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master of a Jewish family makes diligent search into every hole and crevice throughout the house, lest any crumb of leavened bread should remain in it: and that not by the light of the sun or moon, but of a candle.

JENNINGS' Jewish Antiq. del. ii.

p. 211.

4426. [-12.] At the time of the Passover, the

4427. [Zeph. ii. 6.] And the sea-coast shall be sheep-cotes ; caves for shepherds, and folds for flocks.

Abp. Newcome.

4429. [Zeph. iii. 12.) When Nebuchadnezzar, governor of Babylon, led an army of 600,000 men against Jerusalem, he slew a third part of the Israelites, carried a third part of them into slavery, and imposed a tribute on the remaining third.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 74. For a similar judgment effected afterwards on the Jews by the Romans, see Rev. ix. 18.

4428. [Zeph. ii. 13.) Sir Isaac Newton (Chronol. p. 292) tells us, we cannot err above a year or two, if we refer the destruction of Nineveh, and fall of the Assyrian empire to the second year of Jehoiakim”; that is, to the year before Christ 609.


ATER, like earthenware, is incapable of forming a perfect barrier to any kind of air: but it differs from earthenware in one respect; the last is alike permeable to all the gases, but water is much more permeable to carbouic acid gas, &c. than to others.

Dalton's Chem. Philosophy, part i. p. 207. Verse 6. Into a bag with holes] The Maldivians have a large silk fringed girdle, in the left side of which is a pocket for carrying their money and betel, and in the right a knife is stuck.


4432. [Haggai ii. 2 - 9.) There have been three temples at Jerusalem ; the first built by Solomon in seven years, the second by Zerubbabel in forty-six, and the third by Herod the Great in eignt. The last was the inost stately. In this, and not in Zerubbabel's teinple, was fulfilled the prophecy of Haggai, that the glory of the last house should be greater than that of the first.


4433. 1-7.] The Chinese had, among their most valuable records, some signal prophecies of the Messiali's being to appear in human flesh in some of the Western paris of the world ; and which were so plainly understood, so firmly believed, and so religiously preserved, that their great philosopher Confucius, who lived near 500 years before our Saviour, could point out the very year of their cycle, or sexagenary, in which he was to be born.

Vodern Univer. Hist. vol. viii. p. 345.

4431. [Haggai ii. 3.) For several leagues below Montreal in America, the churches have spires, covered, according to the custom of the country, with plates of tin nailed on diagonally, the corners of which are folded over the heads of the nails, so as to guard them from moisture and prevent their becoming rusty. It is pleasing beyond description, as you sail along the river St. Lawrence, to behold these spires sparkling through the groves with which they are encircled, before the rays of the setting sun.

Weld's Trao, in N. America,

vol. i. p. 336.

4434. [ 19.] The word we translate harn, may also signify the plowed ground, wherein the seed is sown for to bring forth a crop the next year.

In this sense of the word, the general ineaning of the passage will be, that the seed-corn was not yet sown.

See Wells, in loco.


I HIS prophet began, about two months after Haggai, to, represented by an Osiris carried on a winged horse, the encourage the people to rebuild the Temple, by assuring them symbol of ships and their sails. of the Divine protection and blessing during the accomplish

The bark with its sail, was represented in Egypt and ment of the work.

Phenicia under the figure of a winged steed. On this acSee Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 548.

count it was that the people of Cadiz, who were originally of Pheniciau extraction, antiently gave a ship, whether large or small, the naine of a horse ; and speaking of their barks

they called them their horses. 4436. [Zech. i. 1.] The monument of the prophet Zecha They painted the figure of a horse on the stern of the riah stands in the city Damascus.

! Phevician ships. Jerusalem is ouly ten days' journey from Damascus.

STRABO, Geograph. 1. 2. p. 99. edit. KHOJEH ABDULKURREEM, p. 147.

Reg. Abbe Pluche's list. of the Heav. vol. i. pp. 47, 205.

4437. [- 8.] Five hundred paces from the gate of the eily (Bagdad) we met a young man of a good family, for 4439. [Zech. i. 8. In the bottom] Perhaps in Ono, the he was attended by two servants, and rolle on an ass, the valley of craftsmen (See Nehem. xi. 35): Where he might hinder part of which was painted red. (TAVERNIER's Trav.

now with propriety appear, as being about to excite workinen p. 111.) And Mungo Park informs is, that the Moorish

to repair the Temple. Sovereign Ali always rode on a milk-wbite horse, with its tail dyed red. See Zech. vi. 2. Rev. vi. 4.

