the bones of our Fathers, Arise, and accompany us to a foreign land?”

St. Pierre's Studies of Nalure,

vol. iji. p. 87.

It was

critical judgment of Heaven, as they thought it, both sides put up their swords, and agreed to refer the controversy between them to two arbitrators. Halyattes, king of Lidia, chose Sienpesis, king of Cilicia ; Cyaxares, the Median monarch, chose Nebuchadnezzar, now busy in leading the Jews into captivity. - This eclipse, predicted by Thales the Milesian in the 37th year of his age, happened on the 18th of May in the proleptic Julian style, in the year of the Julian period 4111, in the 603d* year before the Christian era. total 4 minutes and a half, where the battle was fought. The shade entered the desert of Barca in Africa, soon after nine in the morning. It traversed the Mediterranean sea, and isle of Cyprus; entered Asia Minor at Cilicia, a little before eleven ; about half an hour after, it passed the city now called Erzerum ; near which Dr. Stukely supposes the battle was fought, as being at the boundary between the two kingdoms. It is between the river Halys, and the river Melas. on which was the antient city Melitene. The river Melas runs eastward into the Euphrates. At half an bour after twelve,

4238. [Ezek. xxxvii. 12.) Savages consider the tombs of their ancestors as titles to the possessions of the lands which they inbabit. “ This country is ours," say they, “ the bones of our Fathers are here laid to rest.” When they are forced to quit it, they dig them up with tears, and carry them off with every token of respect.

Ibid. p. 265. About thirty miles below the Falls of St. Anthony in North America, several bauds of the Naudowessie ludians. have a burying-place, where these people, though they have no fixed residence, living in tents, and abiding but a few months on one spot, always contrive to deposit the bones of their dead.

At the spring equinox these bands annually assemble here, to hold a grand council with all the other bands; wherein they settle their operations for the ensuing year. At this time in particular, they bring with them their dead, for interment, bound up in buffaloes' skins.

If any of these people die in the summer, at a distance froin the burying ground, and they find it impossible to remove the body before it would putrify, they burn the flesh from the bones, and preserving the latter, bury them in the manner described.

CARVER's Trav. in N. America,

pp. 40, 53, 263.

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4236. [- 24. There is Elam and all her multitude] While the Assyrians reigned at Nineveh, Persia was divided into several kingdoms. Amongst others there was a kingdom of Elam, which flourished in the days of Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah, and Jehoiakim, kings of Judah ; and fell in the reign of Zedekialı; Jer. xlix. 34 - 39. This kingdom seems to have been very powerful, and to have waged war with the king of Touran or Scythia, beyond the river Oxus, with various success; and at length to have beeu subdued by Cyaxares, in conjunction with the Babylonians.

Univer. Hist. vol. iv. p. 393.


Whilst the Abbe Hussey was here (in the oblivious convent of Latrappe) digging his own grave, and consigning himself to perpetual taciturnity, he was a very young man, high in blood, of athletic strength, and built as is to see a century to its end. When he came forth agaia into the world, I am persuaded, says RICHARD CUMBER. LAND, that he left behind him in his coffin at La Trappe no one passion, native or engrafted, that belonged to him when he entered it.

Memoirs of R. Camberland, pp. 358, 360.

4237. [Ezek. xxxvii. 1, &c.] Every Nation in a state of nature, and even the greatest part of those who are civilized, have made the tombs of their forefathers the centre of their devotions, and an essential part of their religion. When Europeans here proposed to savage nations a change of territory, this has been their decisive reply : “Shall we say to

4240. [Ezek. xxxviii. 2.] The tribes of the Curds are more than can be exactly numbered; but it is said that in Pars (Persia) there are above five hundred thousand families, which, during winter and summer, remain on the pasturelands. Some of these Curds maintain two hundred persons, such as shepherds, and labourers, and grooms, and boys and servants, and such like. One tribe of them goes forth two

thousand horsemen; and there is not any tribe of less than a hundred horsemen. Their weapons and accoutrements, their inumbers, war-horses, and troops, are such that they are able to contend with kings ; and it is said that their race is 'originally Arabian. (EBN. 'HAUKAL, pp. 85, 92.) – The wandering Curds or Turkomans, whom Captain FRANKLIN met in the vicinity of Persepolis, informed him, that their tribe was Ort. (Tour to Persia, &c. Oct. Edit. p. 199.) — We are inclined to think, say the Gentlemen who wrote the Unider. Blist., that thie parts between the Euxine and Caspian seas are most likely to be those in which Magog settled.

Vol. i. p.371.

was set up in the temple of Jupiter Capitolipos, and that o Cato the censor in the curia, or senate house, as we read in VALERTUR MAXIMUS, l. viii. c. 15. Univer. Hist. dol. xiii. p. 491.

