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of the outer crust, the interior part of the drop had a structure may be conceived to be exempted from rain falling upon thein : similar to that of fiuid glass, or at least, that the ultimate one where the constant trade-winds meet beneath the line, particles were in both cases at the same distance, having been for liere two regions of warm air are mixed together, and prevented, in the case of the drop, from approaching each thence do not seem to have any cause to precipitate their other by the action of the external coat. He therefore provapor; and the other is, where the winds are brought from cured, he tells us, several of these drops made of bottle glass, colder climates and become warmer by their contact with the
and on exposing them to a polarised pencil of light, he found earth of a warmer one. Thus Lower Egypt is a fat country that they not only depolarised it completely, but produced warmed by the sun more than the higher lands on one side of the alternation of the prismatic colors. it, and than the Mediterranean on the other; and hence the
See Phil. Trans. for 1814, part ii. p. 437. winds which lilow over it acquire greater warmth, which-ever way they come, than they possessed before, and in consequence have a tendency to acquire and not to part with their vapor like the north-east winds of this country.
Is the aurora borealis meant by the “bow Darwin's Botanic Garden, part ii. Canto iii. p. 127. in the cloud,” and not the rainbow ?-DALTON has shewn in
his Essays, pp. 175, &c., that the aurora is a magnetic
phenomenon; that its beams arise from the earth's magne356. (Gen. ix. 13—17.) Tlie rainbows in our latitudes are tism ; that it is electric light solely; and that its appearance only seen in the mornings or evenings, when the sun is not
is a proguastication of fair weather. much more than forty-two degrees high. In the more nor
Essay 8, Sect. 6. part ii. theru latitudes where the meridian is not inore than fortytwo degrees high, they are also visible at noon. DARWIN's Temple of Nature, Canto i. I. 363.
SWEDENBORG, evidently describing the mag.
netic sphere shooting its aurora of electric light, says, At Dehli in the East Indies, there is
There is as it were a rainbow heaven, where the whole atscarcely a month in the rainy season but lunur rainbows are
mosphere appears to consist of very small continued rainbows. seen, when the moon is high above the horizon. I have seen
The whole atmosphere or aura therein, consists of such beams of them, says Bernier, three or four nights one after ano
or breakings forth of light, irradiated thus in each of its points ther, and sometimes double ones. They were not circles wherein it originates. All around is the form of a very large about the moon, but opposite to her, and in the like position rainbow, encompassing the whole heaven, most beautiful in its with solar rainbows: as often as I have seen them, the moon appearance, being composed of similar smaller rainbows, which was westward, and the rainbow eastward. The moon was
are images of the larger, &c. also near the full; which, in my opinion, is necessary; be
Arcana, n. 1623. cause at other times, she would not have light enough to form any. Lastly, these rainbows were not so white as the (lunar) orowns use to be, but much more coloured, insomuch that
362. there might be discerned in them some distinction of colors.
Sometimes the appearance of aurora bom
realis is that of a large, still, luminous arch, or zone, resting (See Pinkerton's Voy. and Trav. part xxxii. p. 229.) -The Antients, according to ARISTOTLE, had observed no
on the northeru horizon, with a fog at the bottom ; at other such thing before his time : that is, the Writers read by him
times, flashes, or corruscations, are seen over a great part of bad not lived where such appearances are usual.
Arches of the aurora, nearly in the form of rainbows,
when complete, go quite across the heavens, from one point 358. At Ketima in Finland, we saw, says M.
of the horizon to the opposite point.
DALTON's Essays, pp. 54, 168. OUTHIER, a singular appearance in the sky at seven o'clock (p. m.), on the 27th of July, 1736; as the sun shone from the N. W. there appeared in the rain which was falling in the S. E. three rainbows, the colors of the internal and external 363. (Gen. ix. 14.] That light, electricity, and the of which were vivid ; of the middlemost, which was parallel to aurora borealis, are identical, seems now fully proved by the the internal one, and which bisected the external, the colors effects of a machine figured and described by Dr. G. L. were not so lively.
ROBERTS, in the Month. Mag. for Feb. 1815, p. 4.-Set, Pinkerton's Voy. and Trav. vol. i. p. 284. says he, the machine in motion, and, as soon as the jar is
about three parts charged, the aurora borealis will appear;
keep the machine in motion, and balls of fire, of a dense purple 359.
