dropped a sweet dew, and such as shewed the PREwater; part of which, along with other sacrifices, was, in a

SENCE OF God to those that desired and believed it. solemn manner, offered religiously by the priests as essential

JOSEPH, Antiq. b. iii. ch. viii. $ 5. to the rites of marriage.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women, vol. ii.p. 251.

In this view, the Passover, as instituted by Moses, and 737. (Exod. xxxiii. 9, 10.) Was the cloudy pillar, exterre-established by Jesus Christ, is to be regarded as the true nally considered, of the nature of a water-spout? If so, the marriage-feast between the Lord God and his church, equally following account will be interesting.-In Captain Cook's in the Jewish, and in the Christian covenant.—Behold! I passage from Dusky Bay to Queen Charlotte's Sound, "there (willing to become the Bridegroom) stand at the door (of my appeared, at the distance of two or three miles from the ship, beloved), and knock : if any man hear my voice, and open a remarkably large water-spout. Its progressive motion was the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he not in a straight, but in a crooked line, and passed within with me (in the celestial marriage). Rev. iii. 20. Psal. xxiv. 9. fifty yards of the stern, without their feeling any of its effects.

The diameter of the base of this spout was judged to be

about fifty or sixty feet. From this a tube or round body was 732. [Exod. xii. 42.] Accordingly, in after ages, at the formed, by which the water, or air, or both, was carried in a feast of unleavened bread, called the Passover, the priests spiral stream up to the clouds. Some of the sailors said that, were accustomed to open the temple gates just after midnight, in another water-spout which appeared at the same time, they Joseph. Antiq. b. xviii. c. ii. & 2. saw a bird whirled round like the Ay of a jack, as it was

carried upwards. From the ascending motion of the bird,

and several other circumstances, it is very plain, that these 733. [Exod. xii. 7.) In Greece, it was customary for a spouts are caused by whirlwinds; and that the water in them lover to deck the door of the house where his fair one lived was violently hurried upwards, and did not descend from the with flowers and garlands, to make libations of wine before clouds, as is generally supposed. The first appearance of it, and sprinkle the entrance with the same liquor.

them is by the violent agitation and rising up of the water; Dr. W. ALEXANDER’s Hist. of Women, and, presently after, you see a round column or tube forming vol. ii. p. 152.

from the clouds above, which apparently descends till it joins the agitated water below. Captain Cook says, apparently,

because he believes it not to be so in reality, but that the 734. Exod. xii. 11.) TECLA, an Abyssinian monk, in an tube is already formed from the agitated water below, and account of the ritual of his church communicated to the Jesuit || ascends, though at first it is either too small or too thin to missionaries, says, that they celebrate monthly love-feasts to be seen. When the tube is formed, or becomes visible, with leatened bread; and on the Thursday before Easter, its apparent diameter increases until it is pretty large; after celebrate with unleavened bread an annual sacrament, when that, it decreases; and, at last, it breaks or becoines invitliey communicate in both kinds, and receive the Eucharist sible towards the lower part, Soon after, the sea below standing. This is the closest imitation of the original rite resumes its natural state ; and the tube is drawn, by little and preserved in any Christian church.

little, op to the clouds, where it is dissipated.” Month. Mag. for May, 1814, p. 333.



738. (Exod. xiii. 21.) Pliny, describing a water-spout as a food like almond-milk; and extract from its flowers a red seen frequently at sea, says, It is called a pillar (columna), color, used for dyeing cloth in Ethiopia and India (See Ezek. when the water condensing, and standing upright, is self- xxvii. 16). As this weed, its seed, food, flower and color, sustained.

are all denominated sufo ; and as the sea it grows in lies Nat. Hist. lib. i. cap. 50. between Ethiopia and Palestine, where sufo and suph or suf

respectively signify rubrum, red; it hence appears, that in

Jerome's translation this sea is called Mare Rubruin, and 739.

COPPERAS VAPOR, as it issues from in ours the Red Sea, not from any such color appearing in the earth, appears by day like smoke, and by night like its water, but from the weed suf, which Bruce (Trav. fire.

vol. ii. p. 138) declares to be a coral. EBx. HAUKAL, p. 264.

