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4534. [Matt. iii. 4.] Wickliffe translates akrides (Grk.), Locustæ, honey soukis, supposing them lo be plants or wild flowers; and it is the opinion of many, that they were the fruit of the Locust-tree, or tops of plants.
Travellers, passing near Jordan, have found a kind of fruit or pulse, eaten by the Monks there, which they call locusts : SANDYS, in particular, describing the wilderness of John the Baptist, remarks, that it abounds with trees called locusts. The Italians call the fruit of these trees carobe ; the French call it careages ; and the Dutch denominate it Jaans Broot, that is, Jolin's Bread: it is the same as what the prodigal son desired to eat with the swine, Luke xv. 16, which should be there rendered carob-beans : it was very commonly eaten of old by the prophets, and by poor people, as may be seen from what CAPELLUS advances on Prov. xvii. l.
See Sir Norton KNATCHBULL's Annot. on the New Test. pp. 18, 19, 20, 21.
And Essay for a New Trans. part ii. p. 166. Also Drs. HAMMOND and BARONIUS.
JOSEPHUS speaks of a honey pressed from the (membranous covering of the flowers of certain) palmtrees near Jericho, as little inferior to the honey of bees.
Wars, b. iv. ch. viii. $ 3.
Wild (tree-) honey.] PLINY, speaking of what he calls the Elaiomeli, or oil-honey, says that it dows from the olive; and that in the maritime parts of Syria, it coines spontaneously, flowing from the trees, of a fat substance thicker than honey, finer than resin, and sweet of taste. - That this is the meli agrion (Grk.), or wild honey of Scripture, we think there is all the reason in the world to believe. See 1 Sam. xiv. 25.
Unider. Hist. vol. jji.
Wild bees, or hornets, extract their honey froin wild flowers, whose juices are much more bitter than those of garden flowers.
Nature Delinealed, vol.i. p. 113.
4632. [Matt. iii. 4.] Dr. Clarke in his Travels relates, that a tree grows in Palestine, which is called the locust-tree, and produces an eatable fruit. It also grows in several of the countries, which border the Mediterranean sea. It has been lately found in much greater abundance, in some parts of the East Indies, whence it has now become an article of export. Many thousands of its pods are at present (1816) in the Warehouses of the East-India Docks. These pods are about 20 inches long, and from half to three quarters of an inch in diameter. We call them pods for want of a term, which should more accurately describe them, but they are not flat, neither have they that sort of hinge on one side and slight fasteving on the other, which plainly shew how the shells of peas and beans are to be opened. On the contrary, these are round; but there are two opposite lines along thein, where the color alone would induce any one to suppose the skin to be, as it is, thinner than elsewhere. Having this fruit before us only in its dry state, we can describe it in no other; but at present a knife could scarcely be inade to penetrate the thicker part, and does not very easily make its way into the thinner. The fruit, which lies in little cells within, is a pulp, or paste, somewhat like that of tamarinds, but smoother, and not so sweet. There are pips in it, nearly as hard, and about half as large, as those of a tamarind, containing a kernel in each.
Such was a part of the food of John the Baptist during his abode in the wilderness. It should be added, that in the stem of this locust-tree, the wild bees still deposit their honey.
CLEMENT of Alexandria says of St. Matthew, that "he abstained from the eating of flesh; and that his diet was fruits, roots and herbs."
Pedagogue, b. 2. c. 1. In Minorca, brown wheaten bread is the principal nourishment of the poor. Tbe general breakfast is a piece of bread, a bunch of grapes or raisins, and a draught of water.
ARMSTRONG's Hist. of Minorca, p. 209. Descartes, at his table, in imitation of the good-natured Plutarch, always preferred fruits and vegetables to the bleeding flesh of animals. See No. 348.
SEWARD's Anec. ii, 17).
The locust-tree the robinia pseudacacia of Linneus, is very frequent in America: its fine leaves, and the odoriferous scent which exhales from its flowers, cause it to be planted, and with great propriety, near their houses, and in the gardens.
Kalm's Trav. Pinkerton's Coll.
part liii.p. 456.