In the formation of glass tears, or color, will pass from ball to ball; still continue to turn the Rupert's drops, -as they are sometimes called, by dropping machine, and they will soon be succeeded by stars, (issuing) melted glass into cold water, it appeared probable, says Dr. with a loud report, and as bright as the sun. BREWSTER, that in consequence of the sudden consolidation
See Rev. xix. 13. your
364. [Gen. ii. 6.] The cause of the ascent, suspension, patriarchs. For instance, “if ever the use of iron had been and descent of vapors, is not yet fully determined ; many known to the savages of America, or to their progenitors; think that electricity is the principal agent in producing these if ever they had employed a plough, a loom, or a forge, the phenomena ; whilst others are of opinion, that water is raised utility of these inventions would have preserved them, and it and suspended in the air, much after the same manner in is impossible that they should have been abandoned or forwhich salts are raised and suspended in water; and it must
gotten." be owned that this opinion (which future experience may shew
Dr. ROBERTSON. not to be wholly inconsistent with the other) has a great appearance of probability. WATSON's Chem. vol. iii. p. 76.
369. [Gen. x. 2.) It is uncertain if all the names, mer
tioned in the tenth Chapter of Genesis, be the names of 365. (Gen. ix. 14, 15.] It is demonstrable, that an atmos- individuals. In the Hebrew idiom, the terms father, son ; phere of steam does actually surround the earth, existing in-begot, was born, imply not always immediate parentage or dependently of the other atmospheres with which however it filiation, is necessarily most intimately mixed. In the higher regions
Dr. GEDDES. of this our mixed atmosphere a condensation of vapor takes place, at the same moment that evaporation is going on below.—This is actually the case almost every day, as all know from their own observation ; a cloudy stratum of air 370. [Gen. v. 4.] “Several of the chiefs of your bands," frequently exists above, whilst the region below is compara- says Carver, in his address to the American savages, “have tively dry. (Dalton's Chemical Philosophy, part i. p. often told me, in times past, when I dwelt with you
in 132.)- As this condensation of vapor, which is the cause of tents, that they much wished to be counted among the chilthat rain indicated by the bow in the cloud, keeps pace to a dren and allies of the great king my master.—As there are certain degree with the evaporation arising from the earth's now several of your chiefs here, who came from the great surface, it necessarily follows that, according to the stated laws plains towards the setting of the sun, whom I have never of our atmosphere, while water thus regularly rises and falls spoke with in council before, I ask you to let me know if there cannot be a universal deluge.
you are willing to acknowledge yourselves the children of my great naster, the king of the English and other nations."
“Good brother,” replied the principal chief, we are well 366. [Gen. i. 7.) Were all the water precipitated in satisfied in the truth of what you have told us about the rains) which is dissolved in the air, it might probably be suf- great king our greatest father; for whom we spread this ficient to cover the surface of the whole earth, to the depth beaver blanket, that his fatherly protection may ever rest of above thirty feet.
easy and safe among us his children.-We desire that when WATSON's Chem. vol. iii. p. 87. you return, you will acquaint the great king how much the
Naudowessies wish to be counted among his good children."
See his Travels in N. America, pp. 55, 56. 367. (Gen. ix. 13, 14.] The Bow in the Cloud is made a sign, au exnblem of the Presence and power of the PuriFIER.—Whenever the Purifier appeared, as above the Cherubim, with the bow, the irradiation of his Person; he was
The king of Talahasochte and his chiefs attended with a cloud.—Hence their augurs consulted such having been previously acquainted, says BARTRAM, with my clouds; and their God in the cloud was supposed to give business and pursuits amongst them, received me very kindly; them answers.
(HUTCHINSON's Covenant in the Cherubim, the king in particular complimented me, saying that I was pp. 458, 459, 460.)-This is the first account of God's ap- as one of his own children or people, and should be propearing in a cloud, with a rainbow encircling his head.—In the tected accordingly. First Church, and in the Jewish, he was encompassed with
Sce his Trav. p. 235. fire : in the Second, and Fourth, in a white cloud, crowned with a rainbow. See Rev. x. 1.
368. (Gen. x. 1.) Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth : and unto them were sons born after the flood.