Wisdom xix. 7. See the Portuguese Manuscript trans

lated by Sir PETER WYCHE, p. 66.


740. (Exod. xiii. 20.] XENOPHON, in his Lacedæmonian republic, mentions an officer under the name of fire-carrier, who preceded the Spartan King, when he went out to war, with fire taken from the sacred altar, which was preserved unextinguished throughout the whole march of the army.

The Erythrean, or Red Sea of the Antients is the Indian ocean of our day; and what we call the Red Sea, or the Arabian Gulph, was considered by them as a branch of that ocean.

See Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 130.

744. (Exod. xiv. 2.] The entrance into the Red Sea is called by the Arabians the gate of tears, because that part of the ocean is extremely dangerous.

Works of Sir W. JONES, rol. v. p. 583.


741. [Exod. xiv. 19.) We learn from XENOPHON, that while Cyrus and Cyaxares, heading an army of Medes and Persians, lay encamped in the enemy's country, the army of the Babylonians, Lydians, and Egyptians, far superior in number, came up with them unexpectedly. “On this,” says

they did not by night kindle their fires in the centre of the camp, but in the front of it; that, if any of the enemy should move in the night, they might see and not be seen of them, by means of the fire. They also frequently placed the fire in the rear of the camp to deceive the enemy, which occasioned their scouts to fall in with the out-guards ; because the fires were behind the camp, whereas they supposed themselves to be at a considerable distance, as believing the fire was in its ordinary place.”

Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 326.

745. (Exod. xiv. 21.] An east wind would nécessarily drive the waters of the ocean into the Red Sea, through the Straits of Babelmandel, and raise the surface of the water higher than usual. But the Alexandrian and Vatican copies of the SEPTUAGint agree, that the wind, on that occasion, was a south-wind.

See the Map in Biblical Research. vol. i.



When the people of Egypt travel, by night they rarely make use of lents, hut lie in the open air, having large lanterns made like a pocket paper lantern, the bottom and top being of copper tinned over, and instead of paper they are made with linen, which is extended by hoops of wire, so that when it is put together it serves as a candlestick, &c, aud they have a contrivance to haug it up abroad by means of three staves.

PococКЕ. ,


Such a wind, sweeping along the eastern coast of Africa and of Arabia Felix, and driving the waters of the ocean back from the mouth of the Strait of Babelinandel towards the Persian Gulph, would naturally, in consequence of the projecting coast of Aden and Cape Guardafui, draw off the waters from the Red Sea, and lower them greatly ; especially if that wind co-operated with a strong ebbing of the tide froin the coast of Arabia, as was most probably the case. (King's Morsels of Criticism, p. 87.)-But would not such a wind also, carry away with it all the hosts of Israel?


747. (Exod. xiv. 28.] In general the tides rise highest (Exod. xiv. 21.] And the LORD caused the sca to go and strongest in those seas that are narrowest, At the mouth back by a strong east wind.

of the Indus the water rises and falls full 30 feet. The

tides are remarkably high on the coast of Malay ; in the 742. [Exod. x. 19.) In the Red Sea there is a weed called straits of Sunda; in the Red Sea, along the coasts of China, in the Ethiopic sufo, which grows also in great quantities Japan, &c. in India and in divers parts of Asia. From it they prepare

Joyce's Dialogues, on Astronomy, p. 175.


When the emperor Valens was at Marcino- trembled and shook, when-in the seathou leddest thy polis, in his way to Syria, such a tempest happened, and people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron, such agitation of the sea, that in some places small ships Psal. Ixxvii. 18, 19, 20.-At Plymouth, about 3 o'clock were driven over the walls of houses, and in others the largest on Friday morning, May 31st, 1811, the sea suddenly fell ressels left dry on the sand. The inhabitants of the city, to the depth of from four to eight feet, and rose again in the going out to plunder, were overtaken by the returning tide same proportion. This alternation continued at intervals till and buried in the waves. (See Brun's Version of Bar- nearly 7 o'clock : during which period the vessels in Catwater, Hebræus, p. 67.)-And in South America, the waters of the and Sutton Pool, were observed to be greatly agitated; river Plata were, in the month of April 1793, forced by a those in the former harbour dragging their anchors and drifte most impetuous storm of wind to the distance of ten leagues ; | ing in various directions : two of them lost their bowsprits so that the neighbouring plains were entirely inundated, and by running foul of each other during the swell, and others the bed of the river left dry. Ships, sunk for more than received damage but not to any considerable extent. Those thirty years, were uncovered, and among others an English in Sutton Pool were afloat and aground in the short space vessel cast away in 1762. Several persons walked in the of five minutes, the water falling and rising full eleven feet hed of the river without wetting their feet, and returned with in that short period.--A similar bore came into Sutton Pool silver and other riches long buried under the water. This con- in 1755, at the time of the earthquake at Lisbon; and also tinued three days, at the end of which the waters returned in 1781, previous to the earthquake at Quito in South with great violence to their natural bed.