Accordingly Caius Cesar, desirous to be called a God by every nation in subjection to the Romans, sent Petronius with an arıny to Jerusalern to place his statues in the temple, and commanded him that, in case the Jews would not admit of them, he should slay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest of the nation into captivity. — The Jews declaring that they would suffer themselves to be slain, rather than permit this, Caius providentially died before his wicked and bloody threat could possibly be executed.

See JOSEPHUS' Wars, b. ii. chap. I.

4241. (Ezek. xxxviii. 4.] Horses and horsemen, clothed with perfection; or, as Kimchi translates, Expert in all kinds of weapons.

Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 297.

4242. [-6.] Here Cush comprehends Arabia and the proper Ethiopia; as if we had read Persia, Arabia, Ethiopia, and Libya. — Coinpare Ezek. xxx, 5. with Jer. xxv. 20, 24.

See Univer. Hist. dol. xviii. p. 497,

note (P).

4247. (Ezek. xliii. 7-9.] In Egypt, the dead body of a distinguished person (when embalmed), was enclosed in a case of wood, made 10 resemble a human figure, and placed (as Saul's body was, 2 Sam. xxxi. 10) against the wall in the repository of their dead.

Herod. Euterpe, lxxxvi. Now a carpeuter. that fells timber, after he had sawn down a tree meet for the purpose, carved it diligently, wheu he had nothing else to do, and formed it by the skill of his understanding, and fashioned it to the image of a man; or made it like some vile beast, laying it over with vermillion, and with paint, colouring it red, and covering every spot therein ; and when he had: made a convenient room for it, set -it iu a wall, and made it fast with irou : for he provided for it that it might not fall, koowing that it was unable to help itself (for it is an image, and has need of help) : He then makes prayer for his goods, for his wife and children, and is not ashamed to speak to that which has no life. For health, he calls on that which is weak ; for life, prays to that which is dead : for aid, humbly beseeches that which has least means to belp: for a good journey, he asks of that which cannot set a foot forward : and for gaining and getting, and for good success of his hands, asks ability to do, of him that is most unable to do any thing.

See No. 2835. Wisdom of SOLOMON xiii. 11 - 19.

4243. [Ezek. al. 1, &c.] Villalpandus acknowledges that, after twenty-three years' study, he was still unable to comprehend the mysteries of this vision.

4244. (14.) See Nehemiah xii. 24.

4245. [Ezek. xliii. 7 – 9.] The pagodas, or Pagan temples of India, consist of three divisions. The first forms the main body, or nave; the second, the sanctuary; and the third, the chapel in which the sacred body is preserved.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 62.

4248. [- 11.) The principles of all forms, like those of colors (see Job xli. 18), are reducible to five ; the line, the triangle, the circle, the ellipse, and the parabola.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 122.


It was an antient custom among the Romans, set up the images of illustrious men in the curia, and in 1 r temples. Thus the image of Scipio Africanus

4249. [-14.] “The lower settle” was for the Priests to walk on, as they placed the consecrated offeriøgs on the upper or “greater settle.” (See Plate i. fig. 3, in BoisGELIN's Malia, opposite p. 18. vol. i.) – Or, more probably, the Priests, who served up the dishes to the High

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4255. ( 11.] A bath is supposed to have held, in liquids, seven gallons two quarts and a half pint.

Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 38.

4262. [Ezek. xlvii. 1-5.] The waters must bave been thus increased by successive springs. Ps. lxxxvii. 7. The king's portion included that holy portion in which the springs

Ch. xlviii. 21.


4263. [Ezek. xlvii. 2.) Shiloahı, called also Siloain (John ix. 7) was a fountain under the walls of Jerusale in, towards the East, between the city and the hrook Kidron. CALVET thinks that this was the same with Eurogel, or the Fuller's fountain, which is mentioned in Joshua xv. 7. xviii, 16; in Lam. xvii. 17, and in 1 King's i. 9. Its waters were colJected in a great reservoir for the use of the city; and a stream from it, supplied the pool of Bethesda.

See Dr. A. CLARKE, on John ix. 7.

- vol. v.

4264. [-9.) About eight miles up Savannah river, at the villa of the Hon. Jonathan Bryan, Esq., I observed, says BARTRAM, in a low wet place at the corner of his garden, the Ado (Arum esculentum); this plant is inuch cultivated in the maritime parts of Georgia and Florida, for the sake of its Jarge turnip-like root, which, when boiled or roasted, is excellent food, and tastes l ke the Yam: perhaps this inay be the Aruin Colocasia. There is also another spec'es of the esculent Arum, called Tannier, which is a large and beautiful plant, much cultivated and esteemned for food, particularly by the Negroes.

Trad. p. 467.

The intense salıness of its waters is what prevents either animals or vegetables from living in it.

See Tacitus, Hist. lib. v. cap. vi Plin. lib. v. cap xv & xvi. VOLNEY, vol. i.


281. STRABO states that no person could dive in this water, nor wade into it above the navel.

Geogr. vol. ii. p. 1107. Pococke, in confirmation, says that he could lie motionless on its waters, in any altitude, without sinking.

