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p. 199.

6047. [ 16, &c.] All Christians were outlawed by the Romans through the influence of Menander.

6053.

The Grapes intended for white wine are pressed immediately after they are gathered ; but those for red wine, are not pressed till they have been trodden, or squeezed between the hands; and the skins and pulp have stood together in the vat to acquire (by fermentation) the requisite tincture. - All white wine is not made from white grapes : the very best and whitest, even that of Champaign, which has the complexion of crystal, is produced by the blackest grapes. — It is found by experience, that (fermevted) wines are paler or of a deeper red, according as the juice of the skins is inter mixed with that of the pulp in a Ass or greater degree.

Smith's Wonders of Nature and Arl,

dol. i. p. 153.

6048. [-16, 17.] The Pagans in India have on the forehead certain marks which they consider as sacred, and by which you may know to what sect they belong, and what Deity they worship.

6049.

When the Indians paint marks of this kind on their forehead, they always repeat certain forms of prayer, in honor of the deity to whom these marks are dedicated. At the time of public ablutions, this marking is performed by the priest, who paints with his fiager the foreheads of all those who have already purified themselves.

6054. [Red. xv. 2. Mingled with fire] In the year 1811, a volcano broke out in the sea, five leagues west of the port of St. Michael's, and half a league from the land, in fifty or ing on oue side Greece and Macedon, and on the other Caria, Ionja, and Phrygia.

Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 447.

sixty fathoms water ; the wind was a gale froin the southward, and blew the smoke over the land. The sea was excessively agitated, and the surf on the shore was dreadful. Fire issued forth at various times, like a number of rockets discharged together. Large masses of stone or lava were continually throwo above the surface of the sea. days it entirely subsided, leaving a shoal ou which the sea breaks.

Public Prints.

In eight

6059. [Rev. xvi. 4.) The quantity of pure water, which Blood, in its natural state, coutains, is very considerable, and makes almost seven eighths thereof.

MACQUER's Chem. p. 575.

over

6055. (Red. xv. 2.) On ascending up the side of a hill from a misty valley, I have observed a beautiful-coloured halo round the inoon when a certain thickuess of mist was me, which ceased to be visible as soon as I emerged out of it; and well remember adıniring with other spectators the shadow of the three spires of the cathedral church at Lichfield, the moon rising behind it, apparently broken off, and lying distivctly over our heads as if horizontally on the surface of the mist, which arose about as high as the roof of the church.

Dr. DARWIN.

6060. (-- 6. For they [from a murderous spirit in themselves) have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them a blood to drink ; for they are worthy] Thus devils are perinitted to drink ; see Jer. XXV. 27.

Simmers on earth, and devils after death ; eat not the flesh and blood of the Son of man, but the bestial spheres that have an animal appearance around all the infernal societies, characteristic of their respective qualities.

6056. [Rev. xvi. 1.) A remarkable water-spout fell on Emoti-moor, near Colne in Lancashire, June 30, 1718, about ten in the morning, where several persons were digging peat. On a sudden they were so terrified with an unusual noise in the air, that they left their work and ram home: but to their great surprise, they were intercepted by water; for a small brook in the way was risen above six feet perpendicular in few miuutes, and had overflowed the bridge. There was no rain at that time on Emnott-inoor, only a mist, which is very frequent on those high mountains in siminer. There was a great darkness in the place where the water fell, without either thunder or lightning. The ground also was there torn up to the very rock, about seven feet deep, and a deep gulf made for above half a mile, vast heaps of earth twenty feet over and six or seven feet thick being cast up on each side of it. About ten acres of ground were destroyed by this food.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. vi. p. 440.

6061. [

8.] A water-spout, raised off the land, in Deeping-Pen, Lincolnshire, was seen, May 5th, 1752, about seven in the evening, moving on the surface of the earth and water with such violence and rapidity, that it carried every thing before it, such as grass, straw, and stubble ; spouting out water from its own surface, lo a considerable height, and with a terrible noise. In its way towards Weston hills and Moulton chapel, it tore up a field of turnips, broke a gate off the hinges, and another into pieces. Those who saw eva-, porate, affirm it ascended into the clouds in a long spearing vapor, and at last ended in a fiery stream.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. x. p. 271.