America. There was also a similar one, when the earthquake See No. 85 of the Observer took place in Calabria : and it is apprehended that some event for July 1793.

of a like nature has occasioned the present phenomenon.

Plymouth Chronicle, June 15, 1811.

749. Exod. xiv. 21.) A remarkable phenomenon occurs At fort Erie, situated at the eastern extremity of the lake in the sea of Azof during violent east winds : the sea retires Erie in N. America, the water has been observed to fall full in so singular a manner, that the people of Tanganrog are three feet in the course of a few hours, on a sudden change able to effect a passage upon dry land to the opposite coast; of the wind from the westward, in which direction it had a distance of 20 versts, equal to fourteen miles : but when blowu for many days to the eastward. the wind changes, and this it sometimes does very suddenly,

WELD's Trav. in N. America, the waters return with such rapidity to their wonted bed,

vol. ii. p. 79. tuat many lives are lost. The depth here is five fathoms.

Dr. CLARKE's Trav. in Russia, &c.
part 1. p. 324.


At the time of the remarkable earthquake at Lisbon in 1755, the water of Loch Lomond rose very sud

denly some feet above its former level; then suddenly retir750.

Notwithstanding the natural rapidity of iny, it sunk as much below it. The next flow and ebb, the Rhone, its course has been sometimes stopped by a strong though still considerable, were less than the first; and graWesterly wind, such as happened in the winter of 1645, which dually diminishing, after some lours the agitation subsided, not only unroofed the houses at Geneva, but laid bare the and the surface of the lake again became perfectly calm, channel of the river, above the bridge, for the space of an

Garneti's Tour in Scotland, vol. i. p. 44. bour, after which it resumed its course. GALLASIUS, in his commentary on Exodus, relates, that a similar accident happened at Geneva, when he was minister there, a south west 753. [Exod. xiv. 26.) In the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, wind causing the Rhone to recoil into the lake, and affording the bar at the mouth of the Tagus was seen dry from shore to a dry passage for an hour together.

shore; then suddenly the sea, like a mountain, came rolling SMITH.Also Wonders of Nature and in: and about Bellemn castle the water rose 50 feet almost in an Art, vol. ii. p. 100, Note.

instant : and had it not been for the great bay opposite to the

city, which received and spread the great flux, the low part That the children of Israel might have time to pass over, of it must have been under water.--Suppose earthquakes to it seems, the waters were also congealed in the midst of the have their origin under ground, and we need not yo far in sea,-See Exod. xy. 8.

search of a cause, whose real existence in nature we have In the year 1594, the Italian historians describe an earth- evidence of, and which is capable of producing all the quake at Putcoli, which caused the sea to retire two hundred appearances of these extraordinary motions. The cause [ yards from its former bed,

mean, says the Rev. John MITCAELL, M. A. is subterraneous GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, fires. These fires, if a large quantity of water should be vol. i. p. 111.

let out upon them suddenly, may produce a vapor, whose quantity and elastic force may be fully sufficient for that

purpose, by raising the roof over the fire, &c. &c. 751. The waters were divided-of God, it

Abridy. Phil. Trans. vol. xi. should seem, by the HEATING of an earthquake : The earth

op. 464-448,

754. [Exod. xiv. 22.] Let no one, says Josephus, won no way inferior to any fig-tree whatever, either in height, or der at this account of a way of safety being opened to those | in thickness. old-world innocent folks, even through the sea, whether by | Luke xi. 42.

