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Verse 16.] According to my gospel, says LUKE, the amanuensis. Compare No. 5499.

5479, [Rom. i. 20.] As we should not see the light of the Sun, did it not rest on bodies, or at least on clouds; so we should never lay hold on truth, did it not fix on sen. sible events, or at least on metaphors and comparisons which reflect it.

St. PIERRE, Works, vol. iv. p. 504.

5480.

The philosopher, by learned investigations, and the force of his own understanding, may be convinced of the great truths of natural religion ; but, without the sanction of supernatural authority, he will never be able to convince others, who will never believe his doctrines, or obey his precepts.

SOANE JENYNS' Works, vol. iii. p. 298.

5486. (Rom. ii. 19.] As shell-fish are observed to thrive at the increase of the moon, though her light be unattended with heat, and though even when she is at full, she wants not her spots; so devout hearers will be careful to prosper proportionably to the instructions they receive even from those preachers, whose illumiuations are unaccompanied with zeal and charity, and who, when they shine with the greatest lustre, are not free froin their darknesses, as to some points, or from notorious blemishes.

Boyle's Reflections, p. 58. — Works,

vol. iy.

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5487. [-24. The name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you] When Governor Hunter had presented the Iroquese Indians with fine clothes sent them by order of Queen Anne, he further told them, that she intended likewise to adorn their souls, by the preaching of the gospel, and that for this purpose some ministers' would be sent to instruct them. Immediately one of the oldest Sachems got up, and answered, that in the name of all the Indians, he thanked their gracious good Queen and mother for the fine clothes she had sent them; but that in regard to the ministers, they had already had soine among them, who had taught them to drink to excess, to cheat aud to quarrel among themselves. He therefore entreated the Governor to take from them these preachers, and a number of Europeans who resided amongst them; for before they came, he said, the Indians had been an honest, sober, and innocent people, but that most of them were uow become rogues ; that they had forinerly had the fear of God, but that at present they hardly believed His existence.

See Kalm's Trav. in Pinkerton's Colla

part liv. p. 553.

5483.

In the process of respiration, a portion of oxygenous gas disappears, and an equal one of carbonic acid is produced.

DALTON's Chem. Philosophy, part ii. p. 227. See No. 1205, 1073, 1196, 1201.

5484. (Rom. ii. 14, 15.] The Samoiedes, unacquainted with any law, and without terms even for vice or virtue, are accustomed to preserve their wives each to themselves, and carefully to avoid all degrees of consanguinity in marrying to such a degree, that a man never marries a girl descended from the same family with himself, however distant the affinity

PINKERTON's Coll. vol. i. p. 532.

5488. [-25.) The Jews, in later tiines, had contrived a plan to render their circumcision imperceptible, and to form a new prepuce, when they were desirous to make the completest possible renunciation of the religion of their fathers ; see 1 Macc. i. 15.

MICHAELIS. See No. 1228, 1267.

6485.

The Jakutskoi of Asiatic Tarlary do not worship idols carved in wood, like many of the neighbouring vations, but offer sacrifices to an invisible God in heaven ; whom they worship under three different denominations.

SMITH's Wonders of Nature and Art.

5489. [Rom. iii. 8.) If I, by oppression, reduce an innorent man to poverty, and if Providence endow him with strength of mind to bear his misfortune as becomes a Chris. wan, it is possible he may be happier in adversity than ever he was in prosperity. But will this excuse me for what I have done? If it is unlawful to enslave an inoffensive creature, no unforeseen and unintentional good consequences that may follow upon it, will ever render it lawful. The knife of the ruffian may disiniss a good man from the troubles of this life, and send him Heaven; but is it therefore lawful to murder a good mav? If we estimate the morality of actions, not by the intention of the agent; but by the consequences whereof, by the overruling care of a good Providence, they may be productive, we shall at once confound all moral principles.

BEATTIE.

according to a common law respecting angelic ideas, that during their descent into the world of spirits, they are fixed and exhibited representatively. But these are things which cannot as yet be clearly comprehended, because the nature of the influx of the lic heaveu into the World of Spirits is unknown.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, th 730.

6494. (Rom. v. 6. Without strength] the finite spirit of truth not having received the power given by the influx of the lufinite Human and the Divine; the all of power in heaven and on earth.