Red horses] A species of camel. — The Israelites had no horses, nor are they of any great use in mountainous coun 4440.


2 0.
20. The four carpenters] Zerubbabel,

The four carpe tries: their kings had them out of Egypt, when they had Jeshua the son of Jozadak, Haggai, and Zechariah. Ezra occasion for them.

v. 1, 2.

Clarke's Fleury, p. 62. The Tartars of the present day are said to hold white horses (their camels) in great estimation ; how much they were esteemed in antient times, appears from various passages of different writers, who believed that they excelled in swiftness all horses of a different color.

4441. [Zech. iii. 1.] According to the Chronicon AlexQui candore nives anteirent, cursibus auras. Beloe's HERODO'r. Melpom. c. xxiii, note 28.

andrinum, this highpriest Jeshua, who accompanied the first Jews that returned from captivity under the decree of Cyrus, died in or about the third of the reign of Xerxes, and in the fifth

year of his own high-priesthood. - He was succeeded by his 4438. - As the Phenicians and others every year son Joiakim (Nehem. Xi1. 10. Joseph. Antig b. xi. ch. v. g 1), Janded in Egypt at the island of Pharos, thence to fetch who continued high-priest thirty years, dying about the flax, bceve-bides, the oils of Sais, vegetables, corn and twelfth year of Artaxerxes Longimanus. - To hiin succeeded provisions of all kinds; the annual return of the fleet was ll his son Eliashib (Nehem. iii. 1), who was bigh-priest forty

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4415. [Zech. iv. 10.] It is not to force that God gives a durable empire: it is lo harmony. By their barmony, little things adhere and become great; and it is frequently by means of their force that great things separate, clash, break in pieces, and become small.

We must not form a judgment of the goodness of machines from the magnitude of their movements : if the great produce a greater effect than the small, it is only because their levers are longer. The same is true of the comparative powers resulting from public and private virtues.

It is unquestionably certain that if, at a critical period, every Citizen would re-establish order in his own house only, general order would speedily result from the prevalence of universal domestic order.

St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv. pp. 215, 398. Some millions of men live on the product of the silk-worm and the burret.

4442. [Sech. iij. 1. A satan] He and Joshua, then on earth, were seen as here described, at the extremities of their own spheres before the Lord; in the world of spirits which is above and around our earth : see Acts xvi. 9.

As to the real man who was the principal satan or adversary to Joshua on this occasion, the following extracts will prove that it was Tatnai, called by the Greeks Sisinnes. “ Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Josadak, began to build the house of God at Jerusalem. Then came Tatnai, with Shethar-boznai and others, and said to them, Who commanded you to build this house ? — and, to stop the building, wrote a letter to king Darius.Ezra v. 2, &c.

When Zorobabel the son of Salathiel and Jesus the son of Josedec began to build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, Sisinnes with Sathrabuzanes came and said to them, By whose appointment do you build this house ? Esdras vi. 2, 3, &c.

Sisinnes and Sathrabuzanes writing to Darius to put a stop to the buildiug of the Temple, he returned for answer “ Having found a copy of this (inclosed) Epistle among the records of Cyrus, I have sent it to you; and I will that all things be done as is therein written."

Joseph. b. xi. ch. iv. § 4, 5, 6, &c. Thus Tatnai opposed Joshua in re-building the Temple, as Sanballat afterwards resisted Nehemiah in repairing the Walls and Gates of Jerusalem.

See Nehem. ii. 10, 19. - iv. 7, 8, &c.

4446. [Zech. vi. 1. Four carriages] Caravans : the camel has never yet been harnessed or yoked in inachines or carriages of any kind !

Buffon. This is contradicted by every traveller.


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4443. [3] It was usual, especially among the Romans, when a man was charged with a capital crime, and during his arraigument, to let down bis hair, suffer his beard to grow long, to wear filthy ragged garments, aud appear

in a very dirty and sordid babit. (Alex. ab. Alex. Genial. Dier. l. iii. c. 5.) - The guilty person sometimes appeared before the judges clothed in black, having his head covered with dust.

BURDER's Oriental Customs, vol. ii.

4447. [

-1, 2, 3.] These Post Animals of different colors, dispatched by Ahasuerus to reverse the decree he had given Haman for the utter destruction of the Jews, were horses, inules, camels, and young dromedaries.

See Esther viii. 10. Verse 8. These that go towards the north] On mules and camels, the black and white horses ; of verse the 6th.

