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Mr. Dupius, in his learned memoir concerning the origin of the constellations, has assigned many plausible reasons to prove that Libra was formerly the sign of the vernal, and Aries of the autumnal equinox ; that is, that since the origin of the actual astronomical system, the precession of the equinoxes has carried forward by seven siyus the primitive order of the zodiac. Now estimating the precession at about seventy years and a half to a degree, that is 2,115 years to each sign; and observing that Aries was in its fifteenth degree, 1,447 years before Christ, it follows, that the first degree of Libra could not have coincided with the vernal equinox more lately than 15,194 years before Christ, to which if you add 1790 years since Christ, it appears that 16,984 have elapsed since the origin of the zodiac. The vernal equinox coincided with the first degree of Aries 2,504 years before Christ, and with the first degree of Taurus 4,619 years before Christ. Now it is to be observed, that the worship of the Bull (Taurus) is the principal article in the theological creed of the Egyptians, Persians, Japanese, &e.; from whence it clearly follows, that some general revo. lution took place among those nations at that time. The chronology of five or six thousand years in Genesis is little agreeable to this hypothesis ; but as the book of Genesis cannot claim to be considered as a history further back than Abraham, we are at liberty to make what arrangements we please in the eternity that preceded.
44. (Isaiah xi. 9.] As proofs of the progressive rise of the sea : The remaining walls of an old salt-house, erected on the shore, south of the mouth of the Bora river, by Jane Countess of Sutherland, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, in 1598; are now (1815) washed to a considerable height by the ordinary tides, which mostly flow higher than the tops of the fire-places, still visible, on which the salt-pans stood; and the tops of the coal-pit hillocks there, that were made about the same period, are most of them since covered by the sea-beach. On the shore at Mostyn, in Flintshire, North Wales, the pits sunk about the year 1640, in which the firedamp explosions happened, which are recorded in the Phil. Transactions, No. 136, and where the water-wheel and chainpumps were used, that were drawn in 1684, and have been since engraved in Mr. Pennant's Account of Holywell and Whitford,” have now long had their tops covered by almost every tide. It is asserted in the Month. Mag.for Aug. 1815, p. 9. that there are similar proofs on every coast of Britain.
In the reign of Augustus the Isle of Wight made part of the island of Britain, so that at low water the Britons crossed over towards it with cart loads of tin ; but now the connexion is cut off, and the Isle of Wight is constantly separated from Britain by a channel half a mile wide.
Monsieur Denon's Egypt, 8vo. vol. i. p. 41. (Gen. ii. 7, 8.] It is an astronomical fact which 106, informs us, “ the shafts of Doric columns, with their cannot easily be disputed, that the poles of the earth were connecting capitals, are now standing not far from Cleoat some distant period perpendicular to its orbit; as those of patra's Needle, in Egypt, and that they are now much the planet Jupiter now are, whose inhabitants must therefore below the level of the sea, but may be distinctly seen.” enjoy a perpetual spring.
These were placed there by the Romans little less than See Newton's Defence of Vegetable Regimen, vol.i. p. 15. 2000 years ago; and it may be presumed, they were erected
above the level of high water. Old walls and ruins may be
traced a long way into the Mediterranean sea, about six 42.
The angle formed by the axis of the equa- leagues from Alexandria, or half a league from the village of tor and by that of the ecliptic, which at present is nearly Madie. These are supposed by Simonde to be the remains of twenty-three degrees and a half, is less by twenty minutes Hereclea. than it was two thousand years ago. The inference from The floor of the Cathedral at Ravenna is now several feet such data would be that, iy the course of so long a period as lower, relatively to the sea, than it was formerly. And 141,000 years, our equator and our ecliptic will coincide, and some steps have been found in the rock at Malta, apparently will have the same poles; that is, that the days would be intended for ascending it, which are now under water. equal to the nights.