Wars, 6. vii, chu vi. 5 3. the will of God or naturally; since, of later days, the Pamphylion Sea opened a way for Alexander's army, when God, In Græcia Major and Sicily also, they had rue prodigiously through him, had decreed to overturn the Persian empire. great and durable, like this noticed by Josephus at Macherus. (Antiq. I. ii. c. 16. § 5.)-And in the year 1672, when See No. 340.

SPANHEIM. the English fleet attempted to make a descent on Holland, they were prevented by a singular occurrence :—When they arrived at the Dutch coast it was low water; so they were obliged to wait for the tide. The tide came, but lasted 759.

' tamperel, an Indian fruit of the size only two or three hours, when it stood still until a new ebb and figure of hare's dung, when put into a vessel con- . supervened : and in the mean time the appearance of admiral taining muddy water, purifies it in such a manner that all Ruyter with the Dutch fleet obliged the English to abandon the unclean slimy particles instantly deposit themselves at the their enterprise : and thus Holland was saved from impend- bottom, and the water becomes clear and bright. The same ing ruin.-This, says Burnet, was considered as a miracle. effect is produced when a branch of the tree is put into a See Dr. GeDDES' Critical Remarks, p. 226. pool or muddy well. 2 Esdras i. 23. Ecclus. xxxviii. 5.

See No. 698. BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 420.

755. [Exod. xiv. 21.] DIODORUS Siculus relates that the Ichthyophagi, who lived near the Red Sea, had a tradition handed down to them through a long line of ancestors, that

MANNA. the whole bay was once laid bare to the very bottom, the waters retiring to the opposite shore, and that they afterwards

760. (Exod. xvi. 13.] And it came to pass, that at even returned to their accustomed channel with a most tremendous

the quails came up, and covered the camp; aad in the teyulsion.

Bib. Hist, lib. iii. p. 174.

morning, the dew lay round about the host.

Mahomet, in the Alcoran, speaks of the miracle that God performed in favor of the Israelites, by seniling them flesh. He makes use of the same word with Moses. (Moses says selav, and Mahomet says salva.) One of his interpreters, Houssain Vaez, (vide Bibl. Orient. p. 749,

col. i.) says, that the word salva does not only signify quails, "THE WATERS OF MARAH.

but also honey. (Calmer's Dictionary, vol. ii. art. Quails.)

-Now, in the morning, as Moses lifted up his hands in prayer

to the Lord, the dew fell down about the camp, and sticking | Exod. xv: 25.) And the LORD shewed Moses a tree, to his hands, he supposed that it was also come for food from which when he had cast into the waters, the waters were

God to them; he tasted it, and perceiving that the people made sweet.

kuew not what it was, and thought it snowed, and that it was what usually fell at that time of the year, he informed them,

that this dew did not fall from heaven after the manner they 756. [Exod. xv. 23.] At Corondel, the modern name of Marah, there is still a small rill, which, unless it be diluted

imagined, but came for their preservation and sustenance. So by the dews and rain, still continues to be brackish.

he tasted it, and gave them some of it, that they might be Dr. Shaw.

satisfied about what he had told them. They also imitated their conductor, and were pleased with the food. It was like honey in sweetness, and of a pleasant taste; in its body it was like to bdellium, one of the sweet spices, and in bigness

equal to coriander seed. 757. Pococke mentions a mountain known to

Wisdom xvi. 20. JOSEPH. Antiq. b. iii. c. i. $ 6. this day by the name of Le Marah ; and says, toward the sea there is a salt well called Birhammer, which probably is the same here called Marah.

761. [Exod. xvi. 31.) This (vegetable) secretion (the miliary sweat), has not the sweet taste like that of the honeydew, but consists of mucilage ; which, as the watery part

evaporates by heat, remains ou the plant in very small round 758. (Exod. xv. 26.] In a valley near the lake Asphaltis, hard globules, like millet seeds, whence their naine. I once, says there grew a sort of rue (the Tea tree) says JOSEPHUS, | Dr. Darwin, witnessed a very similar appearance of minute that deserves our wonder on account of its largeness, being hard round globules on the skin in a miliary fever, which easily

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