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ductors of heat, are likewise good conductors of electricity..

The conducting power of Auids arises from two distinct sources: the one is the same as in solids, pamely, a gradual progress of the beat from particle to particle, exclusive of any motion of the particles themselves ; the other arises from the internal motion of the particles of the fluid, by which the extremes of hot and cold are perpetually brought into contact, and the heat is thus diffused with great celerity.

Dalton's Chem. Philos. part i.

pp. 100, 101.

5156. (John jii. 5. Of water] "He, whom his father, or mother with her husband's assent, gives to another as his son, provided the donee have no issue, if the boy be of the same class and affectionately disposed, is a son given by ualer - j. e. the gift being confirmed by pouring water."

See Frag. to Calmet, No. 2N. vol. ii.

5157. [- 19.) We have power over the mind's eye, as well as over the body's, to shut it against the strongest rays of truth and religion, whenever they become painful to us; and to open it again to the faint glimmerings of scepticism and infidelity when we “love darkness rather than light, because our deeds are evil.”

SOAME Jenyns' Works, vol. iv. 54.

5153. [John ii. 20. Forly and six years has this Temple been in building] That is, forty and six years, since it began to be repaired by Herod, had elapsed at this first passover after Christ when the Jews were objecting this to bim. (See Usher, sub. A. M. 3987.) - It continued to be repaired till the beginning of the Jewish war under Gellius Florus.

JOSEPHUS, Antiq. l. xx. c. 8. Though it was, from the cominencement of its re-building ju the 21st year of Herod's reigni, made fit for, divive worship in nine years and a half; and though forly-six years had been now actually spent in repairing it, yet at the time the Jews spoke the above words many workmen were still employed on its out-buildings, and continued to be so even for years after our Lord's crucifixion.

See Wells' Continuation of the Jewish Hist.

(vol. ii. of his Bible), p. 103.

5158. 20.] It appears from observations made on the Virginia creeper, the ivy, the common vine, &c. by T. A. Knight, Esq. that not only the teudrils and claws of these creeping dependent plants, but their stems also, are made to recede from light, and to press against the opaque bodies, which nature intended to support and protect them.

Phil. Trans. for 1812, part ii. p. 316.

· 5169. - 23. Salim) Hence Melchizedek, king of Salem, was king of Jerusalem which, as to its pristine name, is called Salem in Ps. lxxvi. 2.

See No. 433, &c.

Ænon was about eight miles south of Scythopolis ; Salim in the neighbourhood of it was the same with the Salem of the Old Testament, where Melchizedek was king, and where some of the ruins of his palace were still to be seen in Jerome's time.

Sce Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 408, and vol. x.

5154. [-22.) The Scripture here referred to is probably Matt. xii. 40, where we find Jesus predicting his death and resurrection, as they actually took place in the 36th year of bis age. As Matthew is said to have made his Gospel public in the very same year in which his Master suffered, it is a strong presumption that he and the other Evangelists had kept regular journals daily, of what Jesus Christ both said aud did; as Patriarchs, Moses and the Prophets, had previously registered in a regular series all that had been spoken and visitly effected by the Shechixan of the Old Testament

See Modern Dictionary of Aris and Sciences,

Articles Jesus Christ and St. Matthew.
Also JOSEPHUS, Contra Apion, b.i. $ 6.

P. 305.

5160. [-29.] As to "the friend of the bridegroom,"

there were two at each wedding : one waited on the bride, the other on the bridegroom : their business was to serve them, to distribute to them gists, to continue with them during the seven days of the marriage, to keep the marriage-contract, and afterwards to reconcile differences between husband aud wise when auy took place.

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Notes on John iii.

See also Burder's Oriental Customs, vol. i. p. 326.

5155. [John iii. 5. Except a man be born out of water &c.] The fetus then, that hath never breathed, cannot enter heaven.

See SWEDENBORG's Principia, in the Ap

pendix to Paragraph xiii.