The arts and sciences, known to Noah and his sons, would have been diffused equally throughout the earth, had all nations been naturally descended from those
372. (Gen. x. 5.) In the Northern Archipelago, the inhabitants of the Fox Islands live together in families, and societies consisting of several families united, which constitute, what they call, a race; and, in case of an attack or defence, they mutually assist and support each other. The inhabitants of the same island always pretend to be of the same race; and every person looks upon his island as a possession, which is common to every member of the same community.
Thus whole nations of American savages, (Gen. x. 5.) By the sons of JAPHETH were the isles of such as Hurons, Miamies, Chipeways, Ottowaws, Pontowat- the Gentiles divided in their lands ; every one after his timies, Mississauges, and some other tribes, at this day con- tongue, after their families, in their nations. federate themselves under the direction of a Pontiac, a celebrated Indian chieftain.
377. (Gen. x. 1, &c.] The countries between the Euxine See Carver's Trav. in N. America, p. 12. and Caspian seas, are the true ragina gentium, elsewhere
sought in vain, where a whole multitude of peoples, differing
in language, and sometimes mingling those languages, lived 374.
The most antient people on this earth were within a narrow circle.—Abulfeda, in his Geography, mentions distinguished into nations, families, and houses. They were
a place in the south-cast of Trebisond, called the Mount of all content with their own goods. To grow rich from the Tongues, which is said to have had its name from the cirgoods of others, and likewise to have dominion, was at that
cumstance of so many people of different languages having time altogether unknown. Every one then did what was
ren-countered or dwelt upon it. good from a principle of goodness; and what was just from
Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 479. a principle of justice. Self-love and the love of the world were then far away. Every one from his heart was glad at his own, and no less at another's good. But, in succeeding times, when the lust of dominion and of possessing 378. (Gen. x. 2.) Magog, Scythia, or Great Tartary. the goods of others seized the mind; then inankind, for
- To form an idea of this inost antient country, conceive a the sake of self-defence, gathered together into kingdoms line drawn from the mouth of the Oby to that of the Dnieper, and empires. And, as the laws of charity and conscience,
and, bringing it back eastward across the Euxine, so as to which had been inscribed on humau hearts, ceased to operate ; || include the peninsula of Krim, extend it along the foot of to restrain violences, it became necessary to enact laws; to Caucasus, by the rivers Cur and Aras, to the Caspian propose honors and gains as rewards, and the privations lake, from the opposite shore of which follow the course of thereof as punishments. When the state of the world was the Jaihun' and the chain of Caucascan hills as far as those thus changed, heaven reinoved itself from man, and this of Imaus : whence continue the line beyond the Chinese wall more and more, even to the present ages, when it is no longer to the White Mountain and the country of Yetso; skirtiug known, whether there be a heaven, consequently whether the borders of Persia, India, China, Corca, but including there be a hell; nay, when their existence is denied !
part of Russia, with all the districts which lie between the (SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 8118.)-No Book contains mo
Glacial sea, and that of Japan. numents more authentic of the History of Nations, and of
Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 52. Nature, than the Book of Genesis.
Studies of Nature, vol. i. p. 336.
Magog was the Syrian name for Bambyce, 375. (Gen. . 32.] The nations, which possess Europe
Hierapolis or the Holy City, in the province of Cyrrhestica; änd a part of Asia and of Africa, appear to have descended
where stood the temple of the great Syrian goddess, their from one family; and to have had their origin near the banks
deified queen Arathis.-Within the inclosures of this temple of the Mediterranean, as probably in Syria, the site of Para
were kept beeves, horses, lions, bears, eagles; all sacred dise, according to the Mosaic history. This seems highly
and tame.—Here were Galli, or eunuch priests.-Who took probable from the similarity of the structure of the languages
on them the attire of women; forbidden by Moses.—Twice a of these nations, and from their early possession of similar
year they went to the sea-side, and thence brought water into religions, customs, and arts, as well as from the most antient
the temple (to re-fill, probably, their baptismal laver, after its histories extant.—Other families of mankind, nevertheless, impure waters had been let off into a natural hole or cleft in appear to have arisen in other parts of the habitable earth, as
the ground). the language of the Chinese is said not to resemble those of
Univer. Hist. vol. ii. pp. 234, 257, 259, 260, 261, 262. this part of the world in any respect. And the inhabitants of the islands of the South-sea had neither the use of iron tools, nor of the bow, nor of wheels, nor of spinning, nor had learnt to coagulate milk, or to boil water, though the domestication 380.
