speculations; for, never intending to go beyond speculation, it costs nothing to have it maguificent.

Burke's French Revo. p. 94.

of such things as have never entered into the idea of any person ; and this without the least fallacy. - Whereas several say, they would believe, if any should come to them from the other life, it will now be seen whether they will be persuaded contrary to the hardness of their hearts. This, he adds, I can aver, that they who come into the other life from the Christian world, are the worst of all others, hating their neighbour, bating the faith, and denying the Lord ; for, in the other life, hearts speak and not mouths. Besides, they are given to adultery more than the rest of mankind. Thus, since heaven begins to be removed from those who are within the Church, it may appear, as also has been given me to know of a certainty, that its last time is at hand.

Arcana, nn. 1885 — 6. Preface.

4795. [Mati. xxiii. 14. Ye devour widows' houses ] The external spirit is from the woman, the internal from the man : when the internal is dead, the woman is a widow.

4796. [-16.] For a full account of the motives that exciled the Pope's apparently pious zeal, in combining almost all the then Christian princes in a crusade or holy war against infidels ; See Purchas's Collection of Travels, vol. ii. p. 1245.

4790. [Matt. xxii. 24.] By the laws of So lon, if a man died intestate and childless, it was incumbent on the next heir to emancipate one of his own sons or near relations, and appoint him, by a kind of adoption, son to the deceased, together with his name and a considerable portion of his estate. See No. 604.

Sir W. Jones, vol. iv. p. 231.

4797. [-26. Pharisce] Derived probably from parash (Hebr.), to shew, to clear, to teach. See No. 1096.

Nat. Delin, vol. iv. p. 143.

4791. [30.] The handmaid, as Bilhah, was by Laban given in Marriage, Gen. xix. 19. - The Patriarchs, like the Mahometans of the present day; were allowed to have in their houses four kinds of women. 1. The married woman, or only wife. 2. The given in marriage. 3. The hired servants. 4. The sold slaves.

4798. [ 35.] See 2 Chron. xxiv. 20 – 22.. And Well's Preface to Zechariah.


There can be no life in what is useless ; for whatever is useless is rejected.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 503. See No. 1216, 1220.

4799. [

-37.]. Pheasants were brought into Europe from the banks of the Phasis, a river of Colchis, in Asia Mirror.

GOLDSMITH's Animated Nature, vol. v.

p. 184.

4800. (Matt. xxiv. 1. To shew him the buildings of the Temple] Even the Holy Place in Solomon's Temple was but thirty cubits high; whereas that built after the captivity, was by Cyrus's grant, sixty cubits high.

See Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 181. and com

pare 1 Kings vi. 2 with Ezra vi. 3.

4793. (Matt. xxiii. 3.] As it would be very foolish in us, and ungrateful towards the Father of Lights, not to make use of the great light we receive from the sun, by the moon, or not to acknowledge the moon to be a very useful creature, on the score of that light wherewith she shines on the earth, theugh, in her, that light be destitute of heat; so it would be unwise and ungrateful for hearers to refuse to acknowledge, or be guided by, the conspicuous endowments of learning and eloquence that God vouchsafes to great scholars, though they themselves were but illustrated, not warmed, by the beams they reflect.

BOYLE's Reflections, p. 58,- Works,

vol. iv.


Thus did the Second Temple built by Zerubbabel, and rebuilt, enlarged and adorned by Herod, exceed that of Solomon in glory, according to the prophecy of Haggai.

See CONSTANTINE's P Empereur's Preface

to his Comment on the book of Middoth.

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4802. (Matt. xxiv. 1.] These buildings, begun by Herod the Great, were 80 years in finishing.

The altar of burnt-offerings was likewise high and spacious, being forty cubits in breadth and Gifteen in height. The ascent to it was, according to Exod. xx. 25, 26, smooth and without steps; and the altar, of unhewn stones. It was surrounded at a convenient distance with a low wall or rail, not above a cubit in height, which divided the court of the priests from that of the lay Israelites ; so that the last were allowed to come thus far to bring their offerings and sacrifices; but the priests only were allowed to come within that enclosurt.

