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ECCLESIASTES; OR, THE PREACHER.

LUTARCH mentions, that prophecies of evil events waters an extent of three thousand miles, at least : And were uttered from the cave of Trophonius (the grave); but the Amazouian river in America, which at Quito is but a the allegorical story, that whoever entered this cavern were rivulet, after a course of more than 800 leagues, discharges never again seen to smile, seems to have been designed to itself into the sea, by an outlet that is 84 leagues broad. warn the contemplative from considering too much the dark Several subterraneous rivers also, have been actually discoside of nature. Thus an antient poet is said to have written vered in various places, emptying themselves into the sea; a poem on the miseries of the world, and to bave thence particularly on the coast of Languedoc, near Frontignan; become so unhappy as to destroy himself. When we reflect as also on the coast of Croatia, opposite Venice. — Such on the perpelual destruction of organic life, we should also

are the visible and imperceptible means, by which a constant recollect, that it is perpetually renewed in other forms by and uninterrupted circulation of water is preserved between the same materials, and thus the sum total of the happiness the sea and the land. The waters of the sea ascend in of the world continues undiminished ; and that a philosopher vapors, and fall down again in snow and raiu, on the mounmay thus smile again on turning his eyes from the coffins of tains and on the plains. Those which descend on the monnnature to her cradles.

tains, find there proper basins, or vases, for their recepEccles. i. 2.

Darwin's Temple of Nature, tion; whence they rise again in fountains above the surface
Canto i. 126.

of the earth, directing their course towards the sea, and
watering in their progress the valleys and the plains. While
such as fall down on the lower grounds, insinuate themselves

into subterraneous channels, and thus return to the main 3840. As the Sensitive Plant, on which we

ocean. gaze with attention, when we come to touch it, immediately

Nat. Delin. vol. iii. pp. 31, 116, 118. sbrinks its displayed leaves, and contracts itself into a form and dimensions disadvantageously differing from the former ; which it again recovers by degrees, when touched no longer : So those objects that charm us at a distance, and which gazed on with the eyes of expectation and desire, when a more immediate possession has put them into our hands, lose their former lustre, and appear quite different things from 3842. [Eccles. iii. 11.] Eth olam (Hebr.), an eternal what before they seemed; though, after deprivation or ab. essence ; whereby your heart shall live for ever, Ps. sence has made us forget their emptiness, and we are reduced xxii. 26. to look on them again at a distance, they recover in most The privative preposition bli, used here with the prefix men's eyes their former beauty, and are as capable as before mem, is preceded by beth in Job xxxv. 16, where it is rento inveigle and delude us.

dered without. Therefore,” says Descux, "since bebli Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 44. doth (Hebr.) means without knowledge, mebli asher must

mean without which.

3843. [- 20.] See 2 Corinth. v. 1.

3841. [7.] The Rhine, rising in Switzerland, passes through France, Germany, and Holland, where its vast waters divide into four or five channels, that empty themselves into the sea after a course of more than 200 leagues. The Danube, before it enters the Black sea, runs 500 leagues. The Niger, in the burning sands of Africa,

3844. [21.] Who knoweth the spirit of the sons of men, which ascends, itself, up on high ; and the spirit

of a beast, which descends, itself, down below to the earth?

See Bp. Browne's Procedure of the Understand.

ing, p. 358. When spiritual light flows into the souls of brutes, it is received altogether differently, and thereby acts differently on them, than when it flows into the souls of men. The latter are in a superior degree, and in a more perfect state ; being such that they can look upwards, thus to heaven and the Lord : wherefore the Lord can adjoin them to Himself, and give them eternal life. But the souls of beasts are such, that they cannot do otherwise than look downwards ; thus, to earthly things alone; and thereby be adjoined solely to such things : in consequence whereof they also perish with the body.

SweDeNBORG, Arcana, n. 3646.

3848. [Eccles. ix. 2.) In public calamities, God seems to make no distinction betwixt the objects of his compassion and those of his, fury, indiscriminately involving them in the same desliny; yet his prescience and intentions make a vast difference, where his inflictions do not seem to make any : As, when on the same test, and with the selfsame fire, we purge as well the gold as the blended lead or antimony ; but with foreknowing and designing such a disparity in the events, as to consume the inore ignoble minerals, or blow them off into dross or fumes, and make the gold more pure and full of lustre.

