country which Philopater bad reduced after the victory at Raphia.

the 15th of the month Chisleu, which answers to part of our November and December.

See Univer. Hist. vol. in.

p. 608, &c.

4320. [Dan. xi. 31.] The prophet here foretells the oppression of the Jews by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria ; which took place in the year B. C. 170, accompanied with the following horrid circunstances. After the Jews had

4321. [Dan. xi. 31.) This first abomination, I conreturned from the Babylouish captivity; they were subject

ceive, implies the statue of Jupiter Olympus, which Anto Persia till the time of Alexander : they were afterwards

tiochus Epiphanes caused to be placed in the Temple of

Jerusalem. in subjection either to Syria or Egypt, as the events of war between these two kingdoms alternately determined. Egypt being at length considerably reduced by Antiochus, the Jews fell under his power, and were treated by him very tyrannically. On a report of bis death, therefore, they shewed some signs of joy ; when Antiochus came against them in all the fury of revenge, took Jerusalem by storm, and committed such acts of cruelty and outrage, that the 4322. [Dan. xii. 11.) This second abomination probably wretched inhabitants were constrained to fly to caverns, and relates to the ensigns of the Romans, Juring the last siege of holes of rocks, to escape the fierceness of his wrath. Their Jerusalem by Titus on which the figures of their gods and religion was abolished; their temple profaned ; and an image emperors were embroidered, and placed in the Temple after of Jupiter Olympus set up on the altar of burnt-offerings, on it was taken.


HSPA is the first, whose prophecies have been

OSHEA is the first, whose prophecies have been transmitted to us in writing : he continued in the exercise of his prophetical office nearly 70 years, during the reigns of Uzziah or Azarialı, Jothani, Abaz and Hezekiah. In the four first Chapters, he exposes the various iniquities of the

Ten Tribes; froin thence to the 121h, he denounces their punishments, particularly by Shalınanezer. The remaining two Chapters are filled with comfortable promises to the penitent.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 64. Hoshcegh (Hebr.) signifies Sadiour.

are punished after death by being stretched out and set in rotation in a direction upuards, continually tending towards heaven, whilst it is proclaimed publicly what is the nature of their offence. This is continued till they are in wardly touched with shame, beg forgiveness, and submit to authority.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana n. 956. See Job i. 19, for a similar whirlwind on earth.

See No. 1171.

4327. [Ilosea ix. 1, 2.] In Samaria, doring the revolt of the ten tribes, the kings and the priests of Israel exacted rythes for their support. This was a principal cause of their being sent into captivity. Ste Ezek. xlv. 8.

4324. [Hosea iii. 2 ) He who is desirous to adopt a child, must inform the magistrate thereof, and shall perforın the Jugg (the sacrifice usual on the occasion) and shall give gold, and rice, to the father of the child, whoin he would adopt ; thell, supposing the child not to have had his tars bored, nor to have received the Brahminical thread, nor to have been married in his father's house, and not to be five years old, if the father will give up such a child, or if the mother give him up by order of the father, and there are other brothers of that child, that child may be adopted.

Gentoo Laws.

43:28. [ 10.] Pliny, Nat. Hist. b. xv. ch. 18, enumerates vineteen species of fiy-tree : one produces fruit called by the Latius mamillanæ, from its resemblance to a woman's breast; another yielis fius quite red, and not bigger than an olive; another, white fruit; another, black ; another bears fruit of the color of porphyry; and the fig-tree of Ayrcana is sometimes loaded with more than two hundred bushels of fruit Besides those noticed by Pliny, there is a great variety of others unknown to the Romans and to us ; with fruits, some green and just beginning to shoot, while others are violet and cracked - their crevices stored with honey.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 166.


A half homer] Lethech, in English measure four bushels and a half. See Ezek. xlv. 14.

See No. 15.

4329. [- 17.] To this day, the Ten Tribes are subject to the kings of the Persiaus, nor has their captivity ever been loosed. - They still inhabit the cities and mountains of the Medes.

Jerome, Tom. vi. pp. 7, 80.

4326. [Hoshea iv. 19.) They who are addicted to reveuge; and they who fancy themselves greater than all others, esteeming others as unthing in respect to themselves,

4330. [Hosea x. 6.] Jareb appears to be a contraction of Sanherib, the Hebrew vame for Sennacherib.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iv.p. 195.

4331. (Hosea x. 9.] The prophet seems here to accuse the Israelites as still guilty of the enormities committed in Gibeah, when the Levite's concubine was abused to death ; See Judg. xix. 14, &c.