Joseph. Antiq. l. xv. C. ult. Bell. Judaic.

l. i. c. 16. I, vi. c. O et alab.

4804. [Matt. xxiv. 3.) At the destruction of Jerusalem, armies were seen to fight in the sky, and their armour looked of a bright light color, and the temple shone with sudden Aashes of fire out of the clouds. The doors of the temple were opened on a suddeu, and a voice greater than human was heard, that the gods were retiring, and at the same time there was a great motion perceived, as if they were going out of it, which some estcerned to be causes of terror.

Tacitus's list. book v. chap. xii.


The walls of this slapendous fabric were raised from the deep valley beneath, to the hieight of three hundred cubits and upwards, and some of the stones of it were forty cubits long, all fastened to each other with lead and iron, to be proof against time, wind and weather. The platform was a regular square of a stade or furlong on each side. Each front of this square had a spacious gate or entrance, enriched with suitable orvainents; but that to the west had four gates, one of which led to the palace, another to the city, and the two others to the suburbs and fields. This enclosure was surrounded on the outside with a strong and high wall of large stones, well cemented; and on the inside had, on each front, a stately piazza or gallery, supported by columns of such bigness that three men could but just embrace them, their circumference being about twenty-seven feet. There were in all, one hundred and sixty two of them, which supported a cedar ceiling of exquisite workmanship, and formed three galleries, the middlemost of which was the largest and highest, it being forty-five feet in breadth and one hundred in height; whereas those on each side were but thirty feet wide and filly in height.

The piazzas and court were paved with marble of various colors; and at a small distance from the galleries was a second enclosure, surrounded with a flight of beautiful marble rails, with stated coluinns at proper distances, on which were engraven certain admonitions in Greek and Latin, to forbid strangers, and those Jews that were not purified, to proceed further under pain of death. This enclosure had but one gate on the east side, none on the west, but ou the north and south_ it had three, placed at equal distances from tach other.

A third enclosure surrounded the Temple properly so called, and the altar of burnt offerings, and made what they called the court of the Hebrews or Israelites. It was square like the rest; but the wall on the outside was surro

rrounded by a flight of fourteen steps, which bid a considerable part of it; and on the top was a terrace of about twelve cubits in breadth, which went quite round the whole cincture. The east side had but one gate, the west hone, and the north and south four, at equal distances. Each gate was ascended to by five steps more before one could reach the level of the inward court; so that the wall which enclosed it appeared within to 'be but twenty-five cubits high, though considerably higher on the outside. On the inside of each of these gates were raised a couple of spacious square chambers, in form of a pavilion, thirty cubils wide and fúrty in height, each supported by columns of twenty cubits circumference.

This enclosure had likewise a double flight of galleries on the inside,' supported by a double row of columus; but the western side was only one continued wall, without gales or galleries. The women had likewise their particular courts separate from that of the men, and one of the gates on the north and south leading to it.

4805. [7.] In the year 1707, which was a Jubilee, or Judgment year, an island arose by earthquake out of the Archipelajo ; of which a historical account inay le read in M. MORUS's New Enquiry into the changes of the Earth, p. 2 c. 2.- M. Morus endeavours to prove, that the mountains at this day in which marine bodies are lodged, were formerly the bottom of the sea, and along with such bodies raised above the sea by earthquakes at various and remote periods. See Isai. xl. 4.

See No. 259, &c.

4806. [-15.] The Romans, on the flight of the sedi. tions into the city, and on the burning of the holy house itself, and of all the buildings round about it, brought their cnsigns to the Temple, and set thein over against its eastern gate ; and there did they offer sacrifices to them.

Josera. Wars, book vi. ch. vi. § i.

vul. vi.


The entire religion of the Roman camp almost consisted in worshipping the ensigns, it swearing by the ensigns, and in preferring the ensigns before all the gods. See No. 823.

HAVERCAMP's Note on Josephus.

4808. [-17.] As the houses in that country are all flat-roofed, and communicate with each other; a person there

might proceed to the city-walls and escape into the country, without coming down into the street.


was the Christ whom Moses forelold ; and he appears to have procured followers.

ORIGEN, cont. Cels.