Boyle's Seraphic Love, p. 38.

3849. [4.] The Canadian dogs are found extremely useful in drawing burdens, and there is scarcely a family in Quebec or Montreal, that does not keep one or more of them for that purpose. The people there, during the winter season, frequently perform long journeys on the snow with half a dozen or more of these animals yoked iu a cariole or sledge.

WELD's Trav. in N. America,

vol. i. p. 354.

3845. [Eccles. iv. 8.) Desire is never satisfied with the enjoyment of desired objects; as the fire is not appeased with clarified butter : it only blazes more vehemently.

Laws of Menu.

3850. [-15.] It is not just that the laws should be always inflicting punishment, and never bestowing rewards; that a man should be sent to the galleys or to a dungeon for having attacked the fortunes or the life of a fellow citizen, and receive no mark of public favor for having preserved peace in his neighbourhood; and administered cousolation to the afflicted.

St. Pierre's Works, vol. iv.

3846. [Eccles. vii. 16.] Carry not justice to excess, nor be rigourously exact :

Wherefore shouldst thou cause thyself to be shuuned.
Verse 17.)

Neither be slack to excess, nor foolish :
Wherefore shouldst thou perish before thy time.

Dr. Hodgson.

p. 329.

3851. [Eccles. xi. 1. Cast thy bread upon the waters] The rice grounds are inundated from the time of sowing nearly to harvest : the seed is commonly cast upon the water.

Clarke's Trav. in Asia, &c. Month.

Mag. vol. xxxvii. p. 614.

3847. [-26.] The cunningest robbers in the world are in this country (Arabia). They use a certain slip with a running noose, which they cast with so much slight about a man's neck, when they are within reach of him, that they never fail, so that they strangle him in a trice. They have another curious trick also to catch travellers. They send out a handsome woman on the road, who with her hair dishevelled seems to be all in tears ; sighing, and complaining of some misfortune which she pretends has befallen her. Now, as she takes the same way as the traveller goes,

he easily falls into couversation with her, and finding her beautiful, offers her his assistance which she accepts; but he has no sooner taken her up on horseback behind him, but she throws the snare about his neck, and strangles him; or at least stuus him, until the robbers who lie hid come running in to her assistance, and complete what she had begun.

THEVENOT, part iii. p. 41.

3852.

Rice, as cultivated in America by the Hon. B. Andrews, Esq., stands in the water almost from the time it is sown, until within a few days before it is reaped, when they draw off the water by sluices, which ripens it all at once, and when the heads or panicles are dry ripe, it is reaped and left standing in the field, in small ricks, until all the straw is quite dry, when it is hauled, and stacked in the barn yard.

BARTRAM's Trav. p. 11,

And the freed spirit mounts on wings of fire :
Each element partakes our scattered spoils;
As nature, wide, our ruins spread !- Man's death
Inhabits all things, but the thought of Man !

Young.

3853. [Ecclcs. xi. 1.] Wild rice grows in the water where it is about two feet deep, and where it finds a rich muddy soil. Its stalks, which are full of joints and rise more than eight feet above the water ; and its branches or ears that bear the seed, resemble oats both in their appearance and manner of growing.

About the time it begins to turn from its milky state and to ripen, the Indians turn their canoes into the midst of it, and tying bunches of it together, just below the ears, with bark, leave it in this situation three or four weeks longer, till it is perfectly ripe. About the latter end of September they returu to the river, when each family having its separate allotment, and being able to distinguish their own property by the manner of fastening the sheaves, gather in the portion that belongs to them. This they do by placing their canoes close to the bunches of rice, in such position as to receive the grain when it falls; they then beat it out with pieces of wood (the bow, Gen. xxvii. 3) formed for that purpose. Having done this they dry it with smoke (which makes it savoury meat, Gen. sxvii. 4) and afterwards tread or rub off the outside husk. When it is fit for use, they put it (as venison, Gen. xxvii. 3) into the skins of fawns, or young buffaloes, taken off nearly whole for this purpose, and sewed into a sort of sack, wherein they preserve it till the returu of their harvest.