The learned men of Segistan, are sure of fire seems to have been the first great discovery that dis- named Segistani; a practice very common in Persia. tinguished mankind from the bestial inhabitants of the forest.
See PINKERTON's Coll. vol. ix., p. 171. DARWIN's Temple of Nature, Canto i. 2.
Sir W. Jones thinks the colonies, formed by YA'FET, were the Tartars; those by Shem, the Arabs; and those by Ham, the Indians.
Works, vol. i. p. 135.
381. (Gen. x. 4.] It is the opinion of many commentators, of Shuckford in particular, that by the Chittim or descendants of Chith, are meant the inhabitants of Macedonia.
Univer. Hist. vol. vii. p. 540.
384. (Gen. x. 6, 7.] The Hindoos have a great number of regular dramas, at least two thousand years old, and among
390. - Aldrete, a person of most profound erudithem are several very fine ones on the story of Rama.—1 in- tion, and after him Father Delrio, agree in opinion that the cline to think, says Sir W. Jones, that this was Rama, the Naphtuhim of Moses was either the great ancestor, or nation, son of Cush, who inight have established the first regular of the Numidians. government in this part of Asia.--It is very remarkable, he
See Univer. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 352, Note (C). adds, that the Peruvians, whose Incas boasted of the same descent, styled their great festival Ramasitoa; whence we may suppose that South America was peopled by the same race, who imported into the farthest parts of Asia the rites and
391. [Gen. x. 9.] Nimrod was a mighty hunter before
the Lord. fabulous history of Rama. The first and second Ramas were said to have been contemporary; but whether all or any of
This phrase, a mighty hunter before the them mean Rama the son of Cush, I leave, continues this
Lord, can be proved from Jer. v. 26. to signify, that he grew
hardened in wickedness, and became a prevailing seducer to learned gentleman, others to determine :— The hypothesis, that government was first established, laus enacted, and
idolatry. agriculture encouraged in ludia by Rama, about three thou
HUTCHINSON's Natural History of the Bible. sand years ago, agrees with the received account of Noah's death, and the previous settlement of his immediate descendants.
392. (Gen. x. 8.] Nimrod set up or usurped a kingdom ; Asiat. Researches, vol. i. pp. 258, 426.
and as several such afterwards did, returned to the first crime (Gen. iii. 5.), set up a False Object of worship, founded (or re-established) the Heathen religion, built a Temple, &c. :
which occasioned the dispersion. 385, (Gen. x. 10.] The children of Ham founded in Iran itself, or Persia, the monarchy of the first Chaldeans.
HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason recovered, p. 99. Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 140.
393. (Gen. xi. 20.] Suidas informs us from Estiæus of 386. (Gen. x. 8.) Syria proper lay eastward of the Tigris,
Miletum, that Serug was a carver of images, and a teacher extending nearly north-east and south-west from the springs
of idolatry. If so, then this might be the man, says Dr. of that river and the lake Van, to the province of Khuzestân
GREGORY, that made Nimrod a god. (See Eusebius Scaliin Persia.--Here was the first great monarchy, which in gerianus, p. 13. Or Gregory's Assyr. Monarchy, p. 217.)
-Accordingly, remarks ABARBINEL, the Latin Scribes have process of time grew venerable, even to those who had originally suffered by its power; till at length all the country
written that this Nimrod, who reigned first in Babel, made between the Mediterranean on the west, and the river Indus
himself a god-an idol after bis own image (some say, ten on the east, assumed the appellation of Assyria.—This mo
cubits high), and called it Bel (or Baal, Lord).
Ibid. p. 222. narchy was founded by Ashur, and not by Nimrod as some have contended. See Univer. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 123, 127. 394. [Gen. xi. 4.] Among those swarms of nations, which,
from the seventh to the twelfth century of the christian era,
successively inhabited the country of Mexico ; we find, that 387.
From Nimrod to Ninus, the seat of the the pyramidal houses of their gods were raised each in the Assyrian Monarchy was at Babel; from Ninus to Asarhaddon, midst of a square and walled enclosure, which, somewhat it was at Nineveh ; and in the interval froin Merodac to like the peribolos of the Greeks, contained gardens, fous
tains, the dwellings of the priests, and sometimes arsenals ; since each house of a Mexican divinity, like the antient temple of Baal Berith, burnt hy Abimelech, was a strong place. A great staircase led to the top of the truncated pyramid, and on the summit of the platform were one two chapels, built like towers, which contained the colossal idols of the divinity, to whom the stupendous structure was dedicated. This part of the edifice must be considered as the most consecrated place, where the priests kept up the sacred fire. The inside of the edifice was the burial place of the (enshrived) kings and principal personages of Mexico. It is impossible to read the descriptions, which Herodotus, and Diodorus Siculus have left us, of the temple of Jupiter Belus, without being struck with the resemblance of that Babylonian monument to these Mexican structures.