6062. [-13.] Pythagoras is said to have been the first (iu Greece) who taught the immortality of the soul. As to the transmigration of souls, which was the principal part of his philosophy, some writers say, he meant only the sensitive soul or vital principle of the animal.

Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 432.

6057. [-2.] In Africa, the children of the Mandingoes, soon after baptisın, are marked in different parts of the skin, in a manner resembling what is called tatowing in the South-Sea Islands.

Mungo Park's Travels, p. 270.

6063. (18.) The material cause of thunder and lightning, and of earthquakes, is one and the same, viz, the inflammable breath of the pyrites: the difference is, that one is fired in the air, the other underground.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. iji. p. 18.

6058. [-3. The sea the Archipelago, formerly called the Ægean sea : it separates Europe from Asia, wash

6064.

Popayan, in South America, is remarkably subject to tempests of thunder and lightning, and of

earthquakes; which, says ULLOA (book vi. chap. iii), may be conjectured to proceed from the great number of its mines.

Vol. i. p. 341.

6069. [Rev. xvii. 3.) The Antients applied the name scarlet to the color obtained from kermes, which was much inferior in beauty to the color we distinguish by that appellation.

BERTHOLLET, on Dyeing, translated by

Hamilton, vol. i. p. xxiv.

6065. (Rev. xvi. 19.) It appears that Babylon occupied on the Eastern Bank of the Euphrates a space of ground six leagues in length. Throughout this space bricks are found, by means of which daily additions are made to the town of Hale. Upon many of these are characters written with a nail similar to those of Persepolis.

VOLNEY.

6070. (4.) At Rome, the amphitheatre of Titus was adorned with statues representing the several provinces of the Roman empire, in the middle whereof stood that of Rome, holding a golden apple (an orange) in her hand.

Smith's Wonders of Nature and Art,

vol. ii. p. 48.

6071.

The colors of bodies have no other origin than this, that they are variously qualified to reflect one sort of light in greater plenty than another.

Sir Isaac NEWTON.

6066. [21.] Mezeray, in his history of France, tells us of a terrible shower of hail, which happened in the year 1510, when the French inonarch invaded Italy. There was, for a time, a horrid darkness, thicker than that of midnight, which continued till the terrors of mankind were changed to still more terrible objects, by thunder and lightning breaking the glooin, and bringing on such a shower of hail, as no history of human calamities could equal. These hail-stones were of a bluish color; and some of them weighed not less than a hundred pounds. A voisome vapor of sulphur attended the storm. All the birds and beasts of the country were entirely destroyed. Numbers of the human race suffered the same fale. But what is still more extraordinary, the fishes themselves found no protection from their native element, but were equal sufferers in the general calamity.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c.

vol. i. p. 371.

6072. [---5.) At Babylon, the capital of the Assyrian empire, chastity was so little valued, thal a law of the country even obliged every woman once in her life to depart from it. See No. 609. Dr. W. ALEXANDER's History of Women,

vol. i. p. 225.

6073.

The Fathers of the Church tell us, that the Pagans under the venerable name of inysteries consecrated prostitutions, and other more heinous crimes, and call the assemblies of Ceres schools of abominations and debaucheries.— The mysteries of Ceres, with Egyptian ceremonies, were translated from Athens to Rome by the emperor Adrian, and never totally abolished till the reign of Theodosius the elder. - Ceres was deified about the year 1007, before Christ.

Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 5.

6067.

In the Orkney Islands the winters are generally more subject to rain thau snow; nor do the frost and snow continue so long bere as in the other parts of Scotland, but the wind in the mean time will often blow very boisterously, and it rains sometimes, not by drops, but by spouts of water, as if whole clouds fell down at once. In the year 1680, in the month of Juve, after great thunder, there fell fakes of ice nearly a foot thick.

WALLACE.

