enlightened him by reason, which may be defined the knowledge of what is suitable to his nature (from past experi. ence), and had not (the desire of) this been firmly implanted in his breast. It is to the powers of reason that man, alone of all organized beings, is indebted for the cousciousness of 'the existence of a Supreme Governor; a consciousness resulting from the harmonies of the universe. Hence arises the sentiment of virtue, which is an effort made by us to relinquish selfish objects for the sake of our fellow-inen, in the hope of doing what is pleasant in the eyes of God. Virtue may therefore be called the true harmony of man, not only when considered as a medium between the two extremes, but as resulting from love of God and of our fellow-creatures.

St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, vol. iii.

pp. 9, 10,

the years of Christ 241 and 272) made two decrees which proved very severe against the Jews: By the first, they were excluded from eating with Christians, as they had commonly done till then ; and, though the penalty fell only on the Christians, who were excommunicated by it for eating with a Jew, yet it put the latter to very great inconveniences, and made them liable to insults and contempt. By the other, all possessors of lands were forbidden, under the same penalty, to suffer the fruits of the earth to be blessed by Jews, because their blessing reudered that of the Christians abortive. This custom of blessing the fruits of the earth at certain seasons was common to Pagaus and Jews, as well as Christians; but who would liave imagined, that the latter should have made use of either of the former, if this decree had not informed us of it? However, both this and the other decree plainly shew, that the Jews had lived very peaceably in Spain, and in good harınony with the Christians, till then, wliatever they may have done since.

Modern Univcr. llist. vol. xiii. p. 186.

5565. [1 Cor. iv. 16.] There never was a sect of men, religious or philosophical, who, though they pretended to follow or endeavoured to follow some founder whose books they had among them, but gradually varied from their founder.


5569. [1 Cor. v. 13. That wicked perso.] llad this been natural fornication, there would have been two wicked persons. See John viii.


5570. [1 Cor. vi. 1.) At Athens the archbishop holds a kind of tribunal at which the Christians frequently agree to decide their differences, without the intervention of the Turk. ish magistrale.

Sruart's Athens, vol. i. p. 10.

5566. [1 Cor. v. 1.] This kind of fornication, which was a partaking with the Jews in their sacraments, could not be named among the Gentiles, because their so partaking would not liave been in them idolatrous fornication but spiritual conjunction with the One Living and True God. — The Father's wife, is evidently the Jewish Church in reference to the Christian, its offspring or descendant. — The devising of idols was the beginning of (spiritual) fornication, and the inventiou of them the corruption of life. For neither were they from the beginning, neither shall they be for ever.

For by the vain glory of men they entered into the world, and therefore shall they come shortly to an end. Wisdom' xiv. 12 – 14.

In those days freedom of speech being not allowed, the Jewish Church is pradently called the Christian's " father's wife”.

5571. (4.) Exouthenemenoi (Grk.) siguifies only private judges, or arbitralors of men's own chusing ; such as were in use among the Jews, but not settled as a standing court by the Sanhedrim.

Bingham's Antiq. vol.i. p. 37.


Set ye up therefore secular judgment seats, if ye account these persons contemplible in the church.


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5573. [20. Ye are bought with a price] The price is not, in this case, paid to any but the person bought : “As many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God." John i. 12.

5568. [- 11.) The council of Elvira in Spain, which is coinmooly placed under the reign of Sapor (that is, between

5574. (1 Cor. vii. 1.] As Jesus Christ had pronounced a wo on those that were with child, and on those that gave suck

each other for husband and wife. A certificate of the proceedings is then publicly read, and signed by the parties,

Month. Mag. for Feb. 1812, p. 32.

ans, it seems, had enquired of the Apostle, whether, on that account, husbands were to keep from their wives, during the days of famine and tribulation which should then come on the land of Jewry, and on Jerusalem.

5579. [1 Cor. vii. 26.] It is good for a man thus to be (namely): Art thou bound to a wife ? &c.

5580. [-- 36.] If she (the betrothed virgin) be passing the flower of her age, &c.

5575. [

-2.] By monogamy the affection between parents and children is preserved, and that also between hus. band and wife.

A provision is made for the fulfilment of this law, in the production of the two sexes, so nearly equal in number throughout the World. If there be rather more women born to the South, there are rather wore inen born to the North ; as if the CREATOR meant to attract and unite Nations the most remote from each other by means of intermarriages.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. i. p. 299. As the two sexes are born and die in nearly equal numbers, every man who prefers celibacy to the married state, dooms female, at the same time, to a single life. Hcb. xiii. 4. Gen. ii. 18.