5490. [Rom. iii. 23. All have sinned, and come short of the glory of God] When we talk in general of frailties, faults, and the weakness of human nature, every person ac. knowledges bimself guilty. But give to these weakpesses, or faults, their true names, read over the whole register distinctly, and then enquire around you ;- not a single individual, will own his share. What an inconsistency ! - The truth is, God alone is good; the want of the effulgence of His glory in the soul of man, is our natural or hereditary state of evil; actual transgression alone, produces positive sin, or realizes “ the iniquity of the fathers upon their children.” In the latter, and in the former sense surely, “ all have sinned and come short of the glory of God.”

See No. 5316.
All have sinued, and have need of the glory of God.

MARTIN LUTHER.

5495. ( 10.] The atonement, or reconciliation by the death of Christ, is thus be understood: The Jews and Gentile Romans having affixed Him to the cross, He voluntarily laid down His life to prevent their sin in killing Jlim by the breaking of His legs; and, to reconcile their inimical designs with the beneficial intentions of the divine will and wisdom, in the death of that merely human nature from the Virgio, which, otherwise, might have been exalted by man into an object of idolatrous worship. — It should be noted also here, that the manslayer was set at liberty, and restored to his possessions and privileges, by the death of the high-priest. See Num. xxxv. 25, 32.

5491. [-24.) Dia tes apolutroseos (Grk.), through the ransom paid for the redeeming of captives.

Boyle's Seraphic Love, p: 106.

5492. [30.] Among the Jews, it is well known, there were two kinds of proselyles ; one of the gate, another of justice. The latter, fully admitted to every privilege of the Mosaic codenant, were is nothing different from the Jews, except in their having been once heathens. Now these being justified, or made full proselytes of justice, under the Law, BY CIRCUMCISION; the Apostle argues that Jews and Gentiles, or the circumcision as well as the uncircumcision, are justified, or made proselytes of God's justice, under the Gospel covenant, simply BY FAITH.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Exod. xi. 43.

5496. [ 20. Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound] Thus Providence has caused the Rattle-snake Plantain, an approved antidote to the poison of the reptile from which it receives its name, to grow in great profusion wherever that species of snake particularly abounds; and during those months in which the bite of this creature is most venomous, this remedy for it is also in its greatest perfection, and most luxuriant in its growth.

Carver's Trad. in N. America, See No. 1253.

pp. 320, 344.

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5497. (Rom. vi. 16.) Man is a threefold being; he has three natures; he partakes of the divine, the elementary, and the diabolical nature. Had he not these three nalores in a certain degree in him, he could have no communion with God, he could not enjoy the elements, nor .could the evil spirits have the least power of access to him.

Law's Spirit of Prayer, p. 192. 5498. [Rom. vi. 16.] For the true ground, and absolute necessity of turning wholly and solely to the Spirit of God, you need only know this plain truth ; namely, that the Spirit of God, the spirit of satan, or the spirit of this world, are, and must be, the one or the other of them, the continual leader, guide, and inspirer, of every thing that lives in nature. There is no going out from some one of these; the moment you cease to be moved, quickened, and inspired by God, you are infallibly moved, and directed by the spirit of satan, or the world, or by both of them. And the reason is, because the soul of, man is a spirit, and a life, that in ils whole being is nothing else but a birth both of God and nature; and therefore every moment of its life, it must live in some uuion and conjunction, either with the spirit of God governing nature, or with the spirit of nature fallen from God, and working in itself. As Creatures therefore, we are under an absolute necessity of being under the motion, guidance, and inspiration, of some spirit, that is more and greater than our own. All that is in our power, is only the choice of our leader; but led and moved we must be, and by that spirit, to which we give up ourselves, whether it be to the spirit of God, or the spirit of fallen uature. To seek therefore to be always under the inspiration and guidance of God's Holy Spirit, and to act by an immediate power from it, is not proud enthusiasm, but as sober and bumble a thought, as suitable to our state, as to thiuk of renouncing the world and the devil; for they never are, or can be, renounced by us, but so far as the spirit of God is living, breathing and moving in us.

Ibid. p. 139.

animal part of their children, as the means of more properly influencing and guiding the mental. It cannot be unknown that however a madman may rage and rave, however strongly his mind may be exercised, it never improves; he gains no accession of knowledge: the case is not precisely similar, but there is an analogy, between a man actually mad, and a man the slave of any passion; whatsoever he does, wherever he goes, this passiou gives a color to his conduct; it is always uppermost in the mind, and it guides the understanding. To make any advances in self-government is impossible; the strong bent of the mind to run in a certain direction must first be corrected ; the madness must first be overcome; the influence of religion is, indeed, alone sufficient to effect it. A man preparing to run a race, to fight a battle, or even to wrestle, lives in a prescribed manner; no gratification is allowed ; uo passion is indulged or provoked; he has an end in view, and that is attained only by the due subserviency of the body. But in common life, the food most desired and most indulged in is, that which most excites the darling passion. We are not as wise in training our offspring, as we are ia training of gladiators; the effect of food is known, as applied to the one; but is onconsidered in our treatment of the other.