Compare Gen. xix. 8, &c.

4335. [Hosea xi. 11.] The priestesses of Dodona assert, says HERODOTUS, that two black pigeons flew from Thebes in Egypt, one of which settled in Libya, the other among theinselves; which latter, resting on the branch of a beech-tree, declared with a human voice that here by divine appointment was to be an oraele of Jove. - If, he adds, the Pheniciaus did in reality carry away two priestesses from Thebes, and sell one to Libya, the other to Greece, - the name of doces was probably given them because, being strangers, the sound of their voices might, to the people of Dodona, seem to resemble the tone of those birds. When the woman, having learned the language, delivered her thoughts in words which were generally understood, the dove might be said to have spoken with a human voice. It certainly cannot be supposed, lie argues, that a dove should speak with a human voice; and the circumstance of her being black, explains to us her Egyptian origin.

See Euterpe, lv, lvi, lvii.

4332. [-11.] In Languedoc, the corn is all roughly stacked around dry firm spots, where, in treading it out at each place, great numbers of mules and horses are driven on a trot round a centre, a woman holding the reins; and another, or a girl or two, with whips drive : the men supply and clear the floor; other parties are dressing, by throwing the born into the air for the wind to blow away the chiaff.

Young's Travels in France.

Pinkerton's Coll. part xiv.

p. 113.

4333. [14. Shalman] Supposed to be the same person as is variously named Salmanesir, Salmanassar, and Enemessar (Tobit i. 13). - Chronologers have identified him with Nabonassar.

See GREGOR. Postum. p. 246, and

GREGOR. Syncell. Chron. p. 204.

4336. [Hosea xiv. 2. Caldes] Fruit: Heb. xii. 15. In this case the whole branch was value that piece of money stamped with the figure of a bull: Its clusters, its fruit, cach were value the money denominated from its stamp a calf. In the same way the branch value a ram, had grapeclusters each value a lamb. llence, Jesus CHRIST, when drinking the vinous blood of the lamb, says, “I will drink no more of this fruit of the vine, till I drink (after my resurrection, at the feast of Pentecost) new with you in my FATHER's kingdoin.” Matt. xxvi. 29.

4337. (-5.] Auger de Busbequius, Ambassador from Ferdinand the First King of the Roinans to the Porte, in 1562 transported the lilach from Constantinople to Europe.

See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iii. p. 270.

4334. [Hosea xi. 2.) The Egyptiaus represented the Supreme Being, and his Divine Attributes, his Immensity and Omnipotence, bis Fecundity and infinite Perfection, under the symbol of the Sun; and they represented Nature or matter, which is altogether dependant on that Supreme Being, and diversified every moment, under the image of the Moon, who borrows her light from the Sun, and is perpetually changing her appearance. This mode of representation was undoubtedly the primary cause of idolatry and superstition; men growing by degrees forgetful of the Supreme Being, and confining their attention to that glorious luminary the sun, as the immediate Cause of what they beheld, instead of considering it, as the material Representative of its Spiritual Source, the invisible Producer of all visible objects.

Nat. Delin, vol. i. p. 292.

4338. [-6.] The great and small cedars of Leba. non have a fragrant smell : and sweet-scented greens from top to bottom, particularly in its great rupture, clothe its surface.

See MAUNDRELL's Journey, May 9.

4339. [-_-7.] 'The Vines of Hermon and Lebanon yield wide of a red color, very generous, grateful, and so light as not to affect the head, though taken freely.

Travels from Ephesus through Asia

Minor, by ÆGIDIUS VAN EGMONT, and Professor HEYMAN.


R HE Palmer (or cocoa-tree) is the most profitable tree in the world : it always bears fruit, and yields wine, oil, sugar, vinegar, cords, coals; and of the leaves are made thatch for houses, sails for ships, mats to sit or lie on : of the brauches the (East) Indians make their houses, and their brooms; and of the tree, wood for ships, &c. Verse 4.

FITCH. Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix.

such numbers, that they look like a cloud, and perfectly obscure the sun : wherever they alight, they destroy the fruits of the earth. But there are certaiv birds which generally visit the country about the same time, to eat op the locusts, and so prevent the ruin of the husbandman.

PINKERTON, vol. ix. p. 184.

p. 408.

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4341. (Joel i. 5.] The prophet here threatens a desolation of the vineyards by locusts, which it seems, injures their produce for many years.

Since the locusts destroyed the vineyards at Algiers in the year 1723 and 1724, the wine, says Dr. Suaw, has not in ten years recovered its usual qualities.