Ibid. p. 3733.


5381. [1 Cor. viii. 1.] That very air, which by its external pressure threatens every moment to crusli us to death, makes at the same time as violent an attempt within to puff us up, and tear our whole frame to pieces. Yet these two formidable powers, pressure and elasticity, are so duly teinpered by the Creator, that the destructive impetuosity of the one is coinpletely balanced by the exonerating activity of the olher.

See Nar. Delin. vol. iii. p. 195.


In ludia, all young wonen, without exception, must marry. One of the chief objects of every father, whether Christian or Payan, is to procure husbands for his daugliters; and when he is not able to give them portions, he is assisted either by the caste to which he belongs, or by the Christian congregation of which he is a member.

Christian young women, who have no property, always receive a dowry, either from the congregation or the treasury of the church, or the fines imposed on the rich.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, pp. 151, 198.

5582. [3.] The same is distinguished.

See Mr. Peter's Preface to his Critical

Dissertation on the Book of Job.

5577. (8.) When Paul says hos kago (Grk.), even as I, le means that he himself was a widower ; for several of the Antients rank bim amoug the married apostles.


5583. [4.] “ Idol comes from the Greek eidos, a figure, cidolos, the representation of a figure, latreuein, 10 serve, to revere, to adore. - The word idolater or idola. try, does not occur in llomer, Hesiod, Herodotus, or any Gentile author. Never was there any edict or law ordering, inlols to be worshipped, to be accounted as deitics, or to be considered as such. — The error was not the worshipping a piece of wood or marble, but the worshipping a false deity (a mau generally) represented by the wood and marble.”


5578. [-9. Let them marry] In the society of Quakers, those who intend to marry, appear together and propose their intention to the Monthly-meeting ; and, if not attended by their pareuts or guardians, produce a written certificate of their consent, sigued in the presence of witnesses. The meeting then appoints a committee to enquire whether they be clear of other engagements respecting marriage; and, if at a subsequent ineeting no objection be reported, they have the nieeting's consent to solemnize the intended marriage. This is done in a public meeting for worship, towards the close whereof the parties stand up, and solemnly take


To bow before idols and images, in the Christian world particularly, is idolatrous; but not in all : for there are somne, to whom images serve as means of exciting them to think of God. By virtue of influx from heaven, he who acknowledges God, wishes to see llim ; and as personis of sensual minds cannot, like those who are interiorly spiritual, elevate their thoughts above visible objects, they awaken in themselves an idea of Him from a statue or graven image. They who do this, and do not adore the image itself as God, if they live also according to the precepts of the Decalogue from a principle of religion, are saded.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 254.

so was baptism also to the children and infants of the Proselytes.

Echard's Ecclesias. Ilistory.

5590. [1 Cor. x. 2.] By the Jews proselytes were not only circumcised, but baptized, in order, says the Talmud, to wash away the filth of heathenisin.

1 Macc. i. 15. Rom. ji. 25. Univer. Hist. vol. iji.

5585. [1 Cor. viii. 6.] The Apostle here calls the Father God, and the mediating Image Lord; a distinction which should never be forgot, as it shews the reason why Jesus Christ was not called Lord till after his glorification, when he became the express image of the Father's person, the inage of his glory;

one with the Father, as the Sun and its Image in our atmosphere are one Sun under a twofold exhibition.

p. 294.


11. Through thy knowledge shall the weak brother perish, for whom Christ died] The man for whom Christ died, may still perish. Hear and understand, ye Prodestinarians !

See Wh1TBY, in loco. See No. 1227.

5591. [

-'11.) A type, in the proper sense of the word, is a mould, a pattern, or a casting ; its antitype is the original, whence such imitative figure or representation has been either naturally, spiritually, or artificially taken. — Thus in the time of our Saviour and his Apostles, the Jews were often confuted and silenced by the application of types and prophecies, which were then acknowledged to belong to the MESSIAH (the great Antitype of the Old Testament); but in many cases they would scarcely be so understood by us, if we did not find them thus interpreted and applied (as above),

See Dr. JENKIN, Reasonableness, 8c. vol. ii. p. 258.

See also Heb. viij. 5. jx. 6, &c. Man, superstitious from his birth, soon atlaches himself to the type, whilst be overlooks the idea of which it is the emblem, lays hold of the image to substitute it in place of the thing represented, and by this means becomes, as it were, more religious without improving his conduct. There is little reason to doubt, that idolatry and superstition had their origin in syrnholical and mysterious language, which, covering truth with a veil, exhibited her only under emblematical appearances.