CARVER's Trav. in N. America, p. 347.

3855. (Eccles. xii. 5.] The locust shall burden itself. (Editor of Calmet.) - The locust, -that is, a dry, shrunk, shrivelled, crumpling, craggy old man, his back-bone sticking out, his kuees projecting forwards, his arms backwards, his head downwards, and the apothyses or bunching parts of the bones, in general enlarged. (Dr. Smith.) - llence doubtless, the fable of Tithonus who, living to extreme old age, is said to have been turned into a grasshopper. See 2 Sam. xix. 35. and Red. ix. 3-II.

3856. [-6. Or the broken wheel at the cistern] SOLOMON, in this beautiful passage, alludes to a decaying water-engine.

3854. [Eccles. xii. 2.]

The moist of human frame the sun exhales ; Winds scatter, through the mighty void, the dry; Earth repossesses part of what she gave,

3857. [ll.] The Roman pretors, consuls, or dictators, were accustomed to number their years of office by the clavi or nails, which they drove annually into the wall of Jupiter's temple on the ides of March.

See Horace, b. iii. Od. xxiv. 5.

THE SONG (OR POEM) OF SOLOMON.

T

p. 198.

ing about a foot and a half from the ground. It bears bunches of berries in all respects like those of the elder, only rather larger. - That found in America is exactly the same as the Asiatic spikenard, so highly valued by the Antients for its balsainic virtues.

See Carver's Trad. in N. America, p. 340,

HERE are throughout Asia numerous tribes of blacks, but with European features and abundant hair.

Webb's Pauw, Such were the antient Egyptians ; and of course Pharaoh's daughter, so celebrated in this Nuptial Song. The testimony of Herodotus is decisive : speaking of a certain prophetess, whose country was held 'doubtful, he observes — “ In saying she was black, they mark that the woman was an Egyptian." - Elsewhere he asserts, that "the Egyptians, mourning for the dead, suffer the hair of the head and chin to grow long :" which it would not do, if woolly like tbat of a negro.

Ibid. p. 196. Most of the female Indians (of Malabar) have fine loug hair, black eyes, extended ears which are pierced, and straight delicate persone. ch. i. 6.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 163.

3862. (Sol. Song i. 12.] Spikenard is carried over the desert from India to Aleppo, where it is used in substance, mixed with other perfumes, and worn in small bags, or in the form of essence, and kept in little boxes or phials, like artyr (perfume) of roses.

See Mark xiv. 5. Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. iii. p. 41.

3859. [Sol. Song i. 5.] Jezdchest in Persia, is inhabited by a people who live in black teuts like the Arabs, changing their quarters in search of herbage, but never removing from a space comprized within a square of two leagues.

PIETRO Delle VALLE. See Pinker

ton's Coll. vol. ir. p. 121.

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3860. [

-9.) When the Eastern women travel on horseback, every lady of distinction is not only veiled, but has generally a servant who runs or rides before her to clear the way; and on such occasions the men, even in the market places, always turu their backs till the women are past, it being thought the height of ill inanners to look at them.

HANWAY's Truv. in Persia, vol. i.

3864. [~ 13, 14.] There is much reason to presume, that the clusters of the cyprus here are the clusters of the flowers of the henna of Egypt, which grow at the extremity of its branches, in long and tufted bouquets. These flowers, whose softened mixture of white and yellow are so delicate, diffuse around the sweetest odors, and embalm the gardens and the apartments which they embellish; they accordingly form the usual nosegay, and perfume the bosom of beauty.

SONNINI, Trav. in Egypt, vol. i.

pp. 264, &c.

p. 185.

3865.

3861. [ 12.] Spikenard grows near the sides of brooks in rocky places, and its stem, which is about the size of a goose-quill, springs op like that of angelica, reach

Pineyards of En-gedi] Balm-gardens.