4809. [Matt. xxiv. 17.] The stairs of Eastern houses are placed sometimes in the porch, sometimes at the entrance into the central court. When there is one or more stores, they are afterwards continued through one corner or other of the gallery to the top of the house. By this stair-case we may go up or down, without entering into any of the offices or apartments, and consequently without interiering with the business of the house.

Dr. Shaw.

4810. [-- 20.] Jersualem was taken (hy Pompey) on the very day when the Jews were keeping a solemo fast in memory of is having been formerly taken by Nebuchadnezzar, viz. on the 28th of the month Cilen, answering to December, according to the learned USHER (sub. A. 1.361.). But it is more probable that this awful calasirophe took place in the third inouth of the civil year called Thaimas, aliswer ing to our June, as dean PRIDEAUX has shew!), sub. A. ant. Christ. 63. Again on the same day twenty years afterwards, it was taken by Sosius, and the Jews then became subject to the Herodian sceptre, Joseph. Antig. l. xiv c. uli. Pompey, on taking the city, caused all the prisoners that were found to have been most zealous against him, to be pul to death, whilst a great number of the rest prevented him by a desperate exit, some throwing themselves down the deepest precipices, and oiliers, setting their apartments ou fire, burol themselves in it.

Univer llist. vol. x. p. 114.

4914. [.Vall. xxiv. 24.] The year 1666 affords a remarkable instance of imposture and superstition, in the case of Sabatay Sera, the pretended Messiah of the lews. This man, the son of a broker of Smyrna, being banished for a

umu't in the synagogue ibere, wandered over Greece for a time, and the went to Jerusalein. There he met wth oue Nathan, a subtle fe.low, who iaking upon him to be Sabatay's prophet, hat the impudence to declare, thai, ivithin a twelvemonth, the Messiah should appear before the Soltâi, and take the crown from his heait. Al the same time Sabatay preaching repentance to the Jews at Gaza, his fame spread far and war among that people, who flocked to him in multitudes on the

vay lo Smyru; where he openly assumed the title of Nie wiali, and published bis declaration thereof to all the nations of the Jews. The mortifications and other extrava

a ices committed by that infatuated people were astonishing. they believed the most improbable stories of him. Sone invented miracles in his favor, and others swore to be wit. nesses to them, while almost all believed ther, and were ready to tear in pieces those who did not At lenith 'the impostér declared he was called of God to visit Cuustauiinople; but, at liis arrival, the Wazir had him scized and put in prison. Yet this did not cure the phrenzy of the Jews; whose numbers and madness daily increased to such a degree, thai the Solàa at last ordered him to be brought into his presence.

No pon can describe their confidence of this occasioni

, ill asserting the power of their pretended Messialı, and the wonders which he would perform. But here the farce at ouce ended : for Mohammed, demanding a miracle in proof of his mission, put it to this issue, that he should be stript naked for his archers to shoot at, and promised, in case the arrows did not pierce his body, that he himself would acknowledge niin to be the Messiah. This was a very fair proposal, but Sabatay chose rather lo confess hiinself a cheat, and turn Moliammedan, than stand the trial.

Modern Univer. Iisi, vol. xii. p. 506.

4811. [--- 23, 24.] There never arises any one man eminently distinguished, in whatever line, but there appears at the same time, either in his own Country, or in some neighbouring Natiou, an antagonist possessing talents, and a reputation, in complete opposition.

St. PIERRE'S Studies of Nature,

vol. 111. p. 120.

4812. - The MAGNET, being in reality nothing but a very rich iron ore, attracts iron, which partakes of its own NATURE (2 Pet. i. 4), but no other body.

SMITH's If onders of Nature and Art,

vol. iii. p. 33.


About the year of Christ 116, Caziba, taking advantage of the heart-burnings which then reigned among the Jews, on account of Adrian's having sent a colony to rebuild Jerusalem, which he designed to adorn alter the Roman style, and to call by his name Elia ; set himself up as head of their nation, and proelaimed himself their long expected Messiahı. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans, and was become so powerful by this time, that he was chosen king of the Jews, or, according to their own writers, succeeded his father and grandfather in that dignity, and was by them acknowledged their Messiah. However, to facilitate the success of this bold enterprize, he changed his name into


After the times of Jesus, Dositheis, a Samaritan, endeavoured to persuade his countrymen that he

yet it consists not in reflected solar light; otherwise, we should see the sun on her surface. The rays of the sun put the particles of ether in her atmosphere into a whirling motion, which excites and exhibits her electrical light.

