thousand, counting the negroes, were it usual to reckon beasts of burden.

Nat. Delin. vol. iv. p. 208.

quite dry in the Isle of France, more than three hundred paces from the shore. This Island is surrounded with a bank of madrepores, which opens only at the places where the rivers of that island empty themselves into the sea. Other islands, several of the Antilles in particular, are defended by forests of mangliers which grow in the sea-water, and break the violence of the waves, by yielding to their motion.

Madrepores, when in a state of life, are brown, red, and of various other colors; but, rooted up and put into sea-water on the brink of the shore, they become in a little time white

4894. [Jonah iv. 5. And there made himself a booth] In Arabia the sheds occupied by the lower people are small huts baving a round root, covered with a certain herb.

NIEBUHR, Trav. vol. ii. p. 220.

as snow.

A border of mangliers, covered with oysters, opposed its floating foliage to the violence of the waves.

The manglier grows between the Tropics actually in the salt water.

The Jesuits'-powder is the pounded bark of a species of fresh-water manglier of Mexico.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. i. pp. 172, 194, 214, 221.

ii. pp. 262, 462.

4395. [--- 5, 6.] Thus the hovel of a poor un-industrious Negro is frequently placed under the shade of a great gourd-plant, the calabasse, which furnishes bin with dishes of every form.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 433.

4390. [Jonah iii. 3.] In China, the walls of Pekin inclose a circumference of twelve leagues.

MACARTNEY's Embassy.


It is exceedingly curious to behold the Wild Squash climbing over the lofty limbs of the trees; its yellow fruit, somewhat of the size and figure of a large orange, pendant from the extremities of the limbs over the water.




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Old Nineveh lay on the east side of the Tigris, extending its suburbs even on the west of that river where the city Mosul now stands. (THEVENOT, part 2. 1. i. c. 11. p. 50.) - Diodorus Siculus (lib. 2. p. 65).says, what appears almost incredible, that it was 480 furlougs, or sixty of our miles in circumference. STRABO again (lib. 16. 737) assures us, that it was considerably larger than Babylon. These accounts would be rendered probable, if we could believe that Jonah's three days' journey had reference to its circuit ; twenty miles being full ás much as a person in that hot climate could well walk in a day. But it is more likely he should mean, that it would take a mau three days to traverse its streets as he did in predicting its destruction.


A gourd] Celsius appears to me, says MICHAELIS, to have proved, that the kikiun is the kiki of the Egyptians : he refers il to the class of the Ricinus (or greal Catapucus).

See his Questions, No. 87. Al Basra, I saw for the first time, says NIEBUHR, the plant el-kheroa mentioned in Michaelis' Questions. It has the form of a tree: the trunk appeared to resemble leaves, rather than wood; yet it is harder than that which bears the Adam's fig. Each branch of the kheroa has but one large leaf with six or seven foldings in it. This plant was riear to a rivulet, which watered it amply. At the end of October, 1765, it had risen in five months' time, about eight feet, and bore at once, flowers and fruit, ripe and uuripe. Its flowers and leaves which I gathered, withered in a few minutes : as do all plants of a rapid growth. This tree is called at Aleppo, Palma Christi: an oil is made from it, called oleum de keroa, oleum cicinum, oleum ficus infernalis. — The Christians and Jews of Mosul (Nineveh) say, it was not the kheroa, whose shadow refresbed Jonah, but a sort of gourd, el-kerra, which has very large leaves, very large fruit, and lasts but about four months.

Descrip. Arab. p. 130, Fr. Edit. Whoever has travelled to Cairo, or Rosetta, knows that the species of gourd called kerra, will, in twenty-four hours, send out shoots nearly four inches long.

VOLNEY, Trav. vol. i. p. 71.

4392. [-- 6.] We know little of Sarac, the last king of Nineveh ; and of the exact time when the Assyrian empire utterly fell. Yet it is certain, that in the 2d, 3d, or 4th year of Jehoiakim, the Scythians destroyed Nineveh.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 218, 220.

4393. [ 8.] Barbadoes alone, though not more than 25 leagues in circuit, maintains 60 thousand inhabitants : I should have said, adds the polite Abbe Pluche, a hundred

4398. (Jonah iv. 6.] From Latikea, to Aleppo, says Col. CAMPBELL, we were nearly ten days on the road; during which time, we travelled only in the morning early, and in the heat of the day we reposed under the shade of

Kermez, used in dyeing ; which the Arabians style Dud alSebaghein, the Dyer's Worm.