Mr. Simonde says, in his View of the Agriculture of St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, vol. ii. pp. 63, 64. Tuscany, “ The Mediterranean is continually rising, and
threatens to inundate all the plains of Italy.” The scite of the city Herculaneum, which was buried by lava that
Aowed from Vesuvius in the year 79 of the Christian era, 43. (Gen. i. 9.] And God said, Let the waters be ga- is now forty feet below the bed of the neighbouring sea. thered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear. The foregoing historical notes and observations do not en
The sea, which has not much altered its able us to ascertain very accurately the rise which the ocean place for these four thousand years, has nevertheless succes- makes in a given time, but they shew us that it is about ten sively passed and repassed over all the lands, and every where feet in a 1000 years. left marks of its passage in large depositions of shells and Mr. JNO. MIDDLETON, Month. Mag. for Feb. 1816, p. 2. marine bodies. Whereby it is plain, that these changes of place, which are operated so very slowly, cannot possibly have successively covered and seft all these lands, except in 46.
It is probable, however, that the sea is an innumerable series of ages.
falling on the coast of America : Mr. BARTRAM says he is ABBE PLUche's Hist. of the Heav. vol. ii. p. 183. convinced, that the greatest part of the country about Phile delphia for several miles, was formerly under water. The impulse, are occasioned by the obstacles which impede them reasons which led him to give credit to this opinion were the
in their direct progress. following:
Month. Mag. for Aug. 1815, p. 23. 1. On digging in the blue mountains, which are above three hundred English miles distant from the sea, you find loose oyster and other sorts of shells; and they are also to 48.
Between the tropics, especially from the be met with in the vallies formed by these mountains.
coasts of Senegal to the Caribbean sea, the general current, 2. A vast quantity of petrified shells are found in lime- that which was earliest known to mariners, flows constantly stone, flint, and sand-stone, on the same mountains.
from east to west. This is called the equinoctial current. 3. The same shells are likewise dng in great quantity, Its mean rapidity, corresponding to different latitudes, is quite entire and not mouldered, in the provinces of Vir- nearly the same in the Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean, ginia and Maryland, as also in Philadelphia and in New and may be estimated at nine or ten miles in twenty-four York.
hours. In these latitudes the waters (on the surface of 4. On digging wells (not only in Philadelphia, but like- which the reflected Image, the creating SPIRIT OF GOD, wise in other places) the people have met with trees, roots would actually more) run towards the west, with a velocity and leaves of oak, for the greatest part not yet rotten, at equal to a fourth of the rapidity of the greater part of the the depth of eighteen feet.
large rivers of Europe. The inovement of the ocean, in a 5. The best soil and the richest mould is to be met with, direction contrary to that of the rotation of the globe, is in the vallies hereabouts.
probably connected with this last phenomenon,-only as far 6. The whole appearance of the blue mountains plainly as the rotation changes the polar winds, which, in the lower shews, that the water formerly covered a part of them. For regions of the atmosphere, bring back the cold air of the many are broken in a peculiar manner, but the highest are high latitudes towards the equator, into trade winds. plain.
In 1770, a small vessel laden with corn, and bound from 7. When the savages are told that shells are found on the island of Lancerotte to Santo Cruz, in Teneritis, was these high mountains, and that from thence there is reason driven to sea, while none of the crew were on board. The to believe that the sea must formerly have extended to them, motion of the waters from east to west curried it to and even in part flowed over them; they answer, that this is America, where it went on shore at La Girayra, near Carracas. not new to them, they having a tradition from their an- Thus we know at present, by recorded facts, that in the Torcestors among them, that the sea formerly surrounded these rid Zone the trade-winds and the current of the tropics a re mountains.
in opposition to every motion of the waves in the direcKalm's Travels.-Pinkerton's Coll. part liii. p. 419. tion of the carth’s rotation.— Before any dry land appeareil,
this current would necessarily be uninterrupted and uni
versal quite round the watery globe; and creation would 47. (Gen. i. 2. ] As to the theory of our tides: the earth of course be confined, as we find it actually was, to the moves from west to east, and the waters at the equator, raising and enlightening the different strata of the atinosand within the whole parallel of the iropics, in a contrary phere. direction.
HUMBOLD'T's Trav. in South America.-Sce Suppl. to The following simple experiment will prove the impossi- Month. Mag. for Jan. 1815. bility, if such were wanting, that the earth and waters can revolve in the same direction; and, when we consider the immense velocity with which the earth moves at the 49. [Gcn. ii. 3.) When the grand machine was finished equator, and the impetus thence given to the waters, it and put in order, all the local motions, material actions, or will serve to explain the whole theory of the currents and powers aitributed therein to the Person of God, are really and tides, from the Equator to the Thames at Richmond, or properly the motions, actions, and powers of his material or elsewhere.
created agents, acting immeiliately under his direction and Fill a basin with water, and place a small piece of wood, influence. a bit of paper, or any substance that will float on its surface;
HUTCHINSON's Principia, part ii. p. 339. turn the basin steadily round, and the water and substance floating on it will remain stationary, or appear to move as objects do when we are on the water in a boat.