Luke xvi. 8. D1, JARROLD's Anthropologia, p. 105. 1 Cor. ix. 25.

5503. (Rom. viii. 15. We cry, Abba, Father) addressing ourselves to bim as an own father, with the affection of legitimate children, in full trust and assurance that the Fa. ther himself loves us ; that he hath prepared a kingdom for us (in the eternal heaveus) before the foundation of the world ; and that he sends the Comforter, that Promise of the Father, to guide, and strengthen, and support us uuder all the infirmities of nature.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under.

standing, p. 331.

6499. (Rom. vii. 3. She shall be called] The word Chrematisei (Grk.) is here again used in the peculiar schse in which it first occurs Acis xi. 26. This is no mean internal evidence, that the Acts of the Apostles, and the eleven first chapters of this Epistle, were, as has been observed above, equally written by St. Luke. See Rom. ii. 16.

5500. [ - 7.] I had not knowo covetousness to be a sin, if the law had not said, Thou shalt not covet.

Month. Mag. for Sept. 1815, p. 107.

5504. [ 17.] The adopted son, and the after born sons to the person who adopted him, shall be coheirs of the estate : but no adoption by a man who has legitimnate sonis then born, shall be valid. An adopted sou could not hinself adopt another : he must either leave a legitimate sou — or the estate he received from his adopting father must revert to his adopting father's natural heirs : there cannot be two adopted sons at the same time. See No. 1247, &c. Laws of Athens, as stated by

Sir WILLIAM JONES.

5501. [ 24.] Who shall deliver me from this body, this death The grace of God, through our Lord Jesus, the Christ.

See No. 1237, 1239, 1268, 1262.

5505. [-22.] Nothing can be more shocking or horrid than one of our kitchens sprinkled with blood and abounding with the cries of creatures expiring,, or with the limbs of dead animals scattered or hung up here and there. It gives one an image of a grant's deu in romance, bestrewed with the scattered heads and mangled limbs of those who were slain by his cruelty,

ALEX. POPE.

6502. [Rom. viii. 13. If ye live after the flesh, ye shall die] It greatly concerns parents and others to attend to the

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destruction and extermination. - Hence the full sense of the Apostle's words will be this: I could even wish that the destruction and extermination to which my Brethren the Jews, are devoted by Christ, miglit, if it would save them from ruin, be executed upon me, in the stead of those my kiosmen after the flesh, who are Israelites. St. Paul well koew the dreadful consequences of the Jews' rejecting Christ, a shameful dispersion over the face of the earth, and eternal destruction afterwards, to as many as would not repent; yet he wishes that infinite evil to himsell, on condition it could save them. The human heart can go no further. It is not possible to wish a greater evil for the sake of a greater good.

BARTON's Analogy, part vii. p. 167.

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5512. (Rom. ix. 10, 11.] More thau one child cannot be conceived at one and the same time. When there are twins, there has always been a superfetation. Consequently, the first born, as Esau, is the last begotten, or really the younger; whilst the last born, as Jacob, is the first beyolten, or truly the elder. - Every superfetation is necessarily the offspring of lusl : Esau was therefore hated, when he had realized his disposition to lust by committing fornication with the 'daughters of the land'. This child of lust inherited also a dispositiou to murder, even his own brother. See Gen. xxvii. 41.

5008. [-29.] No one was ever shocked at hearing the systems which are made in Bedlam; and those who quote then have ever been excused the 'making a refutation of them.

Abbe Pluche.

6513. [- - 17.) It was just, and according to that law of inheritance called predestination that a legitimate Pharaoh should be raised to the throne, rather than an adopted Moses.

See No. 446, &c.

5509. [

-29, 30.) Concerning the controversies between the Calvinists and the Remonstrants, about Predestination, and the coherent doctrines; - those that are truly pious of either party are perhaps otherwise looked on by God than by one another, as contending, which of God's attributes should be most respected; the one seeming to affirm irrespective decrees, to magnify his GOODNESS, and the other to deny them but to secure the credit of his JUSTICE. See No. 1248.

Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 104.

5514. [

- 21. Hath not the potter power over the clay, &c.] That is, to form the same matter into a human, animal, vegetable, or mineral substance.

6510. [-37.) To affirm that a believer is more than a conquerur, is to affirm that he conquers without a combat, and triomphis without resistance ; obtaining victory through Him that loded us.