5161. [-33.] The seals of the Hebrews were their names cut in a stone, which having dipped in bistre, or some other kind of ink, they then, by way of their subscription, printed at the bottom of what they meant to testify.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. p. 491. See No. 1226, 1240, 1243, 1200, 1311, 1091, 1236, 1354.

5166. [John iv. 11.) Many of the Guzerat wells have steps leading down to the surface of the water, others have not; nor do I recollect, says Forbes, any furnished with buckets and ropes for the convenience of a stranger; mosi trasellers are therefore provided with them, and halcarras and religious pilgrims frequently carry a small brass pot, affixed to a long string for this purpose.

Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 332.

5162. [John iv. 4.] It was absolutely vecessary for those that went quickly to Jerusalem, to pass through Samaria ; for in that road you may, in three days' time, go from Galilee to Jerusalem.

Joseph. Life, $ 52.

5167. [-- 12. Our father Jacob] The Samaritans might claim Jacob for their father hy adoption, but not by lineal descent. When they saw the Jews in prosperity, JOSEPHUS says, they pretended to be allied to thein, deducing the series of their own descent froin the Patriarch Joseph, and his sons Ephraiin and Manasseh ; but when the Jews were depressed and in a low condition, he tells us, they then disclaimed all relationship and affinity with them, professing themselves to be, as they really were, originally Medes und Persians.

See Antiq. b. ix. ch xiv. § 3; b. x. ch. ix.

§ 7; b. xi. ch. viji. $ 6; and b. xii. ch. v. $5.

6163. (5.) Sychar, which signifies drunkard, was a term of contempt given by Judah after the revolt of the Ten Tribes to Shechem, a strony place by nature, situated about forty miles from Jerusalein : it was the metropolis of Jeroboam's kingdom till the building of Samaria by Omri, and resumed that dignity a second time as soon as Samaria was destroyed by the Assyriaus. It stood about forty miles from Jerusalem, fifty-two from Jericho, and ten from Shiloh, near to Jacob's well.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 19, and vol. x.

p. 308.

5168. [-14.] When a portion of carbonic acid, sulphurelied hydrogen, or nitrous oxyde gas, is thrown up into a eudiometer tube of three-tenths of an inch diameler over water; the water ascends and ahsorbs the gas with consider. able speed: if a small portion of common air be suddenly throwii up, it ascends to the other, and is commonly separated by a fine film of water for a time. 'Thal instant the two airs come into the above situation, the water suddenly ceases to ascend in the tube, but the film of water runs up with great speed, enlarging the space below, and proportionally diminishing that above, till it tinally bursts. This seems to sbew that the film is a kind of sieve through which those gases can easily pass but not common air.

Dalton's Chem. Phil. part i. p. 203.

5164. [-6.] The Asiatics attached nobility only to places rendered illustrious by virtue. An aged tree, a well, a rock, objects of stability, appeared to them as alone adapted to perpetuate the memory of what was worthy of being remembered. There is scarcely all over Asia an acre of land but what is dignified by a monument. The Greeks and Romans who issued out of it as did all the other Nations of the World, and who did not remove far from it, imitated in part the customs of our first Fathers. But the other Nations wlio scattered themselves over the rest of Europe, where they were long in an erratic state, and who withdrew from those antient monuments of virtue, chose rather to look for them in the posterity of their great men, and to see the living images of them in their children. This is the reason probably, why the Asiatics, comparatively, have no Noblesse, and the Europeans no monuments.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iii. p. 127.

as

5169.

“During the exercise of thought,” says SWEDENBORG, whose spiritual sight was open for twenty-nine years, “the material ideas of such thought have appeared as it were (floating) in the midst of a kind of wave; and it was observed that this wave was nothing else but sach things

were adjoined to that subject in the inemory; and that thereby the full thought appears 10 spirits : but that, or such occasion, nothing else comes to man's apprehension than what is in the midst, and appeared as material. I likened that surrounding wave to spiritual wings, by which the thing thought of is elevated out of the memory - The spiritual speak sonorously, injecting the all of their thought into speech. Hence their thought, in order to be known, inust be collected from their expressions. But the celestial do not so.

