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4888, 13.] Physical consonances heighlen moral sensations, especially when there is a transition from one kingdom of Nature to another.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iv. p. 62,

4889. [17.] As the Moon, though destilute of natide light, yet by virtue of that borrowed one, which she plentifully receives from the sun, affords more to men than any of those stars, which, on the score of their vast distance from the sun, are, by modern naturalists, supposed to shine by their own light; 8u those illiterate Fishermen, whom the Sun of Righteousness called, and made the light of the world, did, by virtue of the copious irradiations He vouch

4891. [30. Fever] It is well known, that the effluvia constantly arising from the living human body, if long retained in the same place, without being diffused in the atmosphere, acquire a singular virulence ; and in that state, being applied to the bodies of men, become the cause of a fever which is highly contagious. — The existence of such a cause is fully proved by the observations on jail and hospital fevers. With respect to these contagions, it is proper to observe, that they are never found to act but when they are near to the sources from whence they arise ; that is, either near to the bodies of men, from which they immediately issue, or near to some substances which, as having been near to the bodies

of men,

of the heathen deity Apollo : Pytho, signifies putrid : in HOMER, epythonto means become rotten.

are imbued with their effluvia, and in which substances these effluvia are sometimes retained in an active state for a very long time.

Dr. Cullen's Practice of Physic,

No. 81. See No. 1177.

4897. [Mark iv. 11.] The word mystery, is always used in the New Testament for a thing intelligible in itself, but which could not be known without special revelation.


4892. [Mark ii. 4.] The Eastern houses being built round a square court, it is customary to fix cords from the parapet walls, of the flat roofs across this court, and on them to ex. pand a veil or covering, as a shelter from the heat. In this area probably our Saviour was teaching. The paralytic aight be brought on the roof by the stairs in the gateway, or the terraces of the adjoining houses. Then having rolled back the veil, they could easily let down the sick man over the parapet of the roof into the area or court of the house, before Jesus.

See Dr. Shaw, Trav. p. 277.

4898. [- :12.] Effects considered alone, unfold not any cause, But causes unfold effects. To know effects from causes, is wise. But to enquire into causes from effects, is unwise ; because, in that case, fallacies present themselves, which the investigator calls causes : and thus wisdom is misled; for causes are prior and effects posterior; and things prior.cannot be seen from things posterior. But things posterior inay be seen from things prior : this is order.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 119. That] Matthew translates because, xji. 13. 2 Cor. iv. 4. See Univer. llist. tol. iji.



4893. [-- 8. Jesus perceived in his spirit that they su reasoned within themselves ] As the hearer who bath in his mind the same language as that used by the speaker, can understand the mind of the speaker ; so he that is possessed of the spirit that is in another, can immediately perceive the things of the other's spirit.,

4899. - 19. Choke the word'] Men do not alter the seed : they only make it more or less fruitful.

4894. [-16.) In Greece, it was the custom at meals for the two sexes always to eat separately.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's llist. of IVomen,

vol. i. p. 129. See No. 1190.

4900. [--- 24.] It is justly ordained, that the evil which a man does to a fellow-creature should recoil, with seven-fold vengeance, on himself; and that no one can find his own happiness in the misery of another.

ST. PIERRE's Studies of Nature,

rol. iv. p. 130.

4901. [

-30, 31, &c ] This shews that the kingdom of Gov is naturally calculated to become great or extensive.

See No. 4681.

4895. [Mark iii. 21. He is beside himself] He will be stifled by the, croud.

See Le Scex. Ess. on a now Version. Matthew, giving an account of this affair, says it was the multitude who were besides themselves, or ravished with admiration, at the sight of our Saviour's miracles; and Luke makes the same remark, employing a word which always siynifies to be ravished with admiration,


for a New Trans. part ii. p. 211.

