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internal way, yet into the same organs of the head or brain : bence the hearing in both cases are alike.

Thus the things spoken by spirits are heard as clearly in respect to depth and tone of expression, by those whose interior organs of hearing are open, and also by spirits themselves, as the things spoken by men on earth : But by those whose interior organs are not open, they are not heard in the least.

SweDENBORG, Arcana, nn. 1635, 1763.

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5437. [ Acts xxi. 21 ~ 26.] From this passage it should seem, that circumcision among the Jews was the act of making Nazarites by sharing the head. Num. vi. 18.

In devoting a man or woman thus to God (Num. vi. 2), the shaving a separating stripe from the middle seam of the brow to the crown of the head, was analogous to the killing or dividing with a knife each sacrificial branch of fruit that was laid bleeding before the Lord on the sacred altar. See Gen. xv. 10. Lev. i. 6—9, &c.

The Gentiles were to be Nazarites in abstaining things offered to idols, and froin blood, and from things strangled, and froin fornication;" but the Apostles decreed, that they should " observe no such thing” as the mere ceremonious circumcision, verse 25.

It may however, still be proper, that every God-devoted Christian should, by way of characteristic mark, wear his hair separated on the fore part of the head, as did the real Nazarites, the primitive Christians.

Such a mark would shew, who professedly belonged to Christ; and who, on that account, should not be either spiritually or actually " killed.See Gen. iv. 15.

5442. [ Acts xxii. 23.) The Judges rent their garinents, in condemning : the mob cast off their clothes, to shew they were ready to murder the person so condemned.

5443.

In almost all the East those who accuse a criminal, or demand justice against himn, still significantly throw dust on him; as much as to say, he deserves to he put under ground : and it is a common imprecation of the Turks and Persians — Be covered with earth. See Jer. xvii. 13. 2 Sam. xvi. 13.

CHARDIN.

5438. [-23.] This vow, or self-devotement to celibacy, could not be made before the year of puberty ; that is, before a girl was in her eleventh, and a boy in his thirteenth year. See I Cor. vii. 32.

See Haydoc on Num. vi. 2.

5444. [

-25 — 29.] Thus Florus ventured to do what no one had done before, that is, to have men of the equestrian order whipped, and nailed to the cross before bis tribunal; who, though they were by birth Jews, yet were they notwithstanding, of Roman dignity.

JOSEPH. Wars, b. ii. ch. xiv. § 9.

5439. [-24.] MAINONIdes informs nis, that he who would partake of the merits of another mar’s nazaritism, went to the temple, and said to the priest, “Such a one will finish his vow, and I intend to defray the charge of bis tolisure, either in part or in the wbole.” Whoever did this, was reputed to share in the fulfilment of the vow.

5445. [-27, 28.] Paul was a Roman citizen, because Augustus had given the freedom of Rome to all the freemen of Tarsus, in consideration of their firm adherence to his interests.

CALMET's Dictionary.

5440. [7 - 28.] On the wall which separated the court of the Gentiles from that of the Israelites, was an inscription, says JOSEPHUS, in Greek and Latin letters, which stated that no stranger was permitted to come within the holy place, on pain of death, Ezek. xliv. 7.

War, b. v. ch. 5. §. 2.

5446. - At Rome, the ceremony of making a freeman consisted principally, in clapping a cap of liberty on his head and giving him a turn on the heel.

See Persius, Sat. 5, de Dama.

5441. [Acts xxii. 9.] Human speech or discourse is conveyed through the ear, in an external way by mediation of the air; whereas the speech or discourse of spirits does not enter through the ear, nor by mediation of the air, but in an

6447. (Acts xxiii. 2.) This Ananias had himself been accused of taking part in the quarrel between the Jews and the Samaritans : but being fouud innoceut, he was sent back to Jerusalem, where he again presided as high-priest at this very time. be alive] in Paradise, and glorified in the finite spiritual body he had as yet from the Virgin. SWEDENBORG frequently speaks of this first glorification, which continued about thirtyfive years. At other times he speaks of our Lord's second glorification when he put off all he had previously from the Mother, and returned to be a quickening Spirit, in and around the Angelic Hosts of the New Christian Heaven of the Angelic Sun. See Acts ii. 32, 33.