See the Persian Dictionary FERHANG

Borhan KATTEA.


4401. [Jonah iv. 8. A vehement east wind] Called by the Turks Samiel: it usually extends its ravages all the way froin the extreme end of the Gulf of Cambaya, up to Nineveh. It carries along with it fteaks of fire, like threads of silk ; instantly strikes dead those that breathe it, and consumes them inwardly to ashes.



In the scorching desert, the Israelites had a cloud covering them ; Psal. cv. 39: which, among other uses, screened them from the rays of a burning sun by its cooling aqueous particles. Thus the Apostle, 1 Cor. x. 1, 2, represents the whole camp as being under the cloud, sprinkled or immersed in the humidity of its vapors, and in this sense baptized in the cloud.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Exod. xiii. 21. - 7. A worm] A waterspout, at the bottom, is wormed like a cork-screw : this writhing or whirling worm, the instant it smote the overshadowing cloud, would suck up its vanishing contents. Such a process Jonah might see, not in the earth at the root of a plant, but in the air at a considerable height over luis head; and such a cloud, when perished, would leave the prophet wholly unshaded, - whilst a " withered gourd” might still have repelled to a degree the beating heat of a reverberant sun.

4402. - The sun beat on the head of Jonah] At Nineveh, now called Mosul, the beat is so intense that in the middle of the day it blisters and peels the skin from the flesh; and even at night the walls of the houses are so heated by the day's sun, as to produce a disagreeable heat to the body, at a yard's distance from them.


4403. [9.) At the city Moussul on the Tigris, is shewn the tomb of the prophet Jonas.


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HEN the city Samaria had been thus utterly destroyed (Micah i. 6) by Shalmanezer, its inhabitants, called by the Jews Cuthites (2 Kings xvii. 23), never rebuilt it as their metropolis, but went and dwelt near mount Gerizim, at Shichem, making that their capital.

Josephus, Antiq. l. xi. c. 8. They seem however, by the time the Jews returned from captivity at Babylon, to have rebuilt and repeopled Samaria in some degree, as both Ezra (iv. 2, 17) and Nehemiah (iv. 2) mention the inhabitants of Samaria, offering to assist, and then opposing Zerubbabel in the rebuilding of the Temple.

Univer. Ilist. vol. ix. p. 508.

of Hindostan, are almost beyond description ; the air is perfumed at some seasons with the most delicious fragrance, arising from a variety of flowers, and no less a number of fruits, which yield a wholesome and refreshing nourishment. The trees form a shade impenetrable to the rays of the sun : here bountiful Providence has left the Asiatic nothing to pursue but (paradisiacal) pleasure, and hardly any thing else do the the Hindoos, who are the antient inhabitants of the country, pursue. See No. 179.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's Hist. of

Women, vol. i. p. 270.

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R HIS propliet, in the days of Hezekiah, foretold the awful destruction of Nineveh, as it took place in the days of Josiah. He compares its overthrow to that of No; a populous city in Lower Egypt, which had been just subdued by the Assyrians who had inflicted the most horrid cruelties on her inhabitants.

Univer. llist. vol. iv. p. 87. The time of this prophet is not determinable by any authority from Antiquity.

Dr. Gregory's Assyrian Mo

narchy, p. 194.

Scythians, having driven the Cimmerians out of Europe, were then in pursuit of their feeing enemies, and ready to enter Media. Cyaxares, breaking up the siege, advanced with all his worthies against them. The two armies engaged ; and the Medes being utterly routed, the Scythians appeared, providentially to have made haste towards the wall of the besieged city, as if they had intended its deliverance.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 385.

4412. (4.) In the neighbourhood of the Azores, about three leagues from St. Michaels, in the year 1811, a submarine volcano ejected such a quantity of matter as in a short time formed an island, four miles long, and two and a half broad.

Public Prints.

4413. [-11.) The images of the antient idolaters were first cut out of wood by the carpenter, and then overlaid with plates either of gold or silver, or sometimes, perhaps, of an inferior melal. In this finished state each was a carved image, in reference to the inner solid figure of wood; and an overlaid or covered image, in reference to the outer metalline case or covering.