60. (Gen. ii. 1.] Nature, or the Suprere Wisdom, which By this simple experiment, the whole theory of the cur- has formed, sustains, and animates the universe ; seems to rents may be explained; the cause of the regular, apparently delight, if we may venture so to speak, in conjoining the irregular, motion of the currents and tides traced and disco- most admirable simplicity with the most astonishing variety. vered on the whole surface of the globe.
From a few elements, and which our ignorance, probably, It is the earth that moves, and the waters which recede. makes more numerous than they are in fact, we see living The fact is certain that they move in an opposite direction ; beings, whether vegetables or animals, so diversified, that the experiment explains it. The law which operates on the human life is too short, to permit us to become acquainted water in the basin, will operate similarly on the same fluid at with their various forms and properties. the equator. All the deviations of the waters from their first
Dr. LAMBE's Additional Reports, p. 83,
Man, as he came first out of God's hands, was the reflection of God himself ou a dark cloud, the iris of the Deity: the similitude was the same, but the substance different.
51. [Psalm xix.]
The spacious firmament on high,
ON THE CREATION OF MAN.
52. (Gen. i. 26, 27.) God created Man in his own 58.
None but the blind can doubt that the image; in the image of God created he him; MALE AND Whites, the Negroes, the Albinoes, the Laplanders, the ChiFEMALE CREATED HE THEM.
nese, the Americans, are races entirely different. That'express Image of the Father's per- No curious traveller ever passed through Leyden, without son,' who afterwards appeared frequently to Patriarchs and seeing part of the reticulum mucosum of a Negro dissected Prophets, who gave the law on Mount Sinai, was entitled | by the celebrated Ruysch. This membrane is black; and the God of Israel, and became incarnate in the person of communicates to Negroes that inherent blackness, which they Jesus Christ : was actually manifested in HUMAN FORM, do not lose but in such disorders as may destroy this texture, and truly employed, as the Scriptures declare, in the creation and allow the grease to issue from its cells and form white of the world and formation of man.
spots under the skin. See Whiston's Theory, book iv. p. 330. Their round eyes, squat noses, and invariably thick lips,
the different configurations of their ears, their woolly heads,
&c. make a prodigious difference between thein and 53.
In the account we have of our creation, cies of men; and what demonstrates that they are not indebted We are expressly said to have a similitude only, and resem- for this difference to their climate is, that Negro men and woblance of the Divinity; and to think more arrogantly of our- men being transported into the coldest countries, constantly selves than this, is directly contrary to the Word of God. produce identically their own species; and that Mulattoes In this similitude and correspondency between the divine and are only a bastard race of black men and white women. The human nature, is laid the only sure foundation of all our Albinoes are, indeed, a very small and scarce nation; they inknowledge of God, and of all our conceptions of his incon- habit the centre of Africa. Their weakness does not allow ceivable attributes and perfections.
them to make excursions far from the cayerns which they One and the same word of human language, together with inhabit; the Negroes, ncvertheless, catch some of them at the natural conception annexed to it, stands in the mind both times, and these we purchase of them as curiosities. To say
the image and the original: nor is it possible for mankind that they are dwarf Negroes, whose skin has been blanched to have any idea of the incomprehensible Reality, taken by a kind of leprosy, is like saying that the Blacks themfrom any other idea by which it may be actually and truly selves are Whites blackened by the leprosy. An Albino no discerned in any the lowest degree.
more resembles a Guinea Negro than he does an Englishman Bp. BROWNE's Divine Analogy, pp. 156, 183. or a Spaniard. Their whiteness is not like ours; it does not
appear like flesh, it has no mixture of white and brown; it is sition of the head upon the spine; also in the length of the
Ibid. pp. 52, 55.