See Joseph. Antig. b. xx. ch. vi. § 3. and ch. ix. 8 2.

Also Krebs, in loco : his valuable Work is entitled Observat. in Nov. Testament, e Flavio Josepho.

5453. [Acts xxiv. 14. Which they call heresy] Hairesis (Grk), from haireo, I choose, was the term applied in its original and best acceptation to denote any sect or denomination among the heathen philosophers, that had regularly chosen its own members.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Acts v. 17.

5448. [Acts xxiii. 5.] It might have been the Sagan, or high-priest's deputys or some other person presiding on the occasion, as was usual.

See Dr. A. CLARKE.

5454.

Heresy is the denial of a plain and express religious doctrine or proposition, in the most obvious and intelligible sense of the words, as it is founded on a moral certainty and evidence : And whether such a

proposition be denied expressly, or by immediate necessary consequence, it makes no alteration in the nature of the thing; there is only this circumstantial difference, that the oue is more covert and clandestine, the other has an air of openness and ingenuity.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under

standing, p. 271.

5449.

He knew not that it was the highpriest — who had caused him to be smitten : Paul could not but know him as well from bis particular dress, as from the place where he sat.

- I did not perceive, brethren, that he was the highpriest. (See Essay for a New Translation, part ii. p. 67.) — The fact was, Auanias bad but lately returned from Rome, and Paul might not yet kuow that he was restored to the high-priesthood.

5455. [ - 15. I have hope that there shail be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust] PRIESTLEY held a resurrection of the just only.

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5465. [Acts xxviii. 1.] Malta (twenty miles long, and twelve in its greatest breadth') lies in the Mediterranean, between Sicily and Africa. It was in this sea that Jonah was cast to float on the weeds of the gulf-stream. See Jonah ii. 5.

5460. [Acts xxv. 23.] Agrippa, son of Agrippa the grandson of Herod the Grea

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 197.

5466. [-2. Barbarians] The Greeks who traded with the Phenicians, formed this word from observing, that the Phenicians were generally called by the name of their parent, with the word bar prefixed to that name; as we find, in the New Testament, men called Bar-Jesus, Bar-Tholo. meus, Bar-Jonas, Bar-Timeus, &c. Hence the Greeks called them Bar-baroi, meaning the men who are called Bar Bar, or bave no other names than what begin with Bar. And because the Greeks did not understand the language of the Phenicians, they first, and the Romans in imitation of them, gave the name of Barbarians to all as talked in

a language to which they were strangers.

Bp. Pearce,

sich

5461. [Acts xxvii. 13.] It is looked upon as a sure sign of an impending hurricane in the sea, when the water suddeuly becomes calm, and clear to a great depth.

See Kalm's Trad. in Pinkerton's Coll.

part liii. p. 481.

5462. (— 29.) Mr. Bruce, in his print of an Egyptian Canja under sail, gives it a four-fuked anchor.

5467. (5.] The poison of serpents and adders has no inaliguaut influence on cold blooded animals, nor on certain birds.

See Asiatic Researches, pol. vi. p. 110;

and Nature Delineated, vol. i. p. 181.

5463. (-40.] Ships in those days had commonly two rudders, one on each side, which were fastened to the ship by bands or chains; and on loosing these bands, the rudders sunk deeper into the sea, and by their weight rendered the ship less subject to be overset by the winds. See Bochart. Hieroz. part ii. lib. 4. cap. 1.

And ELSN, Obsero. vol. i. pp. 488, 489.

5468. [-11.] In Boisgelin's Malta, opposite p. 18 of vol. i. there is (pl. i. fig. 2) a designation of Castor and Pollux, - constellations supposed to be ever favourable to mariners. - The figure which gave name to a ship was placed at the head ; and the tutelar saint on the роор. .

p. 153.

5469.[ — 14. Rome] seven hundred and eighty miles S. E. of London ; founded seven hundred and fifty-three years before the Christian Æra.