See WINKLER's Elements, vol. ii.

p. 229. § 564.

that of Barchochab, or Barchocheba, alluding to the star foretold by Balaam. 2. He pretended to be a star sent from heaven, to restore his nation to its antient liberty and glory. And, 3. Chose for his precursor Akiba, who, being then in high repute among the Jews, as chief of the Sanhedrim, declared him to be the star that was to rise out of Jacob. The persecution which they had suffered under Adrian had so far paved the way for these two impostors, that they quickly raised an army, out of their own nation, of 200,000 men, and made Bither, a city near Jerusalem, the place of their retreat, and the capital of this new kingdom.

Here Barehochab was anointed king, and caused some money to be coined with his name, by which he proclaimed himself the Messiah and prince of the Jewish nation; but deferred declaring war against the Romans, till Adrian had quitted Egypt; so that it did not break out till the seventeenth year of that emperor's reign, as Basnage has clearly shewn. Adrian, having sent against this impostor Tinnius Rufus, but without success, dispatched after bim Julius Severus, one of the greatest generals of his age, who, effectually besieging the insurgents in Bither, eventually slew Barchochab; after which followed a most dreadful slaughter of the Jews, insomuch that, as their writers affirm, a far greater number of them perished than at first came out of Egypt.

Ibid. p. 151.

4819. [Matt. xxiv. 29.] During the eruption of Vesuvius in 1669, which continued 54 days, neither suu por slars appeared.

SMITH's Wonders of Nature and Art,

vol. ii. p. 16.


The Rev. Mr. STIRLING gives an ac. count of a darkness for six or eight hours at Detroit in America, on the 19th of October, 1762, in which the sun appeared as red as blood, and thrice ils usual size : some rain, falling,' covered white paper with dark drops, like sulphur or dirt, which burnt like wet gunpowder ; and the air had a very sulphureous smell. He supposes this to have been emitted froin some distant earthquake or volcano. Gen. xix. 24.

Phil. Trans. vol. liii. p. 63.

4816. [Matt. xxiv. 24.) In the year of our Lord 530, one Julian set

up for the Messiah, and drew after him many of the Jews of Palestine, who were in great hopes of him, from the title of Conqueror which he took, and the great appearance he made; and who having armed all his followers, led them against the Christians. These, being fearless of any hostiJities from the oppressed Jews at that tiine, were slaughtered by them in great numbers ; till at length the emperor, Juztinian, sent his forces and suppressed them; they fighting rather like wild desperadoes, than regular troops.

Their leader being taken and put to death, the revolt immediately ended.

Ibid. vol. xiii. p. 216.

4821. [

-30. They shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory] The second coming of Christ, immediately after the destruction of Jerusalem, attended with awful signs and concomitants, is announced both here and in Luke ; and from these and other parts of the New Testament, it appears the disciples were told that they were to be present on that occasion, either on earth or at the judgment above. That generation was not to pass away till all these things were fulfilled, and both heaven and earth should sooner fail than this prediction. Jesus espressly said, on sending forth bis disciples to preach the g03pel, “ Ye shall not have gone over all the cities of Judah before the Son of Man be come.” The apostles therefore called it the last times, and the end of the age.

See No. 1339.

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4817. [- - 28.] A carved eagle, of wood or other light substance, was, in the Roman armies, the military ensign 'of a whole legion, glittering, and fixed to the head of a long hasta or spear, about 8 feet high ; of which the eagle alone was about 8 inches, incrusted or overlaid with plates of gold or silver.

Abs. Phil. Trans. vol. vi. p. 39. The Roman armies, for every legion, bore two eagles for their ensign.

Nathanael WARD.