What is of their will folds itself by somewhat of

5165. [- 11.] In the East many wells, says NIEBUHR, were from a hundred and sixty to a hundred and seventy feet deep.

Trav, vol. i. p. 268.

thought into what is like a wave, affecting and moving the will of another according to the state of the subject.”

Arcana, un. 6200, 8733

5174. [John iv. 25, 26.] The Tribes of Israel are no longer to be enquired alter. The Israelites themselves know not with certainty from what families they are descended. Judah was selected as the tribe from which the Messiah should come: and behold, the Jews know not which of them are of the tribe of Judah, This, against the Jews, is an irrefragable argument that their Messiah is come; and that He cannot now be expected, as His genealogy could not be traced to the stem of David.

See Christian Researches in Asia, p. 234.

6170. [Johniv. 20.] There was a temple built on Gerizim long before the time of Alexander. — Probably, say the authors of Univer. Hist., when the Jews had incurred the displeasure of Ochus, the Samaritans nuight then so far ingratiale themselves iuto the favor of that exasperated prince, as to obtain from him a grant to build themselves this temple.

Sce vol. ix. p. 558. At the foot of mount Gerizim Abraham offered his first sacrifice in the land of promise. See Deut. xi. 29.

5175. [ 32.) If our improved chemistry should ever discover the art of makiny sugar from fossile or aerial matter without the assistance of vegetation, food for animals would then become as plentiful as water, and they might live upon the earth without preying on each other, as thick as blades of grass, with no restraint to their numbers but the want of local room. See Rom. xi. 24.

Darwin's Temple of Nature, John xv. l, &c.

canto iv. l. 66.

5171. [--- 21.) They who respect God in their lives and do no evil to their neighbour, love to be taught.

SWEDEN BORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 203.

5172. [

-- 23.] In idea abstract space, while you ulterly deny a vacuum. Then think of the Divine Love and the Divine Wisdom, that they are the real essence where space

is abstracted and a vacuum denied. Again ; think of space, and you will perceive that the Divine Spirit, in the greatest and smallest portions of space, is the same; for, in an essence abstracted from spaće, there is not any degree great or smail, but a sameness.

Ibid. on Divine Love, n. 81.

5176. [
35.] The case here is the same

as when one says : In the month of July it is winter in India, while another asserts that at that period it is suinmer. Both at boltom are right; for on the coast of Coromandel the summer begins in June; but on the coast of Malabar it does not commence till October. During the latter month it is winter on the coast of Coromandel, whereas on the coast of Malabar it begins so early as the loth of June. The one season, therefore, always commences on the east coast at the time when it ends on the western. So necessary is it to reflect on time, place and climate, and the particular circumstances under which a traveller or writer lived. Hence travellers assert that, in the course of the year, in India, there are two siianiers and two winters.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, pp. 4, 81. Hence it appears that there was a difference of four months between the time of Harvest in Galilee and that of Samaria where Christ now was.

5173.

The Father seeketh such to worship him in the inward disposition of the soul to all virtue and holiness; and in the lifting up a pure mind in devout addresses to him alone. This is worshipping God in the spiril, and having no confidence in the flesh, that is in any outward ordinances only. Worshipping him in truth is, not only serving him in the substance of all that was shadowed in types and ceremonies; but in the purity and holiness of the mind and conscience. This is worshipping in truth and sincerity; and this is opposed also to that outward discharge even of moral duties which proceeds only from star, or any undue motive; but is still against the habitual bent and incli. nation of the soul, and is therefore so far insincere and hypocrital. This is that in ward law written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, as the moral law was, but in fleshly tables of the heart; our sufficiency for which is of God, and from the iuward assistance of his Holy Spirit.

Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Under

standing, p. 313.

5177.

A heal of sixty degrees, at least, seems necessary for the growth and maturity of corn.

DALTON's Essays, p. 131.

6179. [John v. 2.] This pool looked wonderfully red, as it were with bloody waters.