5461. [-- 41.) In the ocean it frequently happens that two swells run in directious opposing each other. In December 1803, at the entrance of Hoog hley river, a gale of wind commenced, and blew from the north ward, off the land : at the same time a heavy squall came rolling in from the sea, directly in opposition to the prevailing wind. This strong gale from the south ward had forced a heavy swell greatly beyond its limit, though this swell must have met with great resistance from the strong wortherly wind blowing against it. See Jonah ii. 10.

Retrospect, vol. ii. p. 300.

5470. - 15. When the brethren heard of us, they came to meet us as far as Appii Forum] These Christians, undoubtedly, had come in consequence of Paul's Letter, written in all probability from Malta, where he had larried three months, verse 11. How else could the brethren be prepared to go forth at a proper time to meet him ?

5471. (Acts xxvili. 15.) The Appii Forum was about fifty-two miles from Rome: The Three Taverns, about thirtyfive miles distant.

5472. ( 22.] JUSTIN MARTYR asserts, that the Jews not only cursed the Christians in their synagogues, but sent out chosen men from Jerusalem, to acquaint the world, and particularly the Jews "every where”, that they were an atheistical and wicked sect, that should be detesied and abhorred by all mankind.

See Justin Martyr, Dial. p. 234.

5473. (Acts xxviii. 28.] Harvey is entitled to the glory of having made, by reasoning alone, without any mixture of accident, a capital discovery of one of the most important branches of science.

Yet it was

remarked that no physician in Europe who had reached forty years of age ever, to the end of his life, adopted Harvey's doctrine of the circulation of the blood ; and that his practice in London diminished extremely, from the reproach drawn on him by that great and signal discovery. - If such be the opposition to improvement in every science, what resistance may not the display of new truths in religion, whether among Jews or Gentiles, be expected at all times to encounter from superstitious prejudices !

Hune's Hist. vol. vii. p. 317.

THE EPISTLE OF PAUL, THE APOSTLE,

TO THE

Romans. .

AUL's Sixth Epistle, placed first by the prejudice of Catholics.

This Epistle, says Dr. A. CLARKE, was probably written about the 57th or 38th year of our Lord.

The former part of this Epistle (from the first to the twelfth chapter) was written, as appears from chap. i. 10, not long before Paul sailed first to Rome, Acts xxviii. 16.

See No. 5470.

of beings on our globe be comprehended, analogical reasoning would be demonstration. See No. 1073.

DALYELL's Spallanzani, vol. i.

pp. 246, 248.

5475. - i. 18, 19.] The belief of one God, and of a future state of rewards and punishments, is entire and universal among the Negroes of Africa.

Mungo PARK, p. 273.

5476. - 20.] The world is certainly a great and statel y volume of natural things; and may not improperly be stiled the hieroglyphics of a better. See No. 1196.

Fruits of Solitude, p. 3.

5478. [- i. 20.] The use of reason is for another state, by taking ideas given by Revelation from things below, and carrying them to things above.

HUTCHINSON's Religion of Satan, p. 18. Analogy is the great chain of Nature, and the basis of all the sciences.

Lord Bacon. The great Creator of all things has infinitely diversified the works of his hands, but bas at the same time stamped a certain similitude on the features of nature, that demonstrates to us, that the whole is one family of one parent. On this similitude is founded all rational analogy, which, so long as it is concerned in comparing the essential properties of bodies, leads to many and important discoveries ; but when with licentious activity it links together objects, otherwise discordant, by some fanciful similitude, it may indeed collect ornaments for wit and poetry, but philosophy and truth recoil from its combinations.

Preface to DARWIN's Zoonomia. To he well acquainted with the appearances of Nature, even though we are ignorant of their causes, often constitutes the most useful wisdom.

GOLDSMITA.

5477.

All our physical knowledge chiefly rests on analogy: where this is wanting, or too imperfect, we should distrust explications or hypotheses fouuded upon il. But, in proportion as our knowledge extends and is perfected, all probabilities will approach to certainty. Could the totality

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