Verse 7. To and fro through the earth] That is, from east to west, and vice versa ; as, in tropical regions, the winds and tides regularly go to and fro; i.e. from east to west and from west to east.

Verse 8. Quieted my spirit) So that the Lord had no occasion to send deliverance from Nineveh which lay north of Jerusalem. See Esiner iv. 14.

- Or, quieted His spirit at Shushan, among the Jews, particularly in Mordecai, Esther, &c. See Esther ix. 18. And in Ahasuerus, vi. 1. vii. 10.

Verse 5. The lord of all the earth] Ahasuerus, who had dominion over a hundred and twenty-seven provinces. Esther i. 1.

p. 289.

4444. 9. The word in the Coptic of Upper Egypt, siguified Light, and the Arabic, the eye or fountain of light.

Archeologia, vol. xiv. p. 207.

4448. [-2, 7. Red or bay] The color of the dicuna camel on the upper parts is a reddish brown, and the remainder of an isabella color, except the breast, belly, insides of the thighs, and under part of the tail, which are white. It was formerly domesticated in Peru, as the lama is at present.


4449. [Zech. vi. 3. Grizled] The horses of Thibet are a peculiar race, generally pied, not exceeding the English galloways in size, natural amblers, and much valued as pads.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iji.

4455. [Zech. ix, 1. The burden] The judgment : Num. xi. 17.

Verse 2.] See 2 Kings xvii. 24, 25, compared with Ezra ix. 1, 2.

Verses 4, 6.] Ezra x. 3, 16, 117, compared with 2 Kings Xvii. 28 33.

Verse 6. A bastard] In Ezra, the decree is that the bastard breed born of the strange women should be put away. See Ch. x. 3.

Verse 8.] See Neh. iv. 7,8. -- Returneth, Neh. xii. 6, 7.
Verse 13.] Neh. iv. 16.
Verse 12. Prisoners of hope) See Esther viii. 16.

p. 100.

4450. [7. That they might walk] The camel walks at the average rate of ten or twelve leagues a-day. When he accelerates his pace, it is in the same manner as a horse ambles ; though to the rider ten times more jolting than a horse's hardest trot.


4456. [-9.] This is an account of Nehemiah's first coming to Jerusalem, under a commission for 12 years' absence. Nehem. v. 14.

After the 12 years, he returned to Babylon ; where, having tarried some years, he again ohtained leave from Artaxerxes to return to Jerusalem. Nehem. xiii, 6.

4451. [Zech. vii. 1.) This second captivity commenced at the destruction of Jerusalem, and ended precisely 18 years after the former, at the publication of Darius's decree for rebuilding the Temple and restoring liberty to the Jews. See 2 Kings xxiv. 10 - 16.

See Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 499.


Zechariah was probably put to death for thus proclaiming Nehemiah "a king in Judah.” (Compare Nehem. vi. 7 with Zech. xji. 10.) It is certain that Sanballat, Tobiah, and other heads of Samaria, sought the life of Nehemiah under that pretence. Nehem. vi. 12.

4452. [ - 3. Should I weep &c.] God did but appoint one day of fasting and weeping for sin, the expiation-day, or day of atonement : Lev. xxiii. 26, &c.

4453. [5.] These fasts, still kept by the Jews, were in commemoration of, 1. Nebuchadnezzar's first laying siege to Jerusalem. 2. Of its being taken by him. 3. Of its heing burnt together with the Temple. 4. For the murder of Gedaliah.

See Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 515.

4458. (13.) There were two kinds of bows in use among the Laplanders; the one called the Hand-bow, because it was stretched by the hand alone. This instrument was very simple, consisting of one arch, properly so called, and a string. The arrow, which was fitted to the hand-bow, was rather long, with a very sharp point, made of bove, or iron.

The other was called the Foot-bow. This besides the bow and string, was furnished with a wooden handle and button, made from the horn of the rein-deer, on which the string held when the bow was bent. The arrows placed in this bow were without point; but the foot-bow was stretched no less by the aid of the feet than the hands, whence it had its name.

PINKERTON's Coll. part iii. p. 421.

4454. [Zech. viii. 23.] Ten principal men came from Ahasuerus who reigned over 127 provinces, with Zerubbabel : Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan, Mizpah, Bigvai, Rehum, Banaah. Ezra ii, 2.

4459. [Zech. x. 4. Every oppressor] That is, Joshua, Nehemiah, &c.—every governor, that kept the Lord's people in subjection to Cyrus, Artaxerxes, &c.

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