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4352. [ Amos iii. 2. You only have I known] You only bave 1 distinguished.

Biblical Research. vol. i.

P.

6.

five years

4353. [- 12. Two legs, or a piece of an ear] As evidences in the shepherd's favor, that the animal intrusted to his care, is missing neither through theft nor carelessness, but in consequence of ils destruction by some voracious beast of prey.

See Exod. xxii. 13.

4357. [Amos v. 8.) A contest between Cyaxares king of Media, and Alyattes king of Lydia, had continued during

with alternate advantages to each party : in the sixth there was a sort of nocturnal combat. For, after an equal fortune ou both sides, and whilst the two arinies were enga ing, the day suddenly became nighi. Thales, the Milesian, bad predicted this phenomenon to the lonians : and had ascertained the time of the year in which it would happen. The Lydians and the Medes, seeing that the night had thus taken the place of the day, desisted from the combat; and both parties became desirous of making peace.

HERODOTUS, lib. i. § 74. The eclipse here alluded to, happened September 30th, 610 B. C.

Phil Trans. for 1811, purt ii.

pp. 234, 241.

4354.

The corner is the most hourourable place in Oriental countries. It is also the most commodious, as it is the only one in which a person can lean on both sides on the cushions which are placed round the walls.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 69,

nole (U).

4358.

The various situations of the sun, as he passes through the different constellations, have induced ignorant people to ascribe to those stars all such excessive heats, rains, or winds, as have happened under their various aspects. This vulgar error has swelled the works of the Antients, especially the Georgics of Virgil, with maxims and observalions respecting the aspect of the Dog-star, the setting of the Pleiades, and the rising of Orion, as perfectly erroneous in his time as we see them to be at present.

Nature Delineated, vol. i. p. 291

4355. [15] At the Hermitage adjoining the palace in Petersburgh the metropolis of Russia, a winter and summer garden, comprised within the site of the building, are singular curiosities, aud such as do not perhaps occur in any other palace in Europe. The sommer garden, in the true Asiatic style, occupics the whole level roof of the edifice. The winter garden is roofed and surrounded with glass frames; it is a high and spacious hot-house, laid out in gravel walks, ornamented with parterres of flowers, orange trees, and other shrubs, and peopled with several birds of sundry sorts and various climates, which Ait from tree to tree.

PINKERTON's Coll. part xxv.p. 677. The ivory houses: so named, probably, from the ivory seats and furniture they contained.

At Constantinople, near the Grand Stignior's Seraglio, is a Kiosch, or summer-house, for the recreation of the sovereign in sultry weather. It is an irregular building, of about sixty feet in circumference, and twenty in height, consisting of one large saloon, very maynificently furnished.

SMITH. -“ In some alcove or summer-house."

PINKERTON, vol. x. p. 181.

4359.

It is not improbable, that the names of the planets and Zodiacal stars, which the Arabs borrowed from the Greeks, but which we find in the oldest Indian records, were originally devised by the same ingenious and enterprizing race, from whom both Greece and India were peopled ; the race, who, as Dionysius describes them,

- tirst assayed the deep And wafted merchandise to coasts unknown, 'Those, who digested first the starry choir, Their motions mark'd, and call'd them by their names.'

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 33.

4356.

The hills and the valleys round about Algiers are all over beantified with gardens and country seats, whither the inhabitants of better fashion retire during the heats of summer. They are little while houses, shaded with a variety of fruit-trees and ever-greens.

Shaw's Trav. p. 34.

4360.

In the succedaneous revolutions which the sun makes from one tropic to another, he would intolerably scorch the inhabitants of the torrid zone, had not the Almighty, by a peculiar indulgence, thrown over thein an immense body oi rarified vapors, as a veil to screen them from the burning heat; causing their winter, or at least the coolest and inost agreeable part of the year, at the very season when one would be apprehensive of their inevitable destruction. Froin tie torrid zone such a yemal warmthi is diffused over the tuo temperate ones, as renders them both extremely fertile : and from the latter, there are such refrestung vapors diffused over the former, as inoderate its excessive heals, and enable the inhabitants to live there with some degree of satisfaction. All nature is thus linked together in one chain, for inutual benefit. The whole universe is indeed conspicuously, the handywork of one all-wise and omnipotent Being, who has unerringly made the welfare of mankind the ultimate end of his creating power.