See BOCHART, Hieroz. tom. i. lib. iij. 3866. [Sol. Song ii. 1.] The rose of Sharon, or the Damascus rose, from the age of Solomon to the present day, has been a universal favourite in the East.

cap. 51, 52.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.

"two virgins met her at the door, two others filled silver-gilt pots with perfumes, and began the procession, the rest following in pairs to the number of thirty. In this order they marched round the three large rooms of the bagnio." And when the ambassadors of an Eastern monarch, sent to propose marriage to an Egyptian queen, entered the capital of that country, Maillet tells us (Lelt. v.) the streets through which they passed were strewed with flowers; and precious odors, burning in the windows from very early in the morning, embalmed the air.

3867. [- 13.) At the time Vines flower in a Vinery, &c. the air is impregnated with effluvia of a very agreeable scent.

SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 166.

3872. [Sol. Song iii. 7, 8, 9, &c ] This car had a globular light in front of it, to give the Image a glory in the night : this light was the Rephaim or Remphan of Ainos v. 26, and of Acts vii. 43.

3868. [-]4.] Pliny, book x. ch. 33, says, that the greatest “ degree of modesty belongs to the doves; Adulteries are not known to either of them, they do not violate the fidelity of wedlock.” Concerning the conjugal chastity of the ring-dodes, see Porphyry in bis 3d Book against eating living creatures.

Hugo Grotius, on the Truth of the Christian

Relig. by Le Clerc, p. 118, and note.

3869. [- 15.] The Jackalls (of the smaller kind), says Dr. Shaw, cat roots and fruits ; and frequent the gardens every night. And Hasselquist affirms that, near the convent of St. John in the desert, about vintage time, the owners are obliged to set guards over the vines to prevent these creatures from destroying the grapes.

This species differs from the greater jackall, 'not less in form than in manners; as it is capable of being tamed and brought up in domesticity, which the other is not.

BUFFON. See Ps. Ixiii. 10.

3873. (-9, 10.] The hackeree, or Indian Chariot, drawn by oxen, has a canopy, or dome, covered with cloth or velvet, richly einbroidered and fringed, sup. ported by pillars, ornamented with silver and gold, often iulaid with sandal-wood and ivory; so is the bottoin of the vehicle, or frame work, raised above the wheels, which is here said to be paved with love.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii.

p.

193.

3374. [ll.] In the Greek church now in Egypt, the parties to be married are placed opposite a reading-desk, on which a book of the gospels is placed, and on the book two crowns, which are inade of such materials as people choose ; of flowers, of cloth, or of tinsel. Then the offici. ating priest, having poured forth a profusion of benedictions and prayers, places inese crowns, the one on the head of the bride-groom, the other on that of the bride, and covers them both with a veil. After some other ceremonies, he concludes the whole by taking off their crowns, and dismissing them with his prayers.

See MAILLET, Lett, x. p. 85.

3870. [ 16. He feedeth among the lilies] When the river Nile is become full, and all the grounds round it are become a perfect sea, there grows in the water a vast quantity of lilies, which the Egyptiaus call Lotos.

HERODOTUS. There are two sorts or varieties of this plant; the one with a white the other with a bluish flower. The calix, which blows like a large tulip, diffuses a sweet smell resembling that of the lily. The first sort produces a round root like that of a potato ; and the iubabitants of the banks of the lake Menzel feed on it.

M. SAVARY. In summer the Egyptians eat its stalks and heads raw, which are sweet, moistening, and cooling.

Beauties of Nature and Art displayed,

vol. xii. p. 141.

3875. [Sol. Song iv. 1.] Ainong the Jews, light-coloared hair had the preference of all others : both men and women dyed their hair of this color; then perfumed it with sweetscented essences, and powdered it with gold dust. — White hair-powder was not then invented; it came into fashion towards the end of the sixteenth century: L'Etoile relates, that in the year 1593 the Nuns walked the streets of Paris curled and powdered.

Dr. W. ALEXANDER's list of Women,

vol. ii. p. 106.

3871. [Sol. Song iii. 6.) Lady M. W. MONTAGUE, describing the reception of a Turkish bride at the bagnio, says,

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