4902. [Mark v. 3] In Barbary, each family has a proper portion of ground walled in like a garden, where the bones of their ancestors have re nained undisturbed for many generations. In these inclosures the graves are all distinct and -separate ; each of them having a stond placed upright, both at the head and feet, inscribed with the name or uitle (2 Kings xxin. 17), of the deceased; whilst the intermediate space is either planted with flowers, bordered round with stone, or paved with tiles. The graves of the principal citizens are

4896. [30. An unclcan spirit] A pythonic spirit

4907. [Mark vı. 3.) Religion ainong the Turks, imposes it as a duty, even on their Sultans, to learn a trade, and to practise it. -- A mechanical art is necessary to the demands of human life, and calls only for the exercise of patience, the inseparable companion of virtue. St. Pierre's Works, vol. iy.



further distinguished, by having cupolas, or vauited chambers, of three, four, or more yards square built over them; and as these very frequently lie open, and occasionally shelter us from the inclemency of the weather, the demoniac (Murk v. 3) might with 'propriety enough have had his dwelling among the tombs ; as others are said (Isai. Ixv. 4) 10 remain among the graves, and to lodge in the monuments. And as all these different sorts of tombs and sepulcbres, with the very walls likewise of their respective cupolas and inclysures, are constantly kept clean, white-washed, and beautified, they continue to illustrate those expressions of our Saviour, where he mentions the garnishing of the sepulchres, &c. Matt. xxiii. 29, 27.

Shaw's Trav. in Barbary, Pinkerton's

Coll. part Ixiii. p. 654.

4908. [7.] Thus water consists of oxygen and hydrogen combined together. Atmospheric air of oxygen and nitrogen diffused together. Electricity probably consists of two fluids, which may be termed vitreous and resinous electricity. Magnetism also probably consists of two fluids, which constitute northern and southern polarity. The power of attraction seems to consist of gravitation and of chemical affinity And lastly, the element of fire consists I suppose, says Dr. DARWIN, of light and heat.

Phytologia, scct. xiii. 1. 1.

4903. [Mark v. 6, 7, &c.] All demons endeavoured to injure Jesus Christ by making him known before the time of his glorification.

Acts viii. 7.

4904. [-~-9.] There were in a complete legion thirty manipuli, or companies ; each company consisted of a hundred and twenty mell, and was divided into two bauds, or, as the Autients style them, orders : each order consisted o! sixty men, and had its peculiar centurion ; so that there were in a complete legiou sixty centurions, and each centurion had sixty men under his coinmand.

Univer, Hist, vol. xiii. p. 419. A legion of Romans contained 6000 foolmen and 732 horsemen. In every legion were ten cohorts ; in the first whereof were 1105 footinen and 13? forses, and this cohort had the aquila, and the antigard (antiguard). The other consisted each, of 655 footmen and 66 horsemen.

Month. Mag.for Jan. 1815, p. 627.

4909. [-14. Herod] Herod Antipas, second son of Herod the Great, by Malthace.

Verse 17. Herodias] Herodias, daughter of Aristobulus whom Herod the Great, his Father put to death; she first married Heroit Philip her uncle, and afterwards eloped from him to marry Herod Antipas his brother. By the former she has Salome who danced off John Baptist's head.

Verse 18. llerod] That is, Herod Antipas, who was son of Herod the Great by his sixth wife Cleopatra. This Herod had married Herodias the wife of his brother Herod Philip, son of Herod the Great by Mariamue his second wife.

Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 197, note (N).

4905. [ 13. The unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine] The original doctrine of the transmigration of souls from man to animals.

4910. [20.] The latter part of the verse should be read thus : kai kakosai (Acts xii. 1) auton polla epoiei, kai ede osautos ekoue (Grk): and, to harrass him, did many things, and in that way heard him frequently. - R. STEPHANU: and Beza had some Greek Copies, in which, instead of he did many things, are words which signify he was much vexed, or troubled. And Josephus the historian observes, that Herod had put John the Baptist to death because he thought the people were altogether led by him, which is an argument that he did neither respect him, nor hear him gladly, nor do many things for love of him.

See Essay for a New Translati -n,

part ii. p. 124.

4906. [-38 - 40.] When it was falsely reported that Josephus was slain, the general lamentation did not cease in Jerusalem before the thirtieth day, and a great many had hired mourers, with their pipes, to begin the melancholy ditties for thein. (Joseph. Wars, b. iii. ch. ix. § 5.) Such public mourners, hired ou this occasion, doubtless were the wretches that laughed our Saviour to scorn.