Trav. p. 146. It is not a few fields, or only two or three villages, that are ruined by these voracious creatures; the face of the country is covered with them for many miles ; yet in India they are not near so pernicious as in Arabia, and many parts of Africa, where they prove a scourge of the severest kind.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs.

4343. [Joel ji. 6. Gather blackness) That is, suffer extreme confusion or terror. See Nahum ji, 10.

Bib. Research. vol. ii. p. 121. Kumeil, the son of Ziyad, was a man of fine wit. One day Hejage made him come before him, and reproached him because in such a garden, and before such and such persons as he named to him, he had made a great many imprecations against him, saying, the Lord blacken his face, that is, fill him with shame and confusion; and wished that his neck were cut off, and his blood shed. - It is true, said Kumeil, I did say such words in such a garden ; but then I was under a viue-arbor, and was looking on a bunch of grapes not yet ripe : I wished that it might be turned black soon, cut off, aud made into wine.

OCKLEY's llist. of the Saracens,

vol. ii. p. 319.

4342. [Joel ii. 1. Blow ye the trumpet] The Jubilee trumpet prohably; as the locust is a septennial insect, seen only (a small vumber of stragglers excepted) every seven years, when its swarms do the greatest mischief. The years when they thus arrive in the interior colonies of North America, are denominated there the locust-years.

CARVER's Trav. in N. America. p. 327. Swarms of locusts sometimes visit the heart of Persia in

4344. [

-30. Pillars of smoke] Such exhalations impregnating the clouds, probably caused in the year 1762, the phenomena at Detroit io Canada, thus recorded by CARVER : “ It rained ou this town and the parts adjacent, a sulphureous water of the color and consisience of juk; some of which being collected into bottles, and wrote with, appeared perlecily intelligible on the paper, and answered every purpose of that useful liquid.

Trav. in N. America, p. 96.


GREGORY DE TOURS, in the sixth century, made observations on the Aurore Boreales.

See his History.

forty-seven years before the taking of Babylon, and 585 years before Christ. See No. 729.

See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 389.

4346. [Joel ii. 31.] PLINY (lib. i. c. 12) says, Thales the Milesian was the first that foretold an eclipse of the sun ; which, according to Sir Isaac Newton (Chron. of antient kingd, amended, p. 316) took place on the 28th of May,

4347. [Joel iii. 2.) As Jehoshaphat imports Jehovah's judgment, the word may be applied to any place where God inflicts judgment on offenders of any kind. The 12th verse proves, that a particular judgment on Gentiles is here meant.


THIS prophet, it neem, was carried into captivity with

HIS prophet, it seeins, was carried into captivity with the Ten Tribes. After his return into the land of Judah, he probably retired into the city of. Tekoalı, where he foretold the calamities which the Israelites would fall into after Jeroboam the Second's death, the murder of his sun and successor; the coming of Pul and Tiglath-pileser, kings of Assyria, against Israel ; and the consequent captivity of the Ten Tribes. Other of his prophecies are levelled against Syria, Tyre, the Philistines, Edomites, Ammonites and Moabites ; and some against Judah.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 64. Verse 1.] See 2 Chron. xxvi. 19.

by a second Bar still more elevated, which pursues it at the distance of about a hundred fathoms. They run much faster than a horse at full speed. See Jonah ii. 10. St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iv. p. 121. In North America, opposite the mouth of Buffalo Creek, there is a very dangerous sand bar, which at times it is totally iinpossible to pass in any other vessel than bateaux, or flat bottoms.

Weld's Trav. in N. America,

dol. ii. p. 140.

4349. [ Amos i, 5.] Palestine is about one half of Syria.

OUSELEY's Ebn Haukal, p. 39. This Eden was near Damascus in Syria.

See 2 Kings xix. 12. Isai. xxxvii. 12.

4351. [Amos ii. 13.) Behold! I press your place, as a thrashing-wain presses the full sheaves.

Compare Matt. xi. 12. lo Egypt they thrash, or rather tread, rice by means of a sledye drawn by two uxen; and in which the man who drives them, is on his knees, whilst another man has the care of drawing back the straw, and of searatmg it from the grain that remains underneath. In order to tread the rice, they lay it on the round in a ring, so as to leave a little void circie in the middle.

NIEBUHR's Trav. p. 80.


The tides force their way from the Sea up the Seine, and make it flow back ward against its course. It is heard coming from a very great distance, especially in the night-time. They call it the Bar, because it obstructs the whole course of the Seine. This Bar is usually followed

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