4540. [-6.] The Jordan passes through the lake of Tiberias into the Dead Sea. - Its waters being pellucid, soft, and without any obvious saline taste, “I was led to suppose,” says Dr. MARCET, " that it was uncommonly pure, and could in 10 degree partake of the peculiar saliue qualities of the Dead Sea.” Bit, by analysing its properties, I discovered in it the same salts, and was induced from a variety of circumstances to infer, “that the River Jordan might possibly be the source of the saline ingredients of the Dead Sea, or at least that the same source of impregnation might be common to both." See Ezek. xlvii. 10.
See Phil. Trans. for 1807,
vol. ii. p. 312.
water becomes vapor by the means of fire, and air is nothing but vapor and exhalations rendered elastic by fire. This mighty agent is every where at hand, ready to break forth into action, if uot restrained by other things. Being always in motion, it actuates and enlivevs the whole visible mass of the world, it distinguishes the various stages of nature, and keeps up the perpetual round of generations. So quick in its motions, so subtil and penetrating in its nature, so extensive in its effects, it seeins no other than the Vegetative Soul and Vital Spirit of the world.
NEWTON as quoted in Barton's
Analogy, p. 63.
— 16, 17.) When angels are in discourse concerning different kinds of knowledge, concerning ideas, or concerning influx, there then appear, in the World of Spirits, as it were birds formed according to the subject of their discourse. The thoughts of those who are in the false sphere, are represented by dark and deformed birds; but of those who are in the true sphere, by birds of a noble and beautiful appearance.
SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n 3219.
Fire is the universal fountain of life, order, distinction, stability and beauty of the universe. It is not only in the sun and other heavenly hodies, but it makes part of every lump of maller upon, and in our Globe ; it may be struck out of the hardest masses, and is discovered in the deepest caverns; the very water, which is geverally supposed to extinguish it, does also retain it, as appears from the Bashing of waves in the time of a storın ; it exists even in the darkest caverns, as is evident from hence, that many animals see in the dark, and fire may be kindled in them, by the collision of bodies. Gold is no more than mercury with alondance of light or fire in it, as appears from an experiment. Fire mixes with all bodies, and its operations are various according to its kind, quanlity, and degree of vebemence. As it mixes with water, one degree of it keeps water fluid, another degree of it turns it into elastic air. For
4549. [Matt. iv. I. Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wilderness) Into an elevated sphere circuitously above the earih, wliere all terrestrial things are exbibited by emanation in their virtual images or spiritual essences : There is the World of Spirits, the Paradise of Sacred Scripture. Rev. xvii. 3.
- to be templed of the devil] the sphere passing through infernals and coinbining into a inonstrous shape..
4552. [-2.] Fourteen men and women of the Juno, wrecked on the coast of Arracan, lived 2:3 days without a morsel of food.
DALYELL's Spallanzani Introduc. p. 41.
4553. [3.] The spirits of hell assault, and the angels of heaven defend themselves.
SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence,
As natural love may by degrees ascend, and become spiritual and celestial ; so also it may by degrees descend, and become sensual and corporeal : it so far descends, as it loves dominion from no love of use, but from the sole love of self: This love is what is called the devil.
SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 424.
4554. [ 5. The holy city] The Orientals never call Jerusalem by any other name than Elkuds, the Holy. Sometimes adding the epithet Elsherif, the noble. This word Elkuds, seems to me, says VOLNEY, the etymological origin of all the Cassiuses of antiquity, which, like Jerusalem, were high places; and had temples and holy places erected on them. (Truv. vol. ii. p. 305.) — PRIDEAUX also was of opinion, that the Cadytis of Herodotus is the city Jerusalem.
See his Connec. vol. i. p. 57.