4911. [-- 25. Give me hy and by) Instantly; before sober reflection, or the remonstrances of the humane, could operate against the fulfilment of her barbarous request.

Shah Abbas, being one day drunk in his palace, promised a female who danced much to his satisfaction, the fairest

Hhan in all Ispahan. This Hbau yieided the king a great the market, except they wash, they eat not) Horrible! as revenue in chamber-rents. Next morning the Nazer, re- if all men were uuclean but themselves. minding him of what he had done, took the freedom to tell bim The neglect, in Catholic countries, of fasts, confessions, that it was unjustifiable prodigality. On this the king ordered penances, and pater-nosters, is a crime of the first magniher a hundred tomans, which at £3. 9 each, were in value tude. And there is, perhaps, no country where the people three hundred and forty-five pounds; with which she was have not a greater abhorrence of some of these crimes of forced to be content.

prejudice, than for villanies the most atrocious, and the most Thevenot's Trav. in Persia, p. 100. injurious to society." In a charger] The kind of vessel, it seems, still used in

HELVETIUS. the honorary presentment of such heads to the sanguinary tyrants of the East. Thus the Grand Seignior, we are told lately, having according to custom, received in large silver 4915. [Mark vii. 4, 6.] The Kemmont, a sect of Chrisdishes, the heads of such officers as had been decapitated by

tians, are bewers of wood and carriers of water to Gondar, his orders, gave further command that they should be ex

aud are held in greai detestation by the Abyssinians. They posed in those dishes at the entrance of bis Porte. They

nold that, having been once baptized and having once commuwere accordingly so exposed, with labels denoting their

picaled, no sort of prayer or other attention to divine worerimes.

ship is necessary. They wash themselves from head to foot Public Prints.

after coming from market or any public place, where they may have touched any one of a sect different from their

own, esteeming all such unclean. 4912. [Mark vi. 29.] The shrine of John the Baptist is

BRUCE, dol. iv. p. 275. near the great mosque in the city Aleppo. — “ The people of Aleppo are splendid; those of Syria are sordid; the E.yptians are thieves; and the Hindustances are the favourites of

4916. (5.) Bread might not be eaten by the Jews, God.” — So say all Eastern Nations.

unless they had first washed their hands; but they were Kuojeh ABDULKURREEM, p. 143.

allowed to eat dried fruits, with unwashed hands. — This circumstance should be particularly noticed, as bread is emphatically mentioned by the Evangelist.

See Woorten's Miscell. vol. i. p. 166.

4917. [- 11. Ye suy, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free] As the word Corban signifies a present made to God, the Pharisees taught, that a man having once said as above to his parents, had thereby cousecrated all he possessed to God, and could not even retain enough for that honorary support of his father and mother, which was, as our Lord intimates, indispensibly required by the law.

See Dr. A. CLARKE's Additions to

Fleury, p. 318.

4913. [Mark vii. 3.] In the time of Eleazar the high-priest, arose those elders among the Jews, who taught that Traditions are equaliy to be observed with the Scriptures them. selves. Antigonus of Socho, who succeeded Simon the Just in the presidency of the Great Sanhedrim, was the first of these Mishnical, or traditionary doctors.

We read in ( Macc. ii. 42, that Mattal bias was joined by a company of Asideans who were mighty men of Israel, and voluntarily devoted to the law. These, not content with the written law, added by way of supererogation the rigorous observance of all the traditions and constitutions of the elders. They were consequently denominated in Hebrew Chasidim, the pious; which, according to the Greek idiom and pronunciation, may be rendered Chasideans, Hasideans, or Asideans

The Pharisees, going still further, enjoined the traditions of the eiders, and other rigorous observances, as precepts necessarily to be obeyed. Thus, being righteous over much, they sépurated themselves from all others, even from the Aside ans, as not sufficiently holy, and were thence called in Hebrew Phurisces, that is Separatists. See No. 1184. Wells' Continuation of the Jewish Hist.

vol. ij. pp. 83, 88, 92.


