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iron in the metallic state, and very malleable. The largest of fifty first picked up, weighed but two pounds.
Monthly Mag. for Sep. 1814, p. 1 63.
the Romans, may be considered as similar to that blood-red we see in old tapestry.
See BERTHOLLET, on the Art of Dyeing,
translated by Hamilton, Introduc. p. xix.
6090. [Rev. xviii. 22.) At the earliest dawn of morning iu all the Hindoo towns and villages, the hand-mills are at work; when the menials and widows grind meal sufficient for the daily consumption of the family.
FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.
6091. [Rev. xix. 3.] In the month of September 1812, an intelligeul traveller observed something rising from the middle of the turnpike-road, which appeared like a quantity of steam or smoke, issuing rapidly from a narrow aperture (perhaps six or eight inches, he says, in diameter). This however, on a nearer approacli, was perceived to be dust; which immediately ascended, he says, in a compact column, to the height of fifty or sixty feet, where it expanded in an unusually still air, and was in about half a minute lost in the surrounding atmosphere. — Would not the same cause, acting on a body of water, have produced, he asks, what is commonly termed a water-spout ?
Monthly Mag. for Feb. 1815, p. 23.
6095. [Rev. xix. 17.) “ On a sudden,” says E. SwedenBORG, " the Sun of heaven appeared to the spirits of the planet Mercury, and in the midst thereof the Lord Himself encompassed with His solar circle : on seeing this, the spirits humbled themselves profoundly, and subsided. Then also, the Lord appeared from that Sun to the spirits of our earth, who, when they were men, saw Him in the world ; and they all one after another, thus several in order, confessed that it was the Lord Himself. At that instant also, the Lord ap-, peared from this Sup to the spirits of the planet Jupiter, who declared with open voice, that it was He Himself, whom they had seen on their earth, when the God of the universe appeared to them.” (Arcana, n. 7173.) – It was then even-tide here (on our earth).
Ibid. n. 7174. The great God of the universe is in the Sun of the angelic heaven.
Ibid. n. 9694. The Divine True Sphere proceeding from the Lord as a Sun is what shines in the heavens, enabling the augels not only to see, but also to understand.
Ibid. n. 9696.
6092. [ 8.] The Silk-like byssus: - The byssus, which the Scripture so often mentions, is a sort of silk, of a golden yellow, formed out of the beard or tuft of the Pinna longa, a large shell-fish of the muscle species found on the coasts of the Mediterranean sea. As to our silk made froin worms, it was unknown in the time of the Israelites, and the use of it did not become common on this side of the Indies, till more than five hundred years after Christ. See No. 6087.
Dr. A. Clarke's FLEURY, p. 75.
This angel was undoubtedly that FOURTH refracted appearance of the Creator in the Angelic Suw, called Jesus Christ; which, encompassed with a solar circlet, as the four prior Manifestations are, may be traly said to be the Fifth SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS that has shone on us tnen of this earth. Accordingly, says Dr. GREGORY, “The Indians tell us that they have outlived Four Suns already, and that this which we have is the Fifth from their beginning."
See his Posthumous Tracts, de Æris et
Epochis, p. 172.
In the heavens where loùe to the Lord is predominant, the light is flame-coloured, and the angels there are clothed in purple garments. In the heavens where wisdom is predominant, the light is bright-white, and the angels are clothed in white silk-like garments. — Byssinus is from bombya.
See SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love,
A man standing on a level plane, of infnite extent, will imagine that he stands in the centre of a basin. This is also, in some measure, the case with a persor standing on the level of the sea.
PRIESTLEY's Hist. of Vision, p. 703.
6094. (13.] The admired purple of the Antients, which on pain of death, none but the Cesars could wear among
6098. [-17, 18.] The enemy had cut down the trees, destroyed the village, and burnt all the corn and provender they could not carry off; the surrounding plain, de
6100. [ 1, 2.] He wbo has introduced himself interiorly and profoundly into infernal societies becomes like one bound in chains. Yet so long as he lives in the world, he feels not his chains : they are like soft wool or file silken threads, which he loves because they are pleasurable. But, after death, these chains, from soft, become hard; and instead of being pleasurable, they are galling.
SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,
[- 2. A thousand years] The time taken by any planet in wheeling round the sun, is its year. By the same rule, one term of the angels of God around the Sun of righteousness, must be such a year as it is here computed by : See John i. 51. Take an idea of the ascending and descending of the Angels of God in their revolutions about the Son of Man: Saturn is encircled by seven mooos; that nearest to him, performs its revolution in twenty-two hours and a half; and that which is the remotest, revolves in seventy-nine days and seven hours, turning like our moon, on its axis and about its plawet in precisely the same time.