Not into a desert, but into the desert; a phrase, which must suggest to the mind of the reader the Great Desert of Arabia, in which the Israelites wandered so many years, and in which Mount Sinai is situated : and this notion, if not elsewhere contradicted by the historian, will appear the more probable, when in reading of a miraculous fast of forty days, we recollect a similar fast of Moses and Elias on Mount Sinai, or on the way to that mountain. See Erod. Xxxiv. 28. 1 Kings xix. 8. The instant we imagine our. selves in this Desert, the whole history, including buth the artifices of Satan and the answer of our Lord, receives extraordinary ligfit. — The people of Palestine, shew the wilderness, in which Jesus is supposed to have been tempted, and from the forty days it has acquired the name of Quarantaria : it is an extremely rugged and wild ridge of mountains, to the north of the road, which leads from Jerusalem by the Mount of Olives to Jericho. Its aspect is most hideous : but it can hardly be the Desert of the Templation : and the assertion of those, who for 1600 years past have been paid by travellers for shewing the Holy Places of Palestine, is utterly destitute of weight Not to insist, that no writer of common sense would call this merely the Desert without a more particular description, its situation is at variance with the whole history : no man could there be in danger of perishing with hunger : for in whatever part of that desert lie might happen to be, he need travel only for a few hours to reach a place, where provisions might be had, viz. Ephrain, Bethel, Jericho, or elsewhere: if any one were there so unreasonable as to say to a famished worker of miracles, “ Command that these stones be made bread,” the proper answer would be, “Shall God, then, work a miracle merely in aid of our sloth ? Let us go and buy bread.” The Angels, also, ou this supposition were superfluously employed in bringing food to Jesus. Again, our Saviour could not here have been altogether in solitude, imor as Mark (i. 13) says, among wild beasts or serpents, but among men, possibly among robbers, who then infested this Desert, and made it dangerous to travel from Jerusalem lo Jericho.
MICHAELIS, as quoted in Middleton's
Doctrine of the Greek Article,
Then the devil -- selleth hin on a pin. nacle of the temple] This could not be actual; for he was then in the wilderuess, whence he is said to retura after the templation. Luke iv. 14.
4557. [--- 7.] Jesus said again to him, It is written.
sheweth hin all the kingdoms of the world] Our Earth being interiorly figured in the spiritual world, and transparent, so as lu be seen entire and at once.
See Rev. xxi. 18. Sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world (not of the earth, but of the world above), and the glory of thein. The glory of one of these kingdoms, probably, is identical with that electric light arising from the earth's inagnetism, which is necessarily of a ferruginous nature, because 110
4561. [- 18.] One species of coral is white, in great request among Negrocs, as giving an agreeable contrast to their jelly shins. There is also a black coral, a sea-plant abouncing in this lake and in the salt waters of the Asphaltis, little used by the Europeans, but in great repure with the Asiatics and Arabians. These lurn it into a great variety of tors; into spoons, heads of canes, handles for kuives, hilts for swords, necklaces, and other trinkets. They also wake of it chaplets of beads, with which at present, the Mahometans of Arabia Felix regulate their devotions; and without wliich, around the neck in one more rows, they sưldoin, if ever, inter a corpse.
Sce Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 166.
- 9. Blessed are the peace-makers) “The best and most useful laws, I have ever seen, are generally practised in Holland. When two inen are determined to go to law with each other, they are first obliged to go before the reconciling julges, called the peace-makers. If the parties come attended with an advocate or a solicitor, he is obliged to retire, as we stake fuel from the fire we are de. sirous of extinguishing. The peace-makers then begin advising the parties, by assuring them, that it is the height of folly to waste their substance, and mak" themselves mutually miserable, hy having recourse to the tribunals of justice :
follow but our direction, and we will accommodate matters without any expense to either'. If the rage of debate is too strong upon either party, they are remitted back for another day, in order that time may soften their tempers, and produce a reconciliation. They are thus sent for twice or thrice ; if their folly bappen to be incurable, they are permitted to go to law; and, as we give up to amputation such members as cannot be cured by art, justice is permitted to take its course." See No. 1117.
4562. [- 23.] It has been questioned by what right Christ and his Apostles, who had no public character among the Jews, taught in the synagogues. In answer Dr. Lightfoot observes, that though this liberty were not allowed to any illiterate person or imechanic, but to the learned only; yet they granted it to prophets and workers of miracles; and such as set up for leads and leaders of new sects; in order that they might inform themselves of their dogmata, and not condemn them unheard and unknown. Under these characters Christ and his Apostles were admitted to this privilege.
