4648. [Matt. x. 16.] Serpents sleep with their eyes open, and are perpetually on the watch during the winter season,



4642. [Matt. x. 1. Unclean spirits] There are in the world men-angels, and men-devils : heaven is from the former, hell from the latter. A man-angel is continually withdrawn from evil by the Lord, and led to what is good : a devil is also continually withdrawn by the Lord from evil, yet only from a more grievous to a less one ; he cannot be led to what is good. The man-angel and the man-devil appear like each other as to externals, but internally they are wholly unlike: when therefore, their externals are put off by death, their dissimilarity becomes evident, and they are consequently removed, the one to heaven, the other to hell.

See SWEDENBORG, on the Athanasian

Creed, n. 43.


The serpeni is the most wakeful of all animals : the whole tribe sleep with their eyes open, and are consequently for ever on the watch.

Hall's Encyclopedia, article Serpent.


The dove is a delicate creature, that feeds only on vegetables.

GEDDES, on Gen. vii. 9.

4643. [-3. Alpheus] Alias Cleopas, who lived in Cana of Galilee, and in whose house was the Marriage, mentioned John ii. 1.

4651. [-23.] The progress of Christianity was 120 at the Ascension, soon after 3000, then 5000, and in little less than two years after the Ascension to great multitudes at Jerusalem only.


4644. (-4. Judas Iscariot] Ish-chirret (Hebr.), the man of the bag, or the bag-bearer. Chirret is properly a bag: in such a one Naaman is said to have tied his present to Gehazi ; and John tells us, that Judas carried a bag, and was a thief: Hence probably the nick-name.

See Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 318.

4645. [- — 8.] As the moon freely communicates to the earth, the light she receives from the sun; so the bountiful person imparts to indigent men the largesses he receives from the exuberant goodness of God. And as the moon enjoys not the less of light, for her impartiog so much to the earth ; so in mental communications liberality does not impoverish, and those excellent gists cease not to be possessed, by being imparted.

Boyle's Reflections, vol. iv. p. 57.

4652. -26.Angels and spirits discern the nature and temper of another, the instant he appears in view. They perceive also the quality of his faith ; and receive, by communication, a knowledge of his scientific attainments. They penetrate the interior of every idea; perceive the nature, origin and end of each one's affection ; and receive, by transmission, another's communicated delights and happiness.

See SWEDENBORG, Arcana, nn 1339— 1392. By a peculiar sphere, spirits are thus known at a distance as to their natures and qualities; that is, as to their affections and persuasions. This sphere exists from the activity of the things in their interior memory.

Ibid. n. 2459. A sphere from any thing, gives forth the image of the thing itself. See Acts xvi. 9.

Let not man, therefore, any longer believe, that his thoughts are concealed; and that he inust not give an account of his thoughts, and of his actions according to the quantity and quality of the thought by which they were influenced; for actions have their quality from the thoughts, as thoughts have their quality from the ends proposed.

Ibid. n. 2488.

4646. [-9.] The girdles of the Arabs in Barbary are usually of worsted, very artfully woven into a variety of figures, and madle to wrap several times about their bodies. One end of them being doubled and sewed along the edges, serves them for a purse, agreeably to the acceptation of the word zone (Grk.) in the Holy Scriptures.

Shaw, Trav. p. 292. fol.

4647. {-- 14.] It was customary for the Greeks and Eastern people to shake their clothes, at the door of the house they went from.

Madame DACIER. - Compare Luke x. 11.

4653. [--- 29. Sold for a farthing] If Assarou be originally Latin, as Beza pretends, it answers to our halfpenny, or at least to a farthing and a half; but if we understand it of a piece of money of the same name, which was

used in Syria, as is very probable, and which was of silver, and weighed four barley corns ; it was equal to our penny. See No. 138.

Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 35.

evil to good; he is only perfected by Him in the right ideas and impressions received from without.

Rev. xxii. 11.

4661. [Matt. xi. 11.] Strong instances of self-denial operale powerfully on our minds; and a man who has no wants bas obtained great freedom and firmness, and even diguity.

BURKE's French Revolution, p. 153.

4654. Mart. x. 29.) According to the Cartesians, all local motion is adventitious to matter ; and was at first produced in it, and is still every moment continued and preserved, immediately by God: Whence may be inferred, that He colie curs to the actions of each particular agent; and cousequently, that His Providence reaches to all and every one of them.

Boyle's Christian Virtuoso, p. 34.

4655. [- 36.] The particles of one gas are not elastic or 1 epulsive in regard to the particles of another gas, but only to the particles of their own kind.

DALTON's Chemical Philosophy, part i.