Halle. See Sir John SINCLAIR's Code

of Health, vol. iii. p. 284.

5587. (1 Cor. ix. 22.] In the same way Clitophon, having received a letter from Leucippe, says: " When I read the contents, I became all things at once : I was inflamed; I grew pale ; I was struck with wonder ; I doubted; I rejoiced ; I became sad.

See Achilles Tatius, lib. v. c. xix.

5588. - 25.] The life of luxury is not the natural life of man; nor the state to behold his faculties, either of body or mind, in their grealest perfection. As it enervates the powers of both ; it renders the body more obnoxious to disease, and the mind to degeneracy. In every highly polished and luxurious state, the number of physicians proves the one, and the ríumber of mad-houses the other.

WALKER's Essays, p. 109.

5592. [ 16. Is it not the communion >] Partaken of hy a mixture of families as they usually live together in Eastern cities, in contiguous apartments arranged on the four sides of a spacious and central court. From cloisters on the first floor and galleries thrown over them ou every side of those courts, we are conducted,” says Dr. SHAW, "into large spacious chambers, of the same length with the court, but seldom or never communicating one with another. One of them frequently serves a whole family; particularly when a father indulges his married children to live with him; or when several persous join in the rent of the same house", See Luke v. 19.

5589. [1 Cor. x. 2.] Baptism was the form or ceremony of adopting children. It was an autient custom among the Jews, and many ages before our Lord's appearance in the world. Many account it as antient as the times of the patriarch Jacob; but most agree that it was practised before the delivery of the law in the wilderness (to which the Apostle probably alludes here, as he does evidently in Lebrews ix. 19). And as circumcision was used to the childreu of the Jews,

5593. [-23.) What is altogether lawful for me, is not altogether expedient : what is altogether lawful for me, doas not altogether edify,

5594. [1 Cor. 8.25. Shambles] Perhaps, a contraction of shaded ambles or covered walks. At Hamadau in Persia, merchandise of every description is to be found, whether of provision or for clothing ; and all the streets in which these are sold, called bazars, are arched over, a common practice throughout Persia.

Pietro Delle Valle. See Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. ix. p. 18. There are such shambles in England ; particularly at Chester, and in York.

For an account of what used to be sold in the shambles, see Nehem. xiii, 15, 16.

5599. (1 Cor. xi. 5.) To uncover the head before superiors, and even in the presence of subordinates, the priests, is contrary to a Jewish custom, which obliges all disciples to veil their faces where they attend as disciples or learners (ch. xiv. 35).

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 509. Among the Moravians, deaconesses are retained, for the purpose of privately admonishing their own sex, and visiting them in their sickness; but they are not permitted to teach in public, and far less to administer the sacrainents.

Dr. Robinson's Theolog. Dict,

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5596. [- 31.] An agreeable beverage is said to have been formerly prepared by the Picts from the bloom of heath or heather; though the secret of preparing it is supposed to have been lost, when that antient race became extinct. A vegetable which covers so many thousand miles, and that so closely, is almost to exclude every other vegetable, must possess qualities highly beneficial to the regions where it is so exuberant. Having a fine aromatic flavor, and an agrexable and somewhat sweet taste, and the bees, who are deemed the best judges of vegetable sweets and the best extractors of them, being found to prefer the bloon of heath to all other flowers, it se ms to follow of course that there is a very strong sweet in the bloom of heath, which, if gathered at the proper season, might be couverted into a wholesome and palatable liquor.

Farmer's Mag. No. 36.

6601. [8,9.) The Shechinah, the Word, the Christ in human form, produced man in bis own image immediately out of himself, and woman mediately out of the man. - From BREWSTER's experiments, as recorded in the Phil

. Trans. of the Royal Society, it appears ; that a soft animal substance which has no particular action on light acquires, from simple pressure, Inat peculiar structure which ena. bles it to form two images polarised in an opposite manner, like those produced by all double reftacting crysta

Phil. Trans. for 1815, part i. p. 64.

5596. [1 Cor. xi. 4.] To prophesy, is to expound or preach the Prophets : The man of the Church might expound both the Law and the Prophets ; the woman of the Church, the Prophets only.

5602. (10.) The learned Gothofred would have us read here, Dia touto opheilei he gune exoubian (exuvium) echein epi tes kephales, dia las agelas, or agelaious (Grk.): and then the English must be, For this cause ought the woman [a wise] to have a veil of skin or fur-veil on her head, because of the young women (differently veiled) or because of the young meu (who might not otherwise know that she was married). Gen. xx. 16.