As probably, the annual and diurnal revolutious of the angels of God may, in like manner, be com pleted in one and the same time ; hence perhaps the reason why the prophets, in referring to the eternal world, denote the same period or revolution of things by a year, or a day, as being perfectly equivalent. Angelic societies must be, in every respect, as moons to the Sun of heaven.
Every man has two memories; one ex. terior, the other interior : the exterior is proper lo bis bouy, but the interior proper to his spirit. Whatever things a man hears and sees, and is affected with, these are insinuated, as to ideas and ends, into his interior memory, without his being aware of it, and there remain ; so that not a single impression is lost, although the same things be obliterated in the exterior memory. The interior memory therefore is such, that there are inscribed in it all the particular things (yes, the most particular), which a man has at any time thought, spoke, or done (yes, which have appeared to him as shadow), with the inost minute circumstances, from his earliest infancy lo extreme old age. A man has with hin the memory of alf these things, when he comes into the other life; and he is successively brought into every recollection of them. This is the Book of his life, which is opened in the other life; and according to which he is judged.
SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 2474. When spirits come to a man, they enter into all bis inemory, and read the things contained therein as out of a book.
Ibid. n. 6811.
6102. (8.) It is now received as a general position of history, that those immense bodies of soldiers which spread
6106. [-13.] Hades, or Pluto was sometimes called by the antient Greeks the infernal Jupiter.
Univer. Hisl. vol. i. p. 62. 6107. [Rev. xx. 13.]
Achilles' deadly wrath num'rous souls
Globe, between the Tropics and beyond them, in the heart of a Continent, or in Islands, never could perceive, in the clouds below them, any thing but a gray and lead-coloured surface, without any variation whatever as to color, being always similar to that of a lake.
St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, voli ii.
The corrugations in the atmosphere of the sun are evidently caused by a double stratum of clouds : the lower whereof, or that which is next to the sun, consists of clouds less bright than those which compose the upper stratuin. The lower clouds are also more closely connected : while the upper ones are chiefly detached from each other, and permit us to see every where through them.- Perhaps this lower region is a set of dense opaque planetary clouds, like those in the gaseous spheres) upon our globe. In that case, their light is only the uniform reflection of the surrounding superior self-luminous region,
Phil. Trans. 1801, part ii. pp. 204, - 5.
6113. [Reo. xxi. 1.] From observations taken with a sevenfeet reflector, Dr. Herschel thinks himself anthorized to say that Saturn has two concentric rings ; of which the outer must be, in diameter, 204,883 iniles; elevated 2,839 miles above the inner or lower ring.
Vince's Astron. n. 490.
Wilhin those rings, Mr. John HADLEY informed the Royal Society, that he had discerned with his . reflecting telescope two belts; which, with the above-mentioned rings, will form round Saturn what Ezekiel saw around the earth, as four wheels or rings, one within another.
See Abs. Phil. Trans. R. S. pol. vi.
The hells which appertain to the spirits of the planet Venus, appear around that earth, and communi. cate not with the hells of the evil ones of our earth ; because they are altogether of another genius, and of another disposition. I have seen, says SWEDENBORG, some of those spirits, after their extreme sufferings, taken up into heaven.
Arcana, nn. 7250, 7251.
The heaven (in the intermediate world), where the men of the external church'are, is called sea, because their habitation in the spiritual world (surrounding our earth) appears at a distance, as it were, in a sea; for the celestial angels (there), who are angels of the supreme heaven, dwell as in an ethereal atmosphere, the spiritual angels, who are angels of the middle beaven, dwell as in an aerial atmosphere, and the spiritual-natural angels, who are angels of the ultimate (or lowest) heaven, dwell as it were in a watery atmosphere, which, as was observed, at a distauce appears like a sea.
SWEDENBORG's Apoc. Rev. n. 878.
6110. [Rev. xxi. 1.] No one gas is capable of retaining another in water: it escapes, not indeed instantly, as in a vacuum ; but gradually, as carbonic acid escapes into the almosphere from the bottom of a cavity cominunicating with it.
Dalton's Chem. Philos. part i. p. 202. Consequently the different gases, all but one, rise to their respective altitudes above the watery atmosphere.
6116. [-2.] A city, or body politic; which may be defined to be a multitude of men, united as one person, by
common power, for their common peace, defence, and benefit.