See his Trav. in 1743, vol. ii. p. 34. When Vespasian went to see this lake, he commanded that some who could not swim, should bave their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep ; when it so happened, that they all swam, as if a wind had forced them upwards.

Joseph. Wars, b. iv. chap. viii. § 4. From a chemical analysis accurately made by Marcet, it appears, that the water of the Dead Sea, contains salts nearly one-fourin of its weight.

See Phil. Trans. for 1807, vol. ii. p. 296. This lake is situated in the south of Syria, near Jerusa." lem, occupying an extent of from 60 to 70 miles in length, and from 10 to 20 iu breadth.

Marcer.' En-eylaiın is at the beginuing of the Dead Sea, where the Jordan enters it: En-gedi is on the opposite side, not far from Jericho. See Mutt. li. 6.

CALMET. The Greeks call this lake Asphaltis, on account of the bitumen it abounds with ; and the Jews call it the Dead Sea, because fish cannot live in it.

Dr. A. Clarke's FLEURY, p. 277.

4265. [ - 10.) There are no fish in the Dead Sea; but there are certain Zoophyles, such as the actinia calendula, thus described by Hughes: At the north end of the island of Barbadoes, in St. Lucy's parish, is a cave about 14 feet long, and I wide : ils bottom is a basin always full of transparent salt water, covering a porous stone of about 4 feet long, and 3 in breadth From small holes in the sides of this stone, at different depths, appear in full bloom, at all times of the year, several seemingly fine radiated yellow flowers, resembling marigolds; which, on the approach of a finger, shrink, stalk and all, intu the stone ; re-appearing after a few minutes, in their former beauty. (See Exod vii. 11, 12.) – The top of the stone, out of which these seeming flowers grow, is covered over with small blue tlowers resembling the yellow ones, and with clusters of waler-bottles that reseinble unripe grapes. - These corallines probably are the plants bearing fruit that never

come 10 ripeness, said in the book of Wisdom (x. 7) to be in or near the Dead Sta.

See Phil. Trans. Abr. vol. viii. p. 717. The lake Asphaltis, is called the Dead Sea, because no animal lives in it; and, if by chance any fish come into it, they die, and swim on its surface.

JEROME, in loco.

4266. [Ezek. xlvii. 10, 11.) Covalam, in India, produces nothing but millet and salt.

See Jonah i. 17. BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 74.

4267. 12.] Those plantations of patm-trees that are near the banks of the river Jordan, are much more flourishing and fruitful, than such as are reinote from its waters.

Joseph. Wars, b. iv. ch. viii. § 2. Verse 19.] The rider, called Sichor on the border of Egypt; near to the Isthmus of Suez. See Josh xii. 3.




N all barbarous or uncivilized countries the stateliness of the body is held in great veneration : nor do they think any capable of great services or actions, to whom nature has not vouchsafed to give a beautiful form and aspect. (Q. CURTIUS, Hist. l. vi. C. v.) — And it has always been the custom in Eastern nations to choose such for their principal officers. Verse 4. See Sir Paul Ricaur's Present state of the

Ottoman Empire, b. i. c. 5. p. 13.

be pronounced, by the mass of mankind, impracticable ; be it the discovery of gunpowder, the discovery of printing, the discovery of Ainerica, or any other novelty of however great or however minute a scale.

Essay on Sepulchres.

4273. [Dan. i. 12.] Gray peas, steeped a night-in water, and fried with butter, are still eaten as a dainty in the north of England.

4269. [Dan. i. 5-20.) Dr. Barwick tells us in the life of his brother, who, in the civil wars, had for many years been confined in a low room in the tower, during the usurpation; that, at the time of his going in, he was under a phthisis, atrophy, and dyscasy, and lived on bread and water only, several years there; and yet came out at the restoration, sleek, plump, and gay.

See Dr. Cheyne's Method of Cure in

the Diseases of the body and the mind, p. 211.

4274. (Dan. ii. 28.] There are dreams that come by influx from heaven, as well as visions ; with this difference, that dreams come when the corporeal part is asleep, but visions when it is not asleep.

SWEDENBORG, Arcana, n. 1975.


It appears hence, that vegetable food is not only the most nutritive, but contributes exceedingly to strengthen the intellectual


of man. PLUTARCH, in his Treatise on Animal Food, intimates, that an indulgence in that article contributed greatly to obscure the intellectual faculties.

4275. [-31.] The Greatest Man is the universal heaven, which in general is a likeness and image of the Lord.

Ibid. n. 3883,

4271. [-8. The wine which he drank] That is, “ the royal wine” — made by mingling palm-tree with that of the grape. See Esther i. 7. Isai. y. 22.

See No. 113.

4276. [-32.] They who are of the most antient Church called Man or Adam, and were celestial men, are above the Head (of the Grand Man of the Spiritual Heavens) in a very high elevation (of the Angelic Heavens); where they dwell together in the utmost happiness, in an aura

4272. [-10.] Whatever is wholly new is sure to

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