Nat. Delin. vol. iii. pp. 96, 119.

4364. ( Amos v. 26.] On my retoro from Gaukarna in the north part of Canara, 1 met with an itinerant Iinage in a palanquin, attended by a priest and many vairagis. He had in bis retinue tents, flags, Thibet-tails, and all other insignia of honor. He was on an expedition to collect the money that individuals in distress had vowed to his Master, the Idol at Tripathi ; and from his style of travelling seemed to have been successful. Many such collectors are constantly travelling about the peninsula. Out of the contributions the priest defrays all the expenses of the party, and pays the balance into the treasury at Tripathi, which is one of the richest that the Hindoos now possess.- Had the image been that of one of the great gods, it would have been carried in a rath, or chariot.

BUCHANAN, in Pinkerton's Coll. vol. viji.

pp. 756, 766.

436). [Amos v. 26.] The sun, moon, and stars, were the first objects of false worship; afterwards the deification of dead men took place; and froin very early antiquity was formed a mixed hind of idolatry, in which were worshipped the stars and dead men, planet being assigned to each of their deified worthies. The highest and most remote of the planets then knowu was Saturn, whom the old Egyptians called Remphan, Raphan, Ramphan, Rephan, Rompha or Repha; but the Arabians, Cıvan or Ciwan (whence the Hebrew Chiun) as the Turks, Arabs, and Persians, do at this day. The Ammonites, Idumeans, and Canaanites, though they had a knowledge of this planet, and considered it as conjoined with a deified prince, yet they adored this prince (Moloch) under a bodily representatiou : whereas the Arabians aud Egyptians paid divine honors to the star, with which they imagined him conjoined. Now as the Israelites had learnt the Egyptian idolatry during their abode in Egypt, and that of the Arabians whilst they were in Arabia Petrea, or at least in its veighbourhood, where they worshipped the false god of the Moabites, Num. xxv. 2; and as at the same time they were on the borders of the Canaanites, with whom doubt less they had some kind of intercourse, it is natural to suppost, that they were likewise initiated in their forin of superstition. This will account for their having with then the Canaanitish image of Moloch, in a small portable temple, or tabernacle, carried either ou men's shoulders, or by oxen : and a star painted on the inside of this tabernacle, or on the idol itself, in compliance with the Egyptian and Arabian custom. -- The Original runs literally thus : “ But ye have born the tabernacle of your Moloch, and Chiun your likenesses, the star of your god, which you made for yourselves.”

See Univer. Hist, tol. xxi. p. 460,

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4365.

The grand Hindoo festival of the Rutt Jattra takes place on the 18th of June annually. This being the great day of the feast, at 12 o'clock precisely the Moloch of Hindostan is brought out of his temple amidst the acclamations of hundreds of thousands of his worshippers

. When the idol is placed on his throne, a shout is raised by the multitude, which, kept equable for a few minutes, grailually dies away. After a short interval, a body of men are seen at a distance, advancing with green branches, or palms in their hauds When come sufficiently near, they fall down before him that sits on the throne, and worship; while the multitude again send forth a voice like the souud of a great thunder.' The throne is now placed on a stupendous car or tower about 60 feet in height, restiny on wheels which indent the ground deeply, as they turn slowly under the ponderous machine, Attached to it are six cables, each the size and leagth of a ship's cable, by which thousands of men, women and children draw it along. The idol is a block of wood, having a frightful visage painted black, with a distended mouth of a bloody color.

His arms are of gold, and he is dressed in gorgeous apparel. See No. 861.

Chrisian Researches in Asia,

pp. 23,-26.

4362.

Cohen is a prince, a priest; that is, a high-priest : and Chiun, the Image in which such highpriest was enshrined after death.

Melech is a prince or King: and Moloch, the Collossal Image in which such hiny *as enshrined at drath.

4366. [Amos vi. 14.] Jeroboam (the redress of whose isjuries is here predicted) had subdued the kingdoms of Dainascus and Hamath, about 10 or 20 years before the reign of Pul.

Unirer. Hist, vol. iv.p. 188.

4363.