St. JEROME.

on that day, according to our diagram, was full upon him, empowering him to speak and to act wholly from God the Creator.

Verse 26, &c.] The Son includes in Himself all the living ideas that by efflux constitute the various objects of creation : the Father interiorly fills and perfects them with an expanding and vital energy.

5181. [John v. 17. My Father works] Thal is, on the sabbath. The bare suspension of the divine energy but for a moment would cause the instantaneous dissolution of all worlds, and the tumultuous extinction of all, who inhabit them.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. jii.

p. 38.

Undoubtedly, because the blood of the grapes, poured out at the foot of the altar, ran into it by a covered drain. Consequently, at the time libatious of wine were at the altar poured into the subterraueous current, the water in the pool was troubled, or put in commotion by what was thus sent down into it. Compare Ecclus. I. 15, with Ezek. xlvii. I.

Verse 3.] Waiting for the fermenting of the water. See Gen, ix. 3. - i. 2 And the Spirit of God on the surface of the waters, caused a fermentation.

Bethesda] It is a great square profundily, green and uneven at the bottom : into which a barren spring doth drill between the stones of the north ward wall; and steals away almost undiscovered. The place is for a good depth hewn out of the rock; confined above (or upon that rock) on the north side, with a steep wall, on the west with high buildings, and on the south with the wall of the court of the temple.

SANDYS, Good Friday, 1611. On the 9th April, 1696, we went to take a view of what is now called the pool of Bethesda, which is 120 paces long, 40 broad, and 8 deep: at the west end are some old arches, now dammed up, which, though there are but three in niumber, some will have to be the five porches in which sat the lame, halt and blind.

MAUNDRELL. Verse 4.] Many things concurred, says the learned GROTIUS, that this should not be thought any nalural kind of healing by the water. Omitting other circumstances, “I couceive,” says Sir Norton KnATCHBULI., “ this alone to be argument enough, that none was healed but he who first stepped in after the troubling of the waters. If the core had been by a natural cause, why,” he asks,: "" were not more healed than one at the same time?”

5182. (-39.] Our Bible is our best book; the only one, that can afford true and solid satisfaction. It satisfies ; yet never satiates. The deeper it is searched, the more it pleases. It ever contains new and bid treasures : on the opening of which, there continually springs up in the mind a fresh pleasure, a renewed desire.

Reflections on Learning, p. 283. See No. 1233, 1229.

5179. [John v. 4.] That there is, in the water of LoughNeagh in Ireland, which preserves wood sound and entire for centuries, some peculiarly healing quality, is certain; but whether diffused through all parts, is not known, nor pretended. There is a certain bay in it, called the fishing-bay, which is in great repute for curing the evil, running sores, rheumatisin, &c. Many come there, having running sores, and are cured after a little time. Great crowds come there on Midsummer-Eve, of all sorts of sick; evcu sick cattle are brought, and driven into the water for their cure; and people believe they receive benefit. I know, says FRANCIS NEVILL. Esq., it dries up running sores, and cures the rheumatism, but not with once bathing as people now use it, and the drinking the water I am told will stop tlie flux.

Abs. Phil. Trans. of R. S. vol. vi. p. 68.

5183. [John vi. 1] Herod the tetrarch, to testify his gratilude to Tiberius, who honoured him with his friendship, chose out an agreeable place on the borders of the lake called Genesareth, and there he built a city which he called Tiberias.

JOSEPHUS' Antig. b. xviii, c. 2. $ 3. When Augustus adopted Tiberius, he solemnly declared on oath, that he was prompted thereto by no other motive than that of the public welfare, and often commended him in his letters as the ouly stay and support of the Roman people.

Tiberius was of the patrician family of the Claudii, both by the father's side, who was descended from Tiberius Nero, the son of Appius Caccus, and by the mother's, who was the daughter of Appius Pulcher, brother to the said Tiberius Nero. He was also allied to the family of the Livii, by the adoption of his mother's grandfather.

See Univer. llist. vol. xiii. pp. 382, 402.