In looking upon the recorded varieties of But now if it should be asked, From whence came the our species, from the woolly-headed African to the longAmericans? it should also be asked, From whence came the in-haired Asiatic, from the blue-eyed and white-haired Goth habitants of Terra Australis ? And it may be answered, That to the black-eyed and black-haired North American, and the same God who placed men in Norway, planted some also from the gigantic Patagonian to the dwarfish Laplander, we in America and under the antartic circle, in the same manner are led to believe, that the human species must radically have as he there planted trees and made grass to grow.
been as various as any other species of animated beings; and VOLTAIRE. it seems as unphilosophical as impious to limit the powers of
creation to pairs of one kind, and to ascribe their actual
varieties to the operations of chance. 69. (Gen. ii. 19.] The skin of the American Indians is of Sir RICHARD PHILLIPS' Morning's Walk from London to a reddish or copper color; the tincture, no doubt, which they
Kew, p. 367. received originally from the hands of their Creator. CARVER’s Trav. in N. America, p. 142.
Whoever duly considers the first chapter
of Genesis, will perceive that it requires much strange rea60.
The Tartars, in general, are of a middle soning to prove, that the first woman was not created, as well size, but exceedingly robust, and well-set: they have big as the first man, immediately from God. and broad heads, flat faces, and complexions of a dark olive
See Pierer. Exercit. de Præadamit. Pass. color, pretty near that of American copper. Modern Univ. Hist. vol. iv. p. 298.
66. (Gen. ïi. 22.] Mons. Buffon says of the women of Green
land, that they can suckle their children on their backs, by 61. (Gen. iv. 16, 17.) There is no proof, that the exis-throwing the breast over their shoulders; that their nipples tence of man is more recent in America than in the other are as black as jet, and their skin of a deep olive color; and that continent. The nations there, except those which border on some of them are as black as the Ethiopians.-Long flabby the polar circle, form a single race, characterized by the for- breasts therefore, such as specifically belong to the Hottentot mation of the scull, the color of the skin, the extreme thin- women, are not the effect of relaxation in a warm climate, ness of the beard, and their straight and glossy hair. As to but are found with people of color in the frigid as well as the supposed tanning of their complexions by the burning torrid zone. No European white woman however, in any sun, it is observed, that the hordes who wander along the age or climate, was ever known to have a breast of such scorching plains of the equinoctial regions, have no darker description. skins than the mountaineers of the temperate zone. Besides,
White's Regular Gradation in Man, p. 63. every thing concurs to prove, that the Americans, as a distinct species, have less flexibility of organization than the other nations of Asia and Europe.
67. (Gen. iv. 16. 17.) If we believe the Mosaic account See HUMBOLDT's Researches in South America. to be literally true, another race of mankind besides that
descended from Adam, seems implied in the text: for we no
where read of Adam and Eve having any daughters, until 62. [Gen. ii. 7.) There were no Negroes, nor European | it is said their eldest son “Cain went out from the presence whites, to be found in the whole continent of America ; nor any of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of red copper-coloured Indians, either in Europe, Asia, or Africa. Eden. And Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and White's Regular Gradation in Man, p. 80. bare Enoch." Who then was Cain's wife, and whence did
she come ? (Ibid. p. 136.) It must hence appear that, as
the human race are not all the descendants of Adam, they 63. [Gen. i. 27.) From whatever cause it may arise, there cannot all be partakers of his guilt, unless we admit that actually subsists a characteristic difference in the bony sys- hereditary sin is not propagated naturally, but spiritually tem betwixt the European and the African. This difference infused by the seductive influence proceeding from evil minds. exists in the scall, in the sockets for the eyes, in the nose, in the chip, in both the upper and lower jaws, and in the po
islands, as also in the island of Borneo, which is held to
produce the best. It seems designed by Providence to 68. (Gen. i. 29.) And God said, Behold, I have given | supply mankind with food, in countries where no kind of you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all grain can be cultivated to any degree of perfection. The the earth, and every tree in which is the fruit of a tree soil most proper for it is a low marshy ground, where it yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.