The Antients (the Phenicians) used itinerant comples, carried about on carts, drawn by beeves, in the same manner as the ark, or epitome of God's tabernacle, was sent home (1 Sam. vi) by the Philistines successors to the old Phemicians in their religion and abode, on a new cart drawn by milch-kine.

Unirer. Hist. vol. i. p. 179.

4367. [.Amos vii. i.] The late rain shall fall after the king's cutting. - This is commonly understood of the sheepAmos prophesied, there were two great eclipses of the

sun.

shearing ; but it suits the connexion better to refer it to the mowing of the pastures. And is this be correct, then the king must at this time have arrogated the right of cutting the first and best grass of the public pastures, and have only left the after-growth to the Israelitish herdsmen.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i. p. 304.

4368. [ Amos vii. 7, 8.] The surface of a lake, or a calm sea, is always perpendicular to the direction of a plumb line, hence methods have been obtained for measuring the surface of the earth.

Joyce's Introduc. to the Sciences, p. 78.

4371. (Amos ix. 5.] He touches the land of their captivity, Babylon ; and it shall melt or soften into a morass.There shall rise up, in consequence of Cyrus's cutting the banks of the Euphrates, an overwhelming flood, and it, the land arouvd Babylon, shall be drowned; or it, the flood at Babylon, shall drown as did the flood of Egypt.

See No. 269, &c.

4369. [- 14. A gatherer of sycamore fruit) We should read a dresser of that kind of fruit, by letting out its water, &c. - The dumez of Egypt is called by the Europeans Pharaoh's fig; it is the sycamore of the Antients, and is properly a wild

fig. 'The fruit is small, but like the common figs. At the end of it a sort of water gathers together; and unless it be cut, and the water let out, it will not ripen. - It is a large spreading tree with a round leaf, and has this particular quality, that short branches without leaves come out of the great limbs all about the wood, and these bear the fruit. It was of the timher of these trees the antient Egyptians made their coffins for their embalmed bodies, and the wood remains sound to this day. These trees are likewise in some parts of Syria. (Pococke, vol. i. p. 205.) — That they were common in Judea, see 1 Kings 1. 27. Isai. jx. 10. Luke xix. 4.

4372. [

-6.] May 27th, 1811, at Shrewsbury, and in a district of several miles around that place, there was a dreadful storm of thunder, lightning and rain. A cloud burst, and rivers and brooks so rapidly overflowed their beds, as to sweep down bridges, trees, mills, houses, cottages, &c.; and many lives were lost. Ten persons perished from one building

Public Prints.

4373. (7.) The Caslubim and Caphtorim, from whom the Philistines had their origin, were certainly of Egypt; whence they had but just migrated, when they seized on the land, which was afterwards called Palestine. This country became in time of such cousequence as to communicate its name to the whole land of Promise.

Palestine, properly so called, was a slip of land, scarcely 40 English miles in length, stretching along the sea-side; bounded on the east, by the tribes of Judah and Simeon ; on the south by Amalekitis, and partly by Edom; on the west by the Mediterranean, or Midland-sea; and towards the north it interfered with the tribe of Dan.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii. p. 190.

4370. [ Amos viii. 9.) Archbishop Usher bas observed in his Annals, that about eleven years after the time that

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RISE, go to Nineveh, that great city, now called Mosul, where the sect of the Nestorians has taken shelter 150 furlongs in length and 90, on the shortest side.

Of course the compass of the city, at the time Diodorus thus describes it, must have been 60 English miles. Verse 2.

See Dr. GREGORY's Assyrian Mo

narchy, p. 192.

4376.

Josephus describes Nineveh as an exceeding great city of three days' journey ; twenty miles a day was the common oriental journey for foot travellers. Diodorus Siculus, and other authors, make its extent more than sixty miles; it contained habitations for six hundred thousand inhabitants; with the gardens and pastures usual in eastern cities.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iji.

4378. (Jonah i. 3.] Yafa, the antient Joppa, is situated on a part of the coast the general level of which is very little above the sea. The city is built on an eminence, in the form of a sugar-loaf, in height above one hundred and thirty feet perpendicular. The houses, distributed on the declivity, appear rising above each other. like the steps of an amphitheatre. On the summit is a small citadel, which commands the town; the bottom of the hill is surrounded by a wall without a rampart, of twelve or fourteen feet high, and two or three in thickness, The battlements at the top are the only difference by which it is distinguishable from a common garden wall. This wall, which has no ditch, is environed by gardens, where lemons, oranges, and citrons, in this light soil, grow to a most prodigious size.