6074. [- 8.] At a clear break of day, persons standing on the top of Ætua, which is considerably raised above the regiou of common air, may plainly see the whole island of Sicily, and all the towns thereof, as if it were elevated and hanging in the air, near the eye, just as, by refraction, stones lying at the bottom of a pond appear nigh the surface of the water.

Phil. Trans. of R. S. vol. i. p. 637.

6068.

M. le VAILLANT, describing a terrible and destructive storm which overtook him on the borders of a lake not far from Galgebos, says, " The hail which fell was as large as pullets' eggs.”

Travels in Africa, vol. i. p. 147.

6075.

On Wednesday July 26th, 1797, WILLIAM LATHAM, Esq. being inforined tbat the Coast of France

[graphic]

might plainly be distinguished from the Sea-side at Hastings sun of the cross and those at the ends of the horizontal circle, by the naked eye, weut down from his house there imme- were other two mock suns, of the same kind and size, one diately to the shore, and was surprised to find that, even on each side ; so that in this horizontal circle were five mock without the assistance of a Telescope, he could very plainly suns, at equal distances from each other, and in the same see the cliffs on the opposite coast; which, at the nearest line the real sun, all at equal heights from the horizon. 40 , are

very near

best glasses. — He then went upon the Eastern Cliff, which is of very bright and beantiful colors, not an entire semicircle, a considerable height, from wbence he could at once see with the middle of the convex side turned towards the sun, Dover Cliffs, and the French Coast, all along from Calais, which lowered as the sun descended. This phenomenon Boulogne, &c. to St. Vallery; and as far to the westward continued in all its beauty and lustre till about half after two. even as Dieppe. By the Telescope, the French fishing-boats The cross went gradually off first; then the horizontal circled were plainly to be seen at Anchor; and the different colors of began to disappear in parts, while in others it was visible; the land upon the heights, together with the buildings, were then the three mock suns farthest from the sun, the two in perfectly discernible. This curious phenomenon continued in the sun's circle continuing longest ; the rainbow began to the bighest splendor (though a black cloud totally obscured decrease after these ; and last of all the sun's circle, but it the face of the sun for some time) from about 5 till past was observable at three o'clock, or after it. 8 o'clock in the afternoon, when it gradually vanished.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. xvi. p. 182. He learnt that the same phenomenon bad been equally visible

W See on Chap. xxi. 18 - 21. p at Winchelsea, and other places along the coast.

a ba o dia do ad deumow

6076. [Rev. xvii. 8.] When John wrote the Revelations, Oracles had ceased. They revived, when the image of the Beast spoke, ch. xiji. 15. This was what the world wondered at.

6077. (10.) Parhelions, or mock Suus, are observed in Iceland chiefly at the approach of the Greenland ice, when an intense degree of cold is produced, and the frozen vapors fill the air: there are many instances proving, that under such circumstances, the sun never appears without shewing one or several parhelions, and often a rainbow (from the melting or the rising of the frozen vapors) on the opposite side.

PINKERTON's Coll. vol. i. p. 643, note.

6078.

At Fort Gloucester in North America, a little before two o'clock P. M. January 22d, 1771, was observed a very large circle or halo round the sun, within which the sky was thick and dusky, the rest of the hemisphere being clear; and, a little inore than one-third way from the horizou to the zenith, was a beautifully enlightened circle, parallel to the horizon, which went quite round, till the two ends of it terminated in the circle that surrounded the sun; where, at the points of intersection, they each formed a luminous appearance about the size of the sun, and so like him when seen through a thick hazy sky, that they might very easily have been taken for him. Directly opposite to the suu was a luminous cross, in the shape of St. Andrew's Cross, cutting at the point of intersection the horizontal circle, where was formed another mock sun, like the other two mentioned above. And directly balf-way between the

which grows in the greatest perfection in Anam or Cochin-china.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i. p. 36.