4415. [Nahum iii. 8.] The prevailing opinion is, says Calmet, that Thebes, the capital of Upper Egypt, may be understood to have been No-aminon, or populous No." This city of Thebes, now Longsor, reduced to the condition of a miserable village, has left astonishing monuinents of its magnificence. "Particulars of this may be seen in the plates of Norden, in Pococke, and in the travels of Bruce. Its geographical position was favourable to its political power and exterual commerce. For, on one side, the valley of the Nile, singularly fertile, must have early occasioned a numerous population; and, on the other, the Red Sea giving communication with Arabia and India, and the Nile with Abyssinia and the Mediterranean, Thebes was thus naturally allied to the richest countries on the globe; an alliance that produced it an activity so much the greater, as Lower Egypt, at first a swainp, was nearly, if not totally, uninhabited. But when at length this country had been drained by the canals and dikes which Sesostris constructed, population was introduced there from Syria and Arabia, a medly of different tribes of savages, originally shepherds and fishermen, who by degrees formed themselves into a nation, by nature and descent inimical to the Thebans; and thus wars arose which eventually proved fatal to the power of Thebes.


4314. (Nahum ii. 5.) This prophecy was fulfilled while Cyaxares was besieging Nineveh. A formidable army of


i HIS prophet expostulating with God respecting the incorrigible hardness of the Jews, is answered that they shall be invaded and captured by the Chaldeans. He foretells likewise the extensive successes of Nebuchadnezzar : and, when he repines at the prosperity of that wicked prince and people, he is told, that they also in due time shall become the scorn of other nations, and a prey to those whom they had subdued.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 103.

4420. [Ilabak.ii. 14.] In the northern latitudes, beyond 45 and 55 degrees, we find the animal spoils of the southern countries, and the marine exuviæ of the southern seas; but in the southern latitudes we find no remains of animals, vegetables, or shells belonging to the northern seas, but those only that belong to the neighbouring seas.

See Kirwan's Geological Facts. In Dorsetshire a part of the sea-clists on the coast, near Lime, lately fell down, after a violent storm, and discovered the fossil remains of an enormous crocodile, in a state of perfection not before found. This extreinely valuable relic was discovered on the estate of H. H. Henley, Esq., who has liberally presented it to the London Museum of Natural History.

Month. Mag. for Feb. 1814, p. 95.

4417.(-5.] Behold, ye despisers ! and be amazed, and hide yourselves.

Sce Sir Norton KNATCHBULL,

on Acts xiii. 4).

4418. [Habak. ii. 2.] It was a custom among the Romans for the public affairs of every year to be committed to writing by the pontifex maximus, or high-priest, and published on a table. They were thus exposed to public view, so that the people might have an opportunity of being acquainted with them. It was also usual to hang up laws approvechand recorded on tables of brass in their market-places, and in their temples, that they might be seen and read. (TACITUS, Annals, lib. xi. c. 14.) — Iu like manner the Jewish prophels used to write, and expose their prophecies publicly on tables, either in their own houses, or in the temple, that every one that passed by, might go in and read them.

BURDER, vol. ii. p. 285.


The precession of the equinoxes appears to be accompanied, not only with a regular transmigration of the true religion (Gen. xxviji. 17), but also with a sensible encroachment of the sea upon what was previously dry land. In this way, we may conclude, that " whatever is sea now, was formerly lands and all that is now land, will, in time to come, be sea, the bulk and aspect of the terraqueous Globe remaining (nearly) the same.”

TOLAND's Pantheisticon, p. 42. The Ocean flows twice a-year round the Globe, in opposite spiral directions, taking its departure alternately from each Pole, and describes on the Earth, if I may venture to say so, the same course which the Sun does in the Ileavens.

The Era of these versatile revolutions commences precisely at the Equinoxes, that is, the very moment when the sun withdraws from the one Pole on his way to warm the other.

They diverge from the Pole that is heated by the Sun toward that which he has deserted.

At the equinoxes there is produced a retrogressive impul. sion in the whole mass of these currents at once, as appears

4419. [- 5, 6.) Wine and much flesh-eating make the body, indeed, strong and lusty, but the mind weak and feeble.

PLUTARCH, On eating Flesh,

Tract i.

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