HOBBs's Tripos, part i. chap. vi. n. 8.
According to the system of the Indians, there are seven seas (or elastic atmospheres), in the centre of which lies the globe we inhabit. This the English have promised to explain in the third Volume of the Asiatic Researches.
BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 230. .
The city Jerusalem was originally built on two hills, encompassed with mountains, Ps. cxxv. 2. The Maccabees considerably enlarged it on the north, by enclosing a third hill. And Josephus says a fourth hill, called Bezetha, was joined to the city by Agrippa. This new city lay
All travellers who have at various seasons ascended to the summits of the highest mountains on this
6118. (Rev. xxi. 2. The holy city, new Jerusalem) Agrippa added to the old Jerusalem a fourth hill, north of the temple : this was called Bezetha, or the New City.
See JOSEPH. Wars, b. v. ch. iv. § 1, 2.
The very remarkable aerial phenomenon, called Fata Morgana, is sometimes observed from the harbour of Messina, in Sicily, and from some neighbouring places, at a certain height in the atmosphere. In fine summer-days, when the weather is calm, there rises above the great current a vapor, which acquires a certain density, so as to form in the atmosphere horizontal prisms, whose sides are disposed in such a manner, that when they come to their proper degree of perfection, they reflect and represent successively, for some time, the objects on the coast or in the adjacent country. They exhibit by turns the city and suburbs of Messina, trees, animals, men, and mountains. See No. 6040. See Voyage Pittoresque des Isles de
Sicile, &c. par M. HOUEL.
6123. (Red. xxi. 16.] The colors into which a beam of white light is separable by refraction, appear to me, says Dr. WOLLASTON, to be neither seven, as they are usually seen in the rainbow, nor reducible by any means (that I can find) to three, as some persons have conceived; but, by employing a very narrow pencil of light, four primary divisions of the prismatic spectrum inay be seen, with a degree of distinctness that, I believe, has not been described nor observed before. If a beam of day-light be admitted into a dark room by a crevice one-twentieth of an inch broad, and received by the eye at the distance of ten or twelve feet, through a prism of flint-glass, free from veins, held near the eye, the beam is seen to be separated into the four following colors only, red, yellowish-green, blue, and violet.
Phil. Trans. 1802, part ii. p. 378.
6120. [-14.] There are twelve degrees of color, in the gradatious to white; and twelve others, to black.
HUTTON'S Recreations, vol. ii. p. 319.
A given volume of water absorbs its bulk of (red) carbonic acid, of sulphuretted hydrogen, and of nitrous oxide gas. In olefiant gas, the (refracted) distance of the (abso bed) particles (yellowish-green) within water is just twice that without, as is inferred from the density being one-eighth. In oxygenous gas, nitrous gas, carburretted hydrogen, and carbonic oxide, the (refracted) distance (blue) is three times as great ; and in azotic gas, hydrogenous gas, and carbonic oxide (all blue), four times as great.
DALTON's Chem. Philos. part i. pp. 200,
Those bodies, of which the composition has not been ascertained by conclusive experiment, are considered by modern Chemists as in reality simple. Bodies of this kind are known by the qualified term bases, or radicals. At present, the number of these bases is considerable ; but, from the industry of the Chemists, we may reasonably expect that it will he gradually diminished, and that means will be discovered by which some of these bases may be reduced to their (in all, twelve) elementary principles.
JACQUIN's Chemistry, by Stutzer, p. 6.
6122. (16.) Mr. Derham, observing very nicely the variations of the mercury from the bottom to the top of the Monument in London), found that at the height of eightytwo feet it fell one tenth of an inch, and two tenths at 164 feet; and repeating the same experiment, his observations agreed exactly with the first trial.
At the top of Snowdon Hill in Wales, which is 1240 yards high, Dr. Halley found
6125. [-16, 17.] The description here given is plainly that of a city built on a hill; having the wall of a proper and moderate height (140 cubits), lying four-square, and surrounding the base; whilst the hill (within the wall) rises gradually on every side, from the wall to the centre; where its utinost height is equal to the length of the wall on any one side: in consequence of which, the streets would become visible on the outside of the city, above the walls (as they are said to be); and it may be conceived to contain every thing that can make its glory and majesty complete, commanding in every part extensive views, free from all interruptions; and forming the most glorious scenery to an approaching beholder,
King's Morsels of Criticism, p. 45. 6126. (Rev. xxi. 17.] This man or angel, which measured a hundred, forty and four cubits, may well be called the Grand Man of the New Christian-Heaven, being the glorified Jesus CHRIST. - In this Image of God, as in a mirror, it seems, a representation of the Holy City Jerusalem was taken off hy the light of God, and represented to the sight of John's spirit, as images on Earth are taken off and represented by a natural light, in a proper medium, to the view of a man's corporeal sight.-- The sphere that circulates around from the feet to the head of this Image of God, being in a globular form, causes Jesus Christ to be denominated The SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS. · Hence, in this spherical form, the Holy Ciry could appear in its proper dimensions foursquare.