rises to the height of twenty-five, and sometimes thirty feet, (Gen.i. 11.) Vegetable treasures were evidently cre- and is as thick as a man can compass with both his arms. ated for the sake of the animal kingdom. Were the earth The trunk is smooth, as all the leaves rise from the head, to produce nothing but plants, it would be in vain that the They spring at first upright and pointed, of the thickness, flowers adorned the meadows with their varied colouring, at the bottom, of a man's arm; by degrees they open, and and that the fruits suspended from the orchard, exhaled their decline their points, till they become as long as the tree is perfumes to a distance. Infinite Wisdom harmonizes the high. On the back of the leaves are strong sharp prickles, destiny of all their parts; creating vegetable products to that defend them from being eaten by beasts. As new leaves meet the wants of animals. The vegetable kingdom, indeed, shoot, the old ones decay. The Sagu grows thirty years possesses life, the principal characteristic of which is the before it produces fruit; and then, instead of new leaves, power of propagating and reviving. Still there is a radi. there shoots out at the top a firm piece of wood, of the size cal difference between vegetable and animal life. If of a man's arm, froin whence are produced flowers and fruit. you cut off the branch of tree, and re-plant it carefully, In the latter, which is of the size of a pigeon's egg, is conand in a fit season, another tree will spring up ; you tained a small nut of a black color, and sharp sour taste. It may even produce it again, as in the case of the willow, by bears but once; after which the tree gradually decays. But cleaving it in two. Life, in this manner, appears dissemi- very few of these trees are permitted to bear fruit, since it is nated throughout every part of a vegetable; a portion of from the body of the tree they procure that meal which is of its inside may be destroyed without injury to the whole ; a so great use. When the leaves grow white and hoary, the tree with a hollow trunk may still display a thriving foliage. trunk is cut down, barked, and cut into pieces of five feet Thus a vegetable wounded in one part thrives in the others long, which are each split through the middle. The body as before, while an animal feels the stroke throughout the of the tree being composed of a soft spongy matter interwhole frame.
mixed with ligneous fibres, the former is carefully separated St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, vol.ii. pp. 394, 406. from the latter; then mixed, tempered and rubbed, in water,
till it is reduced to a flour, in which form it settles to the
bottom of the vessels; and then, the water being poured off, 69 (Gen. i. 29) The banana plant is, perhaps, the most it is carefully dried, and becomes fit for use. The bread made useful in the world, as its fruit makes excellent food without of it is baked between earthen paus, in the form of square any art of cookery, having a most agreeable flavor and pos- tablets, six inches long, four broad, and about a finger sessing very nutrimental qualities. It produces on its sum- thick. What is intended to be kept longer, the Indians mit a cluster or aggregation of sixty or fourscore delicious have a method of graining, and it may be then preserved figs, which come to naturity all at once; and it pushes out for many years. The flour of Sagu is very light of digesshoots of every degree of magnitude, which bear in succession tion, nourishing and wholesome, exactly suited to the climate and at all times throughout the year.
in which it is used, and therefore in those countries there is It is the king of all fruits, not excepting even the cocoa. a vast consumption of it; and the Dutch transport great When stripped of its thick five-panneled skin it has been com- quantities to their remote settlements, where their soldiers pared to a large sausage; its substance and color, to fresh make it their principal food. Of late years considerable butter in winter; its taste, to a mixture of apple and of the quantities have been brought to England and Holland, where pear known by the name of the good christian ; which melts experience shews that it is a great restorative, and very fit in the mouth like marmalade. Thousands of families live for weak stomachis, which it strengthens by degrees, and in between the tropics on this pleasant, wholesome, and nou- time recovers the lost appetite, and helps digestion. rishing fruit alone.
Modern Part of Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 448. Note, Sce St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. ii. pp. 168, 286.
70. (Gen. vii. 8.) In the island of Madagascar, says Dr. GEDDES, there is a species of palm-tree called the raven ; under the membraneous covering of the flowers of which is found a gummy substance of exquisite taste,—which is the genuine palm-honey.
See his Critical Remarks, p. 462.
72. (Isa. vii. 15.) We learn from Mr. Park, that the centre of Africa affords a tree, resembling the American oak, with nuts like Spanish olives, which produces from the kernels of these nuts, by boiling, tree-butter, whiter and firmer, and of a richer flavor than that of cows' milk.--It will keep, without salt, the whole year.
71. (Gen. ii. 9.] The Sagu is one of the most numerous species of palms; it grows in most of the Molucca
73. (Gen. i. 29.] The bread-fruit-tree appears to support the most abundant population. Dr. Foster, comparing the parts of Otaheite, which are best cultivated, with those of