6088. (Red. xvii. 15.] As upon viewing the bottom of the ocean from its surface, we see an infinity of animals moving therein, and seeking food ; so were some superior being to regard the earth at a proper distance, he might, consider us in the same light : he might, from his superior slation, behold a number of busy little beings, immersed in the aerial fluid, that every where surrounds them, and sedulously employed in procuring the means of subsistence. This auid, though too fine for the gross perception of its inhabitants, might, to his nicer organs of sight, be very visible; and, while he at once saw into its operations, he might smile at the varieties of human conjecture concerning it: he might readily discern, perhaps, the height above the surface of the earth to which this fuid atmosphere reaches: he might exactly determine that peculiar form of its parts, which gives it the spring or elasticity with which it is endued; he might distinguish which of its parts were pure incorruptible air, aud which only made for a little time to assume the appearance, so as to be quickly returned back to the element from whence it came. But as for us who are immersed at the bottom of this golf, we must be contented with a more confined knowledge ; and wanting a proper point of prospect, remain satisfied with a combination of the effects.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c.

vol. i. p. 298.

6087. (Rev. xviii. 12.) The Byssus of the Antients, according to Aristotle, was the beard of the Pinna, or Sea-wing, but seems to have been used by other writers indiscriminately for any (such as cotton) span material, which was esteemed finer or more valuable than wool. Reaumur says the threads of this Byssus are not less fine or less beautiful thau the silk, as it is spon by the silk-worm; the Pinua ou the coasts of Italy and Provence (where it is fished up by irva-hooks fixed on long poles) is called the silk-worm of the sea. The stockings and gloves manufactured from it, are of exquisite fineness, but too warm for commou wear, aud are thence esteemed useful in rheumatism aud gout.

Darwin's B. G. vol. i. p. 74. N.

6088. [- 17.] The late improvements io navigation enable a man in two years, to travel twenty-seven thousaud miles !

Nat. Delin, vol. ji. p. 302.

6084.

The quantity of water contained in the air, even in the driest weather, is very considerable. We may be said to walk in an ocean ; the water indeed of this ocean does not, ordinarily, become the object of our senses ; we cannot see it, nor, whilst it continues dissolved in the air, do we feel that it wets us; but it is still water, though it be neither tangible nor visible; just as sugar, when dissolved in water, is still sugar, though we can neither see it nor feel it.

Watson's Chem. vol. iii. p. 85.

6089. [-21.] On the first of April 1812, about eight o'clock in the evening, a brilliant light was seen in the atmosphere at Toulouse, and for several leagues around: this was followed by a very loud noise. A few days afterwards it was discovered that this phenomenon had been accompanied with a shower of stones, two leagues W.N.W.of Grenade. The light which was continuous, and riot instantaneous like that of lightning, appeared spread over the atmosphere all at once and for some time. Though the sun had set for an hour and a half, and the air was dark, the liglit was so brilliant that the mayor of Grenade could read the smallest characters in the streets of the town; and the mayor of Camville compared it to the light of the sun, adding that the town-clock was as visible as at noon-day, and that a pin might have been picked up in the streets. The sky around being dark, the body which produced the light could not be seen. Scarcely bad it disappeared, in the place where the aerolites fell, when there were heard in the air, three strong detonations, similar to the report of large pieces of cannon: they succeeded each other rapidly, and alınost without any interval. They were beard twenty leagues from the spot where the stones fell; and were followed by a very loud noise, which soine compared to that of several heavy carriages rolling at once on the pavement. After this subsided, a sharp hissing was heard, which ended in considerable shocks, similar to grape-shot striking the ground : these phenomena were produced by the fall of the aerolites, which consist of a homogeneous paste of a story nature, containing a very great quantity of sınall particles of

6085. [Rev. xviii. 4.) What is opposite takes away, it also exalts, perceptions and sensations : it takes them away, when it commixes itself; it exalts them, when it is not commixed. Hence the Lord exquisitely separates what is good from what is evil in inan, that they be not coinmixed ; as He separates heaven from hell.

SwedenBORG, on Divine Providence, n. 24.

6086. [- - 12.] Sweet wood : This is the fragrant wood, called alluwwa in Arabic and aguru in Sanscrit,

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