HUMBOLDT's Researches in South America.--See
Month. Mag. (Suppl.) for Jan. 30th, 1815.
398. (Gen. xi. 1.] And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech.
Lip, when put for a human action, signifies perpetually throughout the Old Testament, religious confession. Hence the idea here is, that the idolaters having resolved to build a tower or temple To the Heavens, the Most High made them disagree about the model of their liturgy.
Sce Hutchinson's Essay toward a Natural
History of the Bible.
All the symbols of sound at first, probably, were only rude outlines of the different organs of speech, and had a common origin : the symbols of ideas, now used in China and Japan, and formerly, perhaps, in Egypt and Mexico, are quite of a distinct nature; but it is very remarkable, that the order of sounds in the Chinese grammars corresponds nearly with that observed in Ther, and hardly differs from that, which the Hindoos consider as the invention of their Guds.
It is probable, that all the languages properly Tartarian (of which the T'urkish of Constantinople is one) arose from
Paul Lucas, in his second voyage to the Levant, tom. i. p. 126, says he saw a surprising number of Pyramids within two days' journey of Cæsarea, in Asia Minor ; with doors, stairs, rooms, and windows; and in the upper part of each an (enshrined) corpse. These pyramids, he adds, from their uniformity with those in Tartary, have doubtless been built by Tartars, in some expedition on that side their country:
See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv.p. 307.
one common source.
Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i. pp. 27, 60.
By a late accurate admeasurement, it appears that the largest Pyramid in Egypt stands upon 11 acres of ground, and is 400 feet high.
WHEELER's Manches. Chron. Jan. 12th, 1805.
400. (Gen. ii. 20.) Several of the Antients were of opinion, that men, in the beginning of the world, expressed their thoughts by dumb signs, or gesticulations only. (See DIODOR. Sic. l. ip. 8. LACTANT. de vero cult. I. 10.)-In naming the different animals, Adam probably did but mimic their natural cries.
401. (Gen. xi. 7.) It is thought to be an evil, that nations do not understand each other : But if all spoke the same language, the impostures, the errors, the prejudices, the cruel opinions peculiar to each nation, would be diffused all over the Earth. The general confusion which is now in the words, would in that case be in the thoughts.
St. PIERRE'S Arcadia, p. 190.
No one of the antient writers, neither Herodotus nor Strabo, Diodorus sior Pausanias, Arrian nor Quintus Curtius, asserts, that the temple of Belus was erected according to the four cardinal points, like the Egyptian and Mexican pyramids. Pliny observes only, that Belus was considered as the inventor of astronomy: Inventor hic fuit sideralis scientiæ. Diodorus relates, that the Babylonian temple served as an observatory to the Chaldeans. “It must be admitted,” says he, “ that this building was of an extraordinary height, and that liere the Chaldeans made their observations on the stars, the rising and setting of which might be exactly perceived, on account of the elevation of the edifice." The Mexican priests made observations also on the stars from the summit of their teinples; and announced to the people, by the sound of the horn, the hours of the night. These structures were built in the interval between the epocha of Mahomet and the reigu of Ferdinand and Isabella ; and we cannot observe withont astonishment, that American edifices, the form of which is almost the same as that of one of the most antient monuments on the banks of the Euphrates, belong to times so near our own.
HUMBOLDT.-Suppl. to Month. Mag.
for Jan. 1815, p. 612.
The monarch of Great Britain has in ac. tual possession nineteen antient kingdoms and principalities : England antiently contained seven, Scotland three, Ireland five, Wales three, and the Isle of Man oue. The inhabi. tants speak nine several languages, English, Scolch, Welsh, Cornish, Irish, Manks, Galish in the Orcade Isles, French in Jersey and Guernsey, and Dutch in several places where Netherlanders dwell, having churches, and the service in their own tongue. Month. Mag for 1815, p. 527.–From the MSS that
belonged to the late William, Marquis of Lansdowne, now deposited in the British Museum.