JENNINGS' Jewish Antiq. vol. ii. p. 54.
4563. [- 21.) There are no lunatics among savages.
St. Pierre's Studies of Nuture,
vol. iii. p. 231.
4569. [-- 16.] The Fire at the sun is the Father of glory, forms the Light, sends it oui in rays every way: the moon and planets receive their shares of this glory from the
Light; they have none of their own: each of them receives it but on one side, on that side next the sun; and the reflection of that light, from each, is the glory of each, glory comparatively great in proportion to the magnitude of the planet, the shortness of its distance, &c. Hence men's crowns are but each a hemisphere of rays : so that, to altri. bute glory, is by reflection, to irradiate it on others; and thus, jointly, backward to the Glory, the Light ABOVE.
HUTCHINSON's Glory or Gravity,
NIEBUHR, the relations of a person murdered have leave to accept a composition in money.
the culprit is brought to receive his sentence, adds BARON DU Tott, even Then is the time to negociate with the frieods of the deceased, and to endeavour to bring about the accommodation.
See Nieb. p. 197; and Du Toit,
4575. [Matt. v. 25, 26) Among the natives of Sierra Leone, disputes are generally decided with equity, and the party who loses his suit pays all costs and damages befure he goes out of court, or is obliged to give good security.
4570. [Matt. v. 22. Whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire) “ It is found, that men are extremely jealous of their character in this particular; and many instances are seen of profligacy and treachery, the most avowed and unreserved ; none of bearing patiently the imputation of ignorance and stupidity. Dicearchus the Macedonian general, who, as Polybius tells us, openly erecteel oue altar to Impiety, another to Injustice, in order to bid defiance to mankind; even he, I am well assured, would have started at the epithet of fool, and have meditated revenge for so injurious an appellation."
A farthing kodrans (Grk.), in value half the assaron, is strictly but three quarters of a farthing.
See Essay for a New Translation,
part ii. p. 35. Anu Mall. a. 29.
Man, careless, froward, stubborn, vain, impetuous, disdains the imputation of ignorance, and loathes the authoritative dictales of assuming superiority.
HOOPER, M. D.
4577. --- In Edward the First's time the penny was wont to bave a double cross with a crest, iu such sort that the same might be easily broken in the middle, or in a quarter, and so made half pence or farthings. In the 8th of Edward the First they were first made round ; then 200 weighed an ounce troy.
4578. [-28.] Whosoever looketh on a wife to lust after her, hath committed adultery &c. See No. 834, 1170, 830.
4572 [ 24.] It was a custom and a law among the Jews, that the sacrifices of particular men should not inimediately, as soon as they were due, be bronght to the altar, but that they should be reserved to the feast next following, whatsoever that were, whether the
passover, or pentecost, or tabernacles, and be then offered. At these times all the Israelites were present, and any brother against whom one bad sinned, was not far off from the altar. To this time and custom of the nation it is probable that Christ might bere allude.
Lightfoot's Irorks, vol. ii.
4579. [-29,30.] And if thy right eye would cause thee to offend, let it be plucked out, and cast from thee : &c. By what is here said of the eye and hand, it is probable our Lord refers to members of correspondent importance in the church; who, op doing injury, should be separated for the preservation of the main body. In this sense,
whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one meniber be honoured, all the members rejoice with it.” I Cor. xii. 26. See Bib. Research. vol. i. p.
4573. - 25.] These officers were of ihe nature of Sheriffs in England : It was their business to put the judge's sentence in execution ; so that for that end they carried staves, whips, and other such instruinents along with them when they went to the courts.
Out of the body of the Deacons ope was usually chosen lo overlook the rest, the Arch or Cardinal Deacon being generally styled the Eye of the Bishop to inspect all parts and places of bis Diocess. Niatt. xviii. 9. Sce Prim. Christianity, part i. p. 156.