5184. (7. Two hundred penny-worth of bread) Our denarius being seven pence three farthings, two hundred would amount to six pounds, nine shillings, and two-pence.

5180. [ 16.) Jesus performed all his miracles, we find, on the sabbath day. In this sense it was true, as the Jews say, that he did them “ by the Name Jeboval," which

5185. [

-14. That prophet) Like to Moses, particularly in feeding the people iniraculously, as Moses did their forefathers in the wilderness. On this account they were for making him a king, that he might lead them forth from under the tyravny of the Romans in Palestine, as their fathers had been delivered from Egyptian bondage by him who was king in Jeshurun, when the heads of the people and the tribes of Israel were gathered together; Deut. xxxiii. 5.

act of seeing is mine. So believing is the act of the creature; if it were not so, why should we be commanded to believe, and condemned for unbelief, or not believing? Rom. x. 10.

Dodd. See No. 1106, 1194, 1104, 1102, 1109, 1107, 1103, 1203.

5191. [John vii, 17.] Thus, a disposition is required as well in the eye of the soul, as in the object proposed, to make a man discern the origin and excellency of what is taught.

Boyle, on the Style of the Holy Scrip

tures, p. 236.

5186. [John vi. 27. Ilim has God the Father sealed] Assumed and impressed with his image in the New Christian Heaven, which is around our earth. -- The Egyptian priest, says BERODOTUS, having found a perfectly white bull as an appropriate victim, ties a label to his horns ; theu having applied wax, he seals it with his ring, it being unlawful to sacrifice what has not been marked with such a seal.

Sce Euterpe, b.ii. p. 117. In Egypt, the Jews have one particular custom: as they were afraid in the times of Paganism, to drink wine offered to idols, it was usual to have all the wine they drank made by their own people, and sealed up to be sent to them; and this custom they still observe in all the eastern parts.

Pococke's Trav. in Egypt. Pinker

ton's Coll. part Ixi. p. 312.

5192. [52. Out of Galilee ariseth no prophet] As the prophet Jonah was a native of Gathepher, a town in the tribe of Zebulun in Galilee, these men must have been either very ignorant or very perverse to have affirmed such a palpable falsehood.

See Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 348. Out of Galilee arises not the Prophet.

BOWYER.

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5193. [John viii. 4.] This woman has been con vieted of adultery, on her own evidence ; rather, fornicating with an Idol, a stumbling block, directly before her eyes, Rev. ii. 14. See No. 593.

See Sir NORTON KNATCHBULL. Hindoo females, from educational tenels and custom of caste, have been (invariably) taught that no sacrifice, no religious rite, no fasting, is allowed to women (wives] - apart from their husbands.

See Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. ir.

5188. [

-44.] Virgil frequently employs the word father, as synonymous with good.

See St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, vol. iv. p. 47. Verse 53.] See No. 955, 962, 1102, 1109,

P. 312,

5189. [-63.] Words in no language can be of any value as sounds : the sun and moon have just the same nature and operation, whatever be the letters and the sounds of their respective names.

After Origen and Jerome, all traces of Hebrew learning perished.

Rev. RICHARD CLARKE,

5194. [--- 7. Ile that is without the sin, let him first cast a stone against her] The Jewish councils or sanhedrims were of two sorts, the inferior consisting of twenty-three, and the greater one of seventy-two persons : the latter being emphatically called the grand sauledrim. Of the inferior sort there was one in every city, and two at Jerusalem, where there was a greater concourse of people and business. The grand one sat only at Jerusalem, and had a place appropriated to them in the temple.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 120.
A custom was of old, and still remains,
Which life or death by suffrages ordains :
White stones and black, within an orn are cast :

The first absolve, but fate is in the last.
See No. 665, 674. Ovid's Metamorphoses, b. xv. l. 55.

5190. [ 69.] Some people suppose that faith and believing are synonymous expressions, with one and the same meaning ; but I think they are different, and that believing is the act of faith, the same as seeing is the act of sight. I cannot see without sight; God gives me sight, but the

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