See GREGORY's Notes and Obser

vations, p. 119.

5597. - The Chinese, like other Eastern nations, are so far from uncovering their heads in token of respect, that it is looked on as an affrout for any to stand bareheaded before their betters; and on this account the pope's missionaries were dispensed while amongst them, from uncovering the head in their churches.

See Modern Univer. Hist, vol. viji. p. 270,

nole (R) at the end.


When Moses went in before the Lord to speak with Him, he took the veil off, until he came out. And Moses put the veil on his face again, until he went in to speak with Him.

Exod. xxxiv. 34, 35. See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 120. 1 Tim. ii. 11- 13. The Power on the head] This power was the communica

5598. [-4-6.] Accordingly, among the Catholics, the Nun takes the veil, the Priest the tonsare.


ion of the Holy Spirit by the imposition of hands. Compare Mall. xxviii. 18. Luke xxiv. 49, with 2 Tim. i. 6.

Through the angels] The ordaining Ministers. See Rev. i. 20.

5610. (1 Cor. xii. 8.) “ The word of knowledge," argues Hickes, " consisted chiefly iu understanding and teaching the hidden sense and mysteries of the Old Testament relating to Christ; and more particularly in understanding the types, allegories, and prophecies, or the typical, allegorical, and prophetical passages in it, and in a skill to interpret them, and shew how they were perfected and fulfilled in the Gospel, to convert the Jews and Jewish Proselytes more especially, or to confirm the converted among them to the faith.” See Miscellanea Sacra, vol. i.



5604. [1 Cor. xi. 10.] On this account the woman ought to have, through the angels (of the Church+], the authority I on her head [given by the laying on of hands*). See + Rev. i. 20. Matt. vii. 29. — xxi. 23. Luke ix. 1. * 2 Tim, i, 6.




It was usual in England, till the time of the Reforination, to summon all the bishops of the Province (by the Pope's nuncio) to the consecration of a bishop. (See Hody's Engl. Councils, p. 27.) - Those thus summoned were the Angels, the messengers, the sent.

5611. (-12, 13.] The Son of God is so much one with those that love, that both He as the Head, and they as the members, are here, as making up One Body, called by one name, Christ.

Boyle's Seraphic Lode, p. 35.

5606. [- 12.] In the creation Man stood forth immediately from God, in His Image and Glory ; the woman mediately through the man, an inverted image exhibited out of man as his expressed glory.

5612. (21.] Sub-deacons were assistants to Deacons as Deaeons to Presbyters and they to the Bishop, whose office was to wait at the Church door at the time of public worship to usher in and bring out the several orders of the congregation who were not yet inembers, that no confusion might arise to disturb the congregation.

Primitive Christianity, part i. p. 157.

5607. [-14.] This word Nature, so frequently in our mouths, can only be looked upon as an abridged expression, either for the result of those laws which the Great Creator has imprinted on the universe, or for that aggregate of beings the works of his hands. Nature, thus viewed in its true light, is no longer a subject of cold and sterile speculation. The study of its productions, of its phenomena, ceases to be a mere exercise of the mind; it moves the heart, and strengthens the moral virtues in man, by awakeving in his mind sentiments of respect and admiration at the sight of so many wonders bearing the visible characters of infinite power and wisdom.

Abbe Hally.

5613. [1 Cor. xiii. 8.) They who have been distinguished in this world for their skill in languages, are not able after death to call forth into utterance a single expression of those languages; and they who have been distinguished for their skill in the sciences, are not able to recollect any thing of scientifics. These latter are sometimes snore stupid than others. Nevertheless, whatever either by the languages, or by the sciences, has been so imbibed, as to enter into and form their rationality, is brought forth into use: the rational thence produced, is what spirits think and speak from. Such as have imbibed false principles by the languages and sciences, and confirmed themselves therein, reason only from false principles ; but they who have imbibed truths, reason and speak from truths. The affection, good or evil, is what gives life to their respective principles.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 2480.

5608. [- 28, 29.] What the spirit of a man loves, that according to correspondency his blood craves, and attracts to itself out of the breath respired.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 420.

5609. [ 34. The rest will I set in order when I come] The Apostle did visit them about one year after this, as is generally believed.


5614. [-9.] According to the Apostle's explanation of his own meaning, our preseut knowledge is uot of any part of the things themselves face to face : but of the whole of them, after the same manner that a human face is seen in a glass by reflection ; not by an obscure, confused, direct view

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