The atmosphere which surrounds us, is composed of twentyseven parts of oxygen gas and seventy-three of azote or nitrogen gas, which are simply diffused together, but which, when combined, become nitrous acid. Water consists of eighty-six parts oxygen, and fourteen parts of hydrogen or inflammable air, in a state of combination. It is also probable, that much oxygen enters the composition of glass; as those materials which promote vitrification, contain so much of it, as kinium and manganese; and that glass is hence a solid acid in the temperature of our atmosphere, as water is a fluid one.
Darwin's Temple of Nature, canto iii.
According to the Egyptian canon of proportions in painting, the human figure was divided into twenty-two parts and a half; of which the head took up two and two-thirds, or the eighth of the whole, corresponding in this respect with the heroic style among the Greeks.
A man of exact proportion should be eight spans high; the length from the hand to the bend of the elbow should be two spans; the arm should ineasure a span and a quarter, the extent of the span being that of the individual. All the other bones, whether great or small; the bones of the leg, the vertebræ, the bones of the fingers, are alike subject to certain rules, as well for the dimensions, whence their particular form results, as the proportions they reciprocally bear to each other. The same holds good in all the other parts of the frame, whether exterual or internal, as the depression of the sinciput below the summit of the head with elevation above all that surrounds it, the extent of the forehead, and of tire two arches of the eyebrows, the sinking of the two temples, the elevation of the two cheek bones, the flat form of the cheeks, the blunt blade of the nose, the softness of the cartilage that forms the point of it, the opening of the nostrils, the breadth of the isthmus by which they are separated, the thickness of the lips, the roundness of the chin, the cutting and rounded form of the two jaws, and many other particulars which it is almost impossible to describe, and which can only be well comprehended by the eye, by dissection, and diligent inspection of the parts.
Abd Allarie's Relation respecting Egypt.
Pinkerton's Coll. part \xiv. p. 812.
6130. [Rev. xxi. 18.] There is a species of talc, conmonly known amongst us by the name of Muscovy Glass, because brought to us generally from that country, It abounds particularly in the islaud of Cyrus, where it lies four or five feet under the surface, almost throughout the whole island: We have it also from Africa and Arabia, and it has been discovered to abound in the Alps, the Appenines, and many of the mountains of Germany. It is a beautiful fossil; of an equal, reyalar, and elegantly-laininated structure; and is usually found in inasses ten or twelve inches in breadth, and from half an inch to three inches in thickness. These are of a smooth and even surface, except at the edges, where the joinings of various aud innumerable Aakes make a multitude of thin ridges: which being separated by the edge of a knife, or other means, the mass readily splits into very thin laminæ, of an extraordinary brightness and transparency. Its color is of a fiue clear, white, resembling that of the purest glass ; but there is another still more elegant species of this fossil, called red (alc, found in Muscovy and Persia, which, though reddish in the masses, is seldom brought to us except in such thin plates as to have no remains of its color distinguishable. — The Autients made windows of this pellucid stone, and at present it is used by miniature painters to cover their pictures. The best sort of lanterns are also made of it instead of horn, and minute objects are usually laid between two plates of it for examination by the microscope.
6131. (-18 - 21.] Thin transparent plates, fibres, and particles, do, according to their several thicknesses and densities, reflect several sorts of rays, and thereby appear of several colors ; and by consequence, nothing more is requisite, for producing all the colors of natural bodies, than the several sizes and densities of their transparent particles. From a variety of experiments and facts, it appears, that all The metals, when united with glass, actually do, without any exception, exbibit colors in the order of their densities, as under : Gold - Red; Lead — Orange; Silver
Yellow; Copper - Green ; Iron - Blue; &c. — Tin is not capable of
6129. [-18. The city was pure gold, like unto clear glass} Of all metals gold in color, comes nearest to the radiancy of fire.
Nat. Delin, vol, iii. p. 292.