4662. [- 12.] For an intelligible idea of this passage, Dr. GREGORY refers us to the following Tradition of the Jewish elders.-Two men had an inheritance divided betwixt them in equal portions; but it is said of one of them, that he carried away his own part and his fellow's too : therefore they called him Ben Hamtsen, the son of violence, until the day of his deatiı. (Talmud in Joma. c. 4. fol. 30. a.) -Thus the kingdom of heaven, the gospel of the kingdom (Matt. ix. 35 compared with Luke xvi. 16), adds the Doctor, was first offerred to the Jew, with an invitation that he would take his half: This the Jew refusing to do, the Gentile, like a good Ben Hamisen or sou of violence, took his own share, and the Jew's also.

See Gregory's Notes and Observations, &c.

P. 154.

4656. - The Anabaptists and Calvinists hate cach other much more than either of them do the Catholics : and so, in short, you will find it universally; the nearer the religious sects approach, the more they hate one another.

RiesBECK. Pinkerton's Coll. part xxiii.

P. 27.

p. 141.


The kingdom of heaven presseth vehemently. Sce Amos ii. 13. The kingdom of heaven exciteth, and the excited catch it. See No. 1269.

4657. [-- 42.] Mr. STRUTT, in his Anglo-Saxon Æra, tells us from the authority of Venerable Bede, that Edwine caused ladles or cups of brass to be fastened to the clear springs and wells, for the refreshment of the passengers.

Observations on Popular Antiquities,

p. 86, note.

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At Cairo, as well as at Constantinople, there are several elegant houses where fresh water is distributed gratis, to passengers.

NIEBUHR, Trav. vol. i. p. 61. See No. 1121, 1274.


Ammonia is not retained in water without external force; and the pressure of no elastic fluid avails but that of ammoniacal gas itself.


part ii. p. 126.

4659. [Matt. xi. 7.] In Rome, and the country around, they use to tie and support their vines on reeds.

WINCKELMAN's Herculaneum, p. 63.

4666. [--- 15.] Truth is a fine pearl, and the wicked inan a crocodile, who cannot take it into his ear, because he has none : Rev. xi. 3.

If you throw a pearl to a crocodile, instead of decking himself with it, he will try to devour it, at the risk of breaking his teeth with the effort, and will then tly at you in a rage : Matt. vii. 6.

Truth must be sought for with singleness of heart; it is to be found only in Nature ; it is to be told only to the good.

St. Pierre, vol. iv, pp. 538, 562.

4660. [~ 10.] Man is not changed by the Lord from

4667. {Matt. xi. 27.] A Goite can never aspect or directly view the Infinite ; but the Infinite can aspect or look at wbat is infinite from Himself in finites. See No. 1084. SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 53.

and in the due regulation of our affections consists our happiness as reasonable beings. If there is one condition in this life more happy than another, it is, surely, that of him, who founds all his hopes of futurity on the promises of the Gospel; who carefully endeavours to conform his actions to its prccepts; looking upon the great God Almighty as bis Protector here, his Rewarder hereafter, and his everlasting Preserver. See No. 1268, 1097.

Bp. Watson.

4668. [ 29.] In antient Rome, when a couple were ready for the ceremony (of marriage), they put a yoke on their necks, called conjugium ; and hence our word conjugal (rather, conjugial), or yoked together, is derived; a ceremony highly emblematical of the matrimonial state.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER'S Hist. of Women,

vol. ii. p. 252.

4671. [Matt. xii. 1.] The next day, says Adanson, I went a herborising and coursing over the beautiful fields on the opposite bank of the river Senegal. At that time (June) they were covered with a large kind of millet, called guiarnatt, or guinea corn: it was now almost ripe, and the negroes had covered the ears with its own leaves, to sbelter it from the sparrows. My negroes in order to amuse themselves in this long walk, and to quench their thirst plucked several entire stalks of millet, and sucked the juice, after stripping it out its husk. They gave me some to taste, and I found it sweet and pleasant. I do not doubt but the stalks of millet, prepared in the same manner as sugar canes, would afford a very proper juice for making sugar.

Adanson's Voy. to Senegal, in Pinkerton's

Coll. part lxvii. p. 615.


As to the Gimmal, or Gemmow (from gamos (Grk.), marriage) Ring; it was constructed, as the name (gimmal, from gemella) imports, of twin or double hoops, which played one within the other, like the links of a chain. Each hoop had one of its sides flat, the other convex; each was twisted once round, and each surmounted by a hand, issuing from an embossed fancy-work wrist or sleeve ; the hand rising somewhat above the circle, and extending in the same direction. The course of the twist, in each hoop, was made to correspond with that of its counterpart, so that on bringing together the flat surfaces of the hoops, the latter immediately united in one ring. On the lower hand, or that of which the palm was uppermost, was represented a heart ; and, as the hoops closed, the hands slid into contact, forming, with their ornamented wrists, a head to the whole. The device thus presented a triple emblem of love, fidelity and union.—The French term for this ring is foi, or alliance; the definition of which, in the Dictionnaire de Trevoux, supposes the two hoops to be composed, one of gold, the other of silver; a distinction evidently meant to characterize the bridegroom and bride.- From a simple love-token, the Gimmal was at length converted into the more serious “ sponsalium annulus," or ring of affiance. The lover putting his finger through one of the hoops, and his mistress hers through the other, were thus, symbolically, yoked together; a yoke which neither could be said wholly to wear, one half being allotted to the other.