4822. (32.) Matthew here speaks of the time when the generality of fig-trees put forth leaves; for PLINY (Nat. Hist. xv. ch. 18) says there were different species, the præcoses, early ripe or forward fys; scrotinæ, late-ripe figs ; and hyemales, winter-figs: the first, he tells us, were cum Messe maturescentibus, ripe at harvest-time.

4823. [34.] In the Court of Chancery it is usual to reckon generations by periods of from 33 to 35 years. – It is a remarkable coincidence, that the Babylonish captivity, and the destruction of Jerusalem, each terminated after two such generations of 35 years; that is, in the seventieth year

4818. [- 29. The moon shall not give her light] Though the light of the moon be produced by the sun's rays,

from the commencement of the captivity and of the incarnation respectively. (See Note on Luke xxi. 32.) – As to the custom of reckoning by generations, it is undoubtedly of great antiquity; as we find Herodotus using that method of computation, in several places.

4829. [Matt. xxiv. 51.] A piece of wire that has been touched with the load-stone, being split asunder, the poles are sometimes changed, as in a divided magnet, the north becoming the south, and the south the vorth ; and sometimes one half of the wire will retain its former poles, and those of the other half be changed.. See Heb. iv. 12. SMITH's Wonders of Nature and Art,

vol. iii. p. 34.

4824. [Matt, xxiv. 34.) The Temple was burnt August 10, A. D. 70: the same day and month on which it had been burnt by the king of Bahylon. (Joseph. Antiq. b. xx. ch. xi. $ 8.) - It has been by degrees perceived, that the first star of aries reinoved a degree towards the east, from the point of the equinox, in 70 years; and in short, all the signs are at present advanced 30 degrees, eastward of the points to which they originally gave their names : This is called the precession of the equinoxes,

Nat. Delin. vol. iv. p. 177.


Among the Fragments of Roman jurisprudence, as collected by Baldwin, there is one law which permits the body of the debtor to be cut in pieces, and divided amongst his creditors for want of payment.

Reflections on Learning, p. 180.

See No. 1336, 1339, 1350, 294.

4825. [-36.] But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no not the angels of heaven ; but my Father only (as it will not pass on earth nor in heaven, but in the intermediate state) : lest if they on earth saw the judgment on their relations and friends, they should be unprofitably distressed; as those in heaven would, if they should behold an unfavourable judgment upon such as they had loved below.

4831. [Matt. xxv. 1.] It was the general practice of antiquity, on a wedding-day, to go forth to meet the bridegroom and bride with lamps and flambeaux. The friends of the bridegroom bore torches of resiny wood ; and the young virgins, friends accompanying the bride, carried lamps in procession to the bridegroom's house.

Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heavens,

vol. i. p. 177.

4826. [

-38.] Wben the Nile was of the requisite height, they sang and danced, as is still practised in Cairo; and all over Egypt, on the like oocasion.

Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heav.

vol. i. p. 226.

4832. [-6.] On the marriage-day in India, at night the bride and bridegrooun are carried in state through the town, with torch-light and music before thein, and fireworks are played off as they pass in the streets.

Captain HAMILTON, Pinkerton's Coll.

part xxxji. p. 319.

4827. (-41.] In the East, most families grind their wheat and barley at bome, having two portable grind-stones for that purpose, the upper of which is turned round by a small handle of wood or iron, placed in the edge of it. When the stone is large, or expedition is required, then a

second person is called in to assist; and as it is usual for the 4833. [-—— 25, 28.] if they who are principled in evil,

themselves over against each other, with the mill-stones between them, singing all the time they are thus employed.

Dr. Shaw, p. 297, folio edit.

were to be iustructed a thousand ways, and this instruction were of the most perfect kind; still the truths of faith, with them, would enter no further than into the memory : they would never penetrate into the affection of the heart. The truths, therefore, of their memory are dissipated, and become no truths, in the other life.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 2590.

4828. (45.) In England, property, to a considerable extent, has been bequeathed to the Established Clergy by individuals, for the use of the miserable. Most of the rich Ecclesiastical Commendams we shall find, were destined for the relief of the leprous, and of wretches shut up in Hos. pitals.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iv. p. 261.

4834. 33.] Before the sanhedrim the Jews placed those to be acquitted on the right, and those to receive sentence of condemnation on the left hand.


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