See Bib. Research. vol. i. p. 298.

6515. (Rom. 1. 16. They have not all obeyed the gospel] “It is one of the great inistakes in Moreri's Dictionary, to say, that in the time of Theodosius the Younger, no idolaters remained but in the remote parts of Asia and Africa. There were still, and even down to the seventh century, many Gena tile uations in Italy. All Germany north of the Weser were strangers to Christianity in Charlemagne's time; and long a'ter bin Poland, and the whole North, continued in what is called idolatry. Half Africa, all the realms beyond the Gauges, Japan, the innumerable commonalty of China, a

5511. (Rom. ix. 3.) Cherem (Ilebr.), which the Septuagint reuder anathema, signifies persons or things devoted to

hundred Tartarian hordes, retaiu their antient worship; whereas in Europe this religion is to be found only among some Laplanders, Samoiedes, and Tartars.”

VOLTAIRE.

which is thus formed in the root and carried upwards. She conceives that the pollen ascends in like manuer, passing only to the male flowers, while the balls or embryos ascend to the females ; no balls being seen in male trees, and no pollen in female ones.

See Tilloch's Journal for March 1815,

vol. xlv. p. 188.

6516. (Rom. xi. 9.] Circumcision represented the new birth : without circumcision no male could eat the paschal Jamb : but all that were circumcised, were not therefore born of the Spirit. In this sense, their table would be a snare ; they would eat and drink unworthily, and thus procure from Hades “their own damnation.”

5520. (Rom. xi. 24.] The olive-tree, whose 'expressed oil is so abuudantly used in the Levitical sacrifices, forms the riches of its fruit, not from the species of the grafi, but of the root and stem ; a lesson for the heathens, for naturalists, - for all whom the Apostle here charges with acting unnaturally, in attempting the salvation of the impenitent by faith (whilst there is no radical change in the life). (See Horcainson's Use of Reason Recovered, p. 123. And Exod. xl. 13.) — In the good olive-tree Jesus Christ, the graft, the adopted Christian, cannot change the Root, but the Root changes the nature and fruit of the graft : whilst in every sectarian church that has man for its root, as in every kind of tree but the olive, the graft, the adopted convert, invariably changes the virtue of his root, as the doctrine of Calviu, Luther, Wesley, and Swedenborg, &c., are at this day successively changing in their respective followers into teuets the direct opposite to what was maintained by those founders.

5517. [- 11, &c.] It being a law of the Divine Providence that there should always be on earth, as much heaven as hell; when the Jews had rejected heaven, it fell necessarily on the Gentile world. See Deut. xxx. 15. Jer. xxi. 8.

This is grace. The same iufluence, when coming in opposition to evil, is mercy.

5518. [ 17, &c.) A Syrian Vipe, growing, 1789, in the hot house at Welbeck, produces, by grafting, sixteen different sorts of grapes.

Speechly, on the Vine, p. 221.
The trees, wbich of themselves advance in air,
Are barreu kinds, but strongly built and fair :
Because the vigor of the native earth
Maintaios the plant, and niakes a manly birth.
Yet these, receiving grafts of other kind,
Or thence transplanted, change their savage mind :
Their wildness lose, and quitting nature's part,
Obey the rules and discipline of art.

VIRGIL. The Golden Pippin, when grafted on a crab-stock, produces the highest-flavoured fruit.

SPEECHLY, p. 223. That common fluid, called the sap in trees, ascends in the spring and summer from their roots. But there is another, a peculiar juice of trees and plants, which is generated by the leaf : this, introduced by engrasting, gives flavor and form to the pulp of fruit; the ascending aqueous sup supplies the seed.

See Phil, Trans. for 1805, p. 88.

5521.
Olives flower in June.

YOUNG. The Olive yields (by virtue of the descending sap) more oil than any other plaut, and yet thrives best on dry arid rocky soils, of absolute poverty; so far as oil is concerned.

Ibid. Pinkerton's Coll. part xvi. p. 500. Vines and olives, attracting nourislıment principally by their leaves, stand in no weed of water, but thrive admirably on the driest soils without it. Compare John iv. 32. xv. I, &c.

Ibid. part xvii. p. 667. N. B. The fal of all the sacrifices siinply cousisted in the olive vil.

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5519.

In regard to the economy of general vegetation, Mrs. Ibbetson appears to have actually proved froni observation, that the embryos of the seeds are formed in the roots of plants, from which they ascend to the seedvessel through the alburnum vessels. She says it is the heurt of 'the seed, constituting the embryo of the future praut,

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