Archæologia, vol. xiv. p. 7.

4672. [- 26 – 28.] When two miraculous assertions oppose each other, believe the less miraculous.


4673. [-- 40.] In the belly of a great fish. See No. 1063, &c.

Essay for a New Trars. part ii. p. 60.

4674. [ 44.] The Indians believe that good and bad genii wander always about, and sometimes suffer themselves to be seen. For this reason they are wont to invite them to eat in their houses ; and, on such occasions, they clean their habitations that they may be ready to receive them.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 333.


It is a trite objection, and grounded on a misapprehension of the design of Christianity, which would represent it as an intolerable yoke, so opposite to the propensities, as to be utterly destructive of the felicity of the human mind. It is in truth quite the reverse ; there is not a single precept in the Gospel, without excepting either that which ordains the forgiveness of injuries, or that which commands every one to possess his vessel in sanctification and honor, which is not calculated to promote our happiness. Christianity regulates, but does not extinguish our affections;

4675. [-- 45.] It is but an appearance that spirits themselves enter into inen. The influent sphere of their operation, is what is derived into the man to whom it is determined.

The evil spirits attendant on man are indeed from the hells, but on such occasions, when they are attendant, they are not in bell, but are taken out thence. The place where they then are, is in the midst bel weeu beaven and hell, and is called the world of spirits.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, nn. 5717,5852.

will not stir a step ; and, if he be laid down in such a manner that one eye be covered with the grass while the other is hidden with a stone, or whatever is next at hand, he will continue fixed in the same situation, and will not so much as attempt to rise to free himself from those slight impediments.

GOI DSMITH's Hist. of the Earth,

vol. ii. p. 382.

4676. (Matt. xii. 50. The same is my brother, and sister, and mother] As the Juno of the Romans was represented to be the wife, inother, and sister of Jupiter.

BARTOLOMEU, by Johnston, p. 329. See No. 1297, 1066.

4680. [Matt. xiii. 15.) To cure only the understanding, is merely to cure a man outwardly. This would be like a palliative healing, by which the interior malignity, shut in and prevented from making its escape, consumes first the neighbouring parts and afterwards the more remote, till the whole is mortified. It is the will itself which is to be cured, not by an influx of the understanding into it, which never takes place, but by instruction and exliortation from the understanding. If the understanding alone were healed, the man would become like a dead body einbalmed, «s covered over with fragrant aromatics and roses. Such would be the deflement of celestial truths in the understanding, if the evil love of the will were obstructed.

SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,

n. 282.

4677. [Matl. xiii. 3.] Analogy is founded in the very nature of the things ou both sides of the comparison : And the correspondency or resemblance is certainly reul, though we do not know the exact nalure, or manner, or degree of it; at least we may safely presume this from the truth and veracity of God, who has made his Revelations to mankind under the Analogical Conceptions and Language of this world.

Bp. BROWNE's Procedure of the Un

derstanding, p. 1-12. The real nature and intrinsic properties of the divine things as they are in themselves, which are ultimately referred to in our (parables, or) christian doctrines of mysteries, are utterly imperceptible and inconceivable to us; and consequently are no immediate objects of our present knowledge or faith : But the (parabolic) doctrines and propositions in which those things are revealed by a correspondent representation and mediate similitude; are as plain, and ol vious, and as easily understood as any thing in nature or in human language.

Bp. BROWNE's Divine Analogy, p. 192.

4681. [

-21] Those whom interest and not affection binds to our service, will be the first to desert us in the hour of difficulty and distress.

W. White, Junr.

4682. 129, 30.] The roots of wheat and darnel are so intertwined in the earth, that it is often impossible to pull out the one without hurting the other, perhaps bringing it up along with it. Both, therefore, should be left to grow together until harvest : but then the daruel must not be suftered to remain any longer among the good wheat; else would it not only intoxicate and sicken those who might eat of the bread inade from it; but likewise spoil the succeeding crop by its pernicious mixture. See Lev. xix. 19.