VOLNEY.

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ing their stated marks on the shore : at Brest, however, they have been known to rise nine, aud at St. Malo forty-five feet, beyond their usual bounds.

Nat. Delin. vol. iii. p. 126.

4379. (Joaah i. 4.] While a fleet was in Malacca Strail, during a calm day a squall of descending wind commenced suddenly from a dense cloud : its centre of action seemed to be in the middle of the fleet, which was much scattered. The breeze spread in every direction from a centre, and produced a singular appearance in the flert; for every ship hauled close to the wind as the breeze reached her, and when it became general, exhibited to view the different ships sailing completely round a circle, although all hauled close to the wind.

Retrospect, vol.ii. p. 300.

4384. [Jonah ii. 5.] The Japanese are said to extract nourishment from the sea-weed of their coasts ; and it was in the polar ocean that navigators succeeded in fishing up the fucus pyriferus, of more than 200 feet in length. — The shores of Greenland, Spitzbergen, and Nova Zembla, are in a manner carpeted with sea-plants; on which the animals, kuown by the name of sea-horses and sea-lions, are in the habit of resting, as on a couch.

St. Pierre's llarmonies of Nature, vol. i.

p.

92.

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4385. - These weeds might have been brought by the storm from the gulf-stream, which circulates in the basin of the Mediterranean. — There, as elsewhere, the elevated temperature of the waters, their strong saltness, indigoblue color, and the shoals of' sed-weed which cover the surface, as well as the heat of the surrounding alinosphere, sensible even in winter, all indicate the Guli-stream.

See No. 1065. HUMBOLDT's Travels in S. America.

4381.

Sea-plants, finding in the water a sufficient quantity of salme particles, oils, and all such spirits as are requisite for their vegetations; stand in no need of roots in the earth to feed them with proper juices.

Nat. Delin, vol. iii. p. 168. The fleshy coralline is very frequently cast up on the shores of the American islands, particularly Jainaica. Mr. Ellis, on opening the joints of a coraliine, observed the ioternal parts to be full of a clear gelatinous substance.--Some corallines are of a flat kidney-shaped forin, of about an inch in beigbt, though sometimes expanding to a large subdivided, lobed, and undulated mass, from one to five inches broad, and as many in height. (Rees.) — Among corallines, the character of a sertularia is that of a branched animal, with the hard parts without, and the fleshy parts within ; and the gorgonia, on the contrary, has its fleshy or soft parls without, and its bone or hard parts within. The gorgonia also is clothed with a kind of scales, placed like tiles, one over another, as in fish.

ELLIS, Phil. Trans. Abr. vol. xiii.

pp. 726, 7:28.

4386. -

The gulf-weed in the Atlantic Ocean is deposited in long parallel veins in the direction of the wind.

Retrospect, vol. ii. p. 300.

4387. [--- 6.] Joppa is not naturally a haven, for it ends in a rough shore, where all the rest of it is straight, but the two ends bend towards each other, where there are deep precipices, and great stones that jet out into the sea. When the wind, called by those that sail there, the black north-wind, opposes and beals on the shore, it dashes mighty waves against the rocks which receive them, and renders the haven extremely dangerous.

See Joseph. Wars, b.iii. ch. ix. § 3.

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4382.

Miller, which is a name for the Lotosplant, as well as for fish”, thrives best on districts not far from the sea-coast. See No. 1063.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 26.

4388. [--- 10.] From Ch. i. 13, it appears that the tempest, which had endangered the ship, blew against them from the land. The swell then, which brought back Jonah on his Aoat of gulf-weed, aud cast him finally on the beach, must have come in an opposite direction. This frequently happeus at sea in cretks near to promontories,

See on Acts xxvii. 41.

4383. (Jonah ii. 3.) The billows of the sea, in the most violent storms, seldom trespass more than seven feet, in pass

4389.

Beds of madrepores, or starry corals, seven or eight feet high, resembling ramparts, have been left

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