Corban] In the fourth Court of the Temple, called the Court of the Gentiles, was the Corban, or Treasury, into which the widow (Mark xii. 42. Luke xxi, 2) cast her mite.

4919. (26. A Greek] That is, one who spoke Greek; and used the Septuagint Version, says Dr. A. CLARKE. (See Rom. i. 16.

Gal. ii. 28. Acts yi. 1. 1X. 29.) -We might translate - the Jews that spoke Greek.

See Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 194.

4914. (4. And when the Pharisees come from

4920. (Mark vii. 34 Ephphatha] Syriac, our Lord's vernacular language, as appears from other Syriac expressions; particularly in Ch. v.41, we read as his own words Talitha Cumi : and in Mati. xxvii. 46. we have Eli, Eli, lama sabachihani more properly Ail, Ail, lamono sabachthani; for Ail, pronounced II, or Eel, was mistaken for Hil, or Hila, which is the Syriac word for vinegar, Mark xv. 36 (See Christian Researches in Asia, p. 114.) -The above instances are no proof whatever that Jesus Christ usually spoke Syriac as his vernacular or mother tongue. It only proves, that the spirit in Him when working miracles, as on the day of Pentecost, spoke to every man in his own language. The spirit of a Syrian could be properly worked upon in his own tongue ' Ephphatha'; · Talitha Cumi.

weakness of his reason. The next day the Abbe learned from the man himself, that the fear of thunder was not the cause of his disease; but that however be found a fatal connexion between the phenomenon and that distemper. He added, that when the fit seized him, he perceived a vapor rising in his breast, with so much rapidity, that he lost all his senses before he could call for help.

Phil. Trans. vol. xlviii. p. 436. See No. 1124.

4924. (Mark x. 2.] From the foundation of the Roman republic to the first divorce, there intervened a period of five hundred and lwenty years, though the nien had a power of divorcing their wives almost at pleasure.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of Women,

vol. i. p. 246.

4921. (Mark viii. 24. And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees, walking] The Lord thus obscurely seen, was probably the tree of life mentioned in Genesis, Revelations, &c.

See No. 1158, 1157.

4925. (9.] A union of minds, effected by the good, sphere united to the true one as proceeding from the Lord, is real conjugial love. As marriages are the seminaries of the human race, and consequently the seminaries also of the heavenly kingdom, they are therefore in no wise to be violated, but to be held sacred. See No. 219, 4739, &c.


nn. 2728, 2733.

4922. [Mark is. 12.) Elias, in coming first, anticipates all things : wherefore he must suffer many things and be set at nought, as it is written of the Son of man.

Verse 13.) But I say to you that Elias is come already, as it is urillen of him ; and that they have done to him whatsoever they listed.


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4923. (17— 27.] The Abbe Mazeas, at the castle of Maintenon, drew electric sparks from an epileptic person, 35 years old, during a thunder storm. At first the young man bore them; but in iwo or three minutes, perceiving his countenance change, and fearing that an accident might happen to him, M. Mazeas begged he would retire. He was no sooner setorned home than his senses failed him, and he was seized with a most violent fit. His convulsions were taken off with spirit of hartshorn ; but his reason did not return in an hour and a half. He went up and down stairs like one who walks in his sleep, without speaking or knowing any person, settling bis papers, taking souff, and offering chair's to all that came in. When he was spoken to, he propounced inartieulate and unconnected words. When he recoveren his reason, he fell into another fit His friends said, that lie was more affected with the distumper when it thanciao ibau at any other time; and that it it happened that sot inti) escaped, which it rarely did, his eyes, bis countenance, and the confusion of his expressions, sufficiently demonstrated the

4927. [ 14.] “We are perpetually told that human nature is essentially perverse; that man is born a child of the devil – Bring together all the children of the universe, you will see nothing but innocence, gentleness, and fear. Were they tuin wicked, sprieful, and cruel, some signs of

I would come in theo, ag lnile snakes strive to bite, and Hiltle tygers to tear. But Natuje having been as sparing of densive wtapous to man as to pigeous and robbits, it cannot have given theil an instinct to mischief and destruccion."


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