Sinith's Michaelis, vol. ji.

p. 347,

4678. [-8.] Mr. Charles Miller of Cambridge sowed some wheat on the second of June 1766, and on the eighth of August one plant was taken up and separated into eighteen parts and replanted; these plants were again taken up and divided between the middle of September and the iniddle of October, and again planted separately to stand the winter, and this second division produced sixty-seven plants. They were again taken up, and divided between the middle of March and the middle of April, and produced five huudred plants. The number of ears thus produced from one grain of wheat was 21,109, which masured three pecks and three quarters of coru, weighed forty-seven pounds seven ounces, and were estimated at 576,840 grains !

Phil Trans. col. lviji.




During the time of this world, God may be considered as the good Husbandman ; le sows the seed, the end of the world is the harvest, the Angels are the reapers ; if you are wheat you are to be gathered into the barn, if you are tares it siguifies nothing whence, or how, or ly what means you are become so ; tares are to be rejected because they are tares, and wheat to be gathered by the Angels because it is wheat : This is the Mercy, and Goodness, and discretionary Jusiice of God, that you are to expect at the last Day. If you are not wheat, that is, if the heavenly Life, or the kingdom of God, is not grown up in you,

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it signifies nothing what you have chosen in the stead of it, or why you have chosen it, you are not that, which alone oan help you to a place in the divine granary.

Law's Appeal, p. 26.

4689. [Matt. xiv. 1. Herod the tetrarch] Alias Herod Antipas, Second Son of Herod the Great, by Malthace.

Verse 3. For Herod had laid hold on John] Herod Philip, by Mariamne.

4684. [Mati. xiii. 32.] The mustard-plant thrives so

4690. [7.] Sujeutra, a rich and populous village, mightily in Chili, says Ovalle, that it is as big as a man's

fifteen miles from Cambay, belongs, says Forbes, to a set of arm, and so high and thick, that it looks like a tree. I have travelled many leagues, through groves, which were

dancing-girls, who frequently have lands aud villages astaller than horse and man; and the birds build their nests in

signed them by the princes of Hindostan.

Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 95. them, as the gospel mentions in these words (ita ut volucres cæli veniant et habitent in ramis ejus) : so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof." Pinkerton's Coll. part lvi. p. 38.

4691. [--8-11.] In Egypt, the officer of the night in his rounds, and the officer of the day in his circuit, judge,

condemn, and execute in the twinkling of an eye, without 4685. Near Orotava, the Canary birds (the appeal.

appeal. Executioners attend them, and, on the first sigoal, melodious tenants of the mustard-tree) were in general, says the head of the unhappy victjin falls into the leathern bag, HUMBOLDT, uniformly green; some had a yellow 'tint on in which it is received for fear of soiling the place. their backs: their note was the same as that of the tame

VOLNEY's Trav. vol. i. p. 190. canary. — The yellow canaries, he adds, are a variety which has taken birth in Europe.

4686. [-34.) As hieroglyphics were more autient than parables, parables were more antient than arguments.

Bacon's Preface to kis Wisdom of the



By an antient custom in Persia, the queen had a right, on the king's birth-day, to demand of him any favor that she thought proper ; Amestris asked that the wife of Masistus (whom she erroneously supposed to pimp for the king) should be delivered into her hands; whom she had no sooner received than she ordered her breasts, uose, tongue, and lips to be cut off, and thrown to the dogs; and that she should be detained to see her own fesh devoured by them.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's flist. of Women,

vol. i. p. 234.

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4687. [ 45, 46.] The fishery coast for pearls begins at Cape Komori, and ends at the promontory of Koil, in the principality of Marava. It is said to bring to the Dutch company who have a factory there, 20,000 pounds. yearly tribute. Seed-pearl is found in the sand.”

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 570. With the Romans, diamonds do not appear to have been in so much request as pearls, of which they possessed some immensely valuable: one, presented by Julius Cesar to Servilia, the mother of Brutus, cost him forty-eight thousand pounds sterling. The celebrated pearl ear-rings of Cleopatra were valued at one hundred and sixty thousand pounds.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii.

4693. [-10.] Machærus, a fortress situated on a hill not far from the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, on the confines of the two countries, was the place in whicb John was imprisoned and afterwards beheaded.

Michaelis' Introduction, &c. by Marsh,

vol. i. p. 51.

p. 85.

4688. [45.] Coral, when spoiled for use, becomes discoloured and einits a very fetid sinell, arising from the corruption of its polypi, that have died for want of their natural element, or of food.


4694. [-17.] Instead of ichthuas (Grk.), used here and in Mark and Luke, John uses opsaria, from opserion, whatever is eaten with bread. Now Michaelis contends, that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew about the 8th year after the Ascension of our Lord, or A. D. 41; and that the Translation of it into Greek, was made about A. D. 61, or later. Whether this Gospel were written originally in Hebrew or Greek, is a question by which the most emiuent critics have been greatly puzzled and divided. The balance however is clearly in favor of a Hebrew original.

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