half attain to the age of 9; and that two thirds are in their grave before the age of 40; about a sixth only remain at the expiration of 62 years; a tenth after 70; a hundredth párt after 86; about a thousandth part attain to the age of 96 ; and six or seven individuals to that of 100.

HUTTON's Recreations, dol. i. p. 244.


the horn ; Lift not up your horn on high ; speak not with a stiff' neck; Ps. lxxv. 4, 5. The horn of the righteous shall be exalted with honor ; Ps. cxii. 9. See Deut. xxxiji. 17.

BRUCE's Trav. vol. v.

3708 [Ps. xciv. 9 He that planted the ear, shall he not hear? he that formed the eye, shall he not see?] That is, shall He that imparts a faculty or an excellence to the creature, Himself not possess it much more eminently?

Boyle's Seraph. Love, p. 58.

3706. [Ps. xci. 6.] As a probable cause of the Plague rat Dantzick, in the year 1709, on August the lith, at noon, I first observed, says Dr. GOTTWALD, a stiuking like a thick cloud, but of short duration, but at 4 o'clock it returned from the north west, so very thick, that it perfectly darkened the air, and hindered the sight. It was neither blue nor gray, as other common mists; but of a blackisha yellow, like the vapors that rise from the effervescence of oil of viiriol with oil of tartar. After it had reached the middle of the town towards the south east, it iuciined west. ward, and there emitted a violent stench.

Another sign of an infected air was not as may perhaps be thought, only a vulgar fancy, but the careful observation of learned persons, viz. That in the month of July the crows, daws, sparrows and other birds, which at other times are to be seen here in the town and about the gardens in vast numbers, were all fled, and wone of them to be seen till November. The samne was observed of the storks and swallows likewise; and I can positively affirm, that I saw none of those birds all those 4 months.

Abs. Phil. Trans. vol, vi. p. 28.


There can be no doubt that the Telescope, with all its present improveinents, is the result of a most happy application of uncommon skill and ingenuity, contriving and combining all the various parts and movements of that curious machine, for the excellent purpose of assistiny vision. In proportion as these inovements were gradually invented and applied to use, during a long series of years; when each successive discovery was brought to the utmost extent of its perfection, mankind then observed that the human Eye, in a very superior manner, enjoyed that parti

3707. [Ps. xcii. 10.] The derivation of the word reem, both in the Hebrew and in the Ethiopic, seems to be from erectness, or standing straight. This is certainly no particolar quality in the rhinoceros itself, which is not more, or even so much trect as inany other quadrupeds, for in its knees it is rather crooked ; but it is from the circumstance and manner in which its horn is placed. The horns of other animals are inclined to some degree of parallelisin with the nost, or os frontis. The horn of the rhinoceros alone is erect and perpendicular to this bone, on which it stands at right angles, thereby possessing a greater purchase or power as a lever, than any horn could possibly have in any other position. An imitation of this born was really worn as an ornament by great men in the days of victory, preferment, or rejoicing, when they were anointed with new, sweet, or fresh oil, and had a large broad fillet bound on their foreheads and tied behind their heads. In the middle of this fillet was a kern (flebr ), a horn or conical piece of silver, gilt, about four inches long, much in the shape of our common candle extinguishers. As an honorary badge, this is frequently alluded to in the Sacred Writings: I said to the wicked, Lift not

industry, exhibiting to view a perfect achromulic instrument of vision, adapting itself with surprising facility to the different brightness of its objects, and to a vast variety of distances. As reasonable men affirm that the Telescope is an instrument formed to assist vision, in consequence of various means duly connected, by an invisible cause in' man, which is neither eyes, ears, hands, nor head; neither the tout ensemble of all these, nor in any respect the object of our senses : so do they believe that the human Eye is an instrit.' ment inade for the use of man, by an exceedingly apt combination of intermediate causes, wonderfully and most unaccountably connected together, by one great, wise, and good cause; who is neither the eye itself nor any part of its mechanism, nor at all the object of our senses, but only visible to us through the beauty and wisdom of the works of creation, in the same manner as thought and intelligence in man are known to us through those motions and effects daily produced before us, which we do always suppose to result, originally, from a principle in some sort resembling our own miuds. Pinkerron's Coll.


part xiii.

3710. {Ps. xcvii. 2 6.] The planetary clouds (in the under stratum of the sun's atinosphere) are indeed a most effectual curtain, to keep the brightness of the superior regions from the body of the sun. This immense curtain,

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With people of distinction throughout the East, it is usual in the summer season, and on all occasions when a large company is to be received, to have the court of the house, which is the middle of an open square, sheltered from the heat of the weather by an unbrella or veil, which, being expanded on ropes from one side of the parapet-wall to the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure.

Shaw's Travels, p. 274.

3722. (23. The land of Ham] Egypt: so named from Ham the son of Noah. It is bounded on the south by Sennar tribulary to the king of Ethiopia, aud by the cataracts of the Nile; on the north by the Mediterranean sea ; on the east by the Arabian gull, or Red sea, and the Isthinus of Suez; on the west by a region of Libya called Marmarica.

Unider. Hist. vol. i. p. 384. The flux of the Nile, loeing from south to north, well represented the progress of wisdom in the Antient Church which was from light to darkness. That Church had its

3715. [

-6.] The Parsi's, or Persians, consider CAYU'MERS as the first of men, although they believe in a universal deluge before his reign.

Works of Sir W. JONES, dol. i.

p. 90.

seat and termination in Egypt. See SWEDENBORG, as quoted on the Flood.

It abounds principally in rice.

To tell each horror on the deep reveal'd,
Would ask an iron throat with tenfold vigor steeld:
These dreadful wonders of the deep I saw,
Which fill the sailor's breast with sacred awe;
And which the sages, of their learning vain,
Esleem the phantoms of the dreamful brain.

CAMENS' Luciad, by Mickle.

3723. [Ps. cv. 29.] I find, says Dr. Hales, that a sınall degree of putrefaction in water, kills fish; but if, in order to prevent that putrefaction, a few drops of spirit or oil of vitriol be dropped into the water, then the fish will live many days in that water.

See his Philosophical Experiments,

Pref. p. 15.

3724. [Ps. cvi. 28.] In Persia, after the interment of a corpse, when the relations of the deceased are returned home, the women of the family make a mixture of wheat, honey, and spices, which they eat in memory of the deceased, sending a part of it to their friends and acquaintance, that they also may pay him a like honor. This custom seems to be derived from very great antiquity, as we read in Homer of sacrifices and libations being frequently made to the memory of departed souls. See Luke xxii. 19. FRANCKLIN. Pinkerton's Coll.

vol. ix. p. 253.

3728. [Ps. cvii. 24.) Fishermen annually observe in the sea a very singular phenomenon. At the distance of four or five leagues from shore, during the mouths of July and August, it is remarked, that at the depth of six or seven fathoins from the surface, the water appears to be saturated with a thick jelly, filled with the ova of fish, which reaches ten or twelve fathoms deeper. - This gelatinous matter is supposed to supply the new-born fry with food; and to be also a protection to the spawn, as being disagreeable to the larger fish to swim in.

Herrings do not deposit their spawn in the sand, or mud, or weeds, like other fish, but leave it in the water, suspended in a gelatinous matter, of such a gravity as prevents it from floating to the surface, or sinking to the bottom. This the fishermen discover by finding the slimy matter adhering to the hay-ropes used to hold the stone that sinks the nets, the middle part being slimed over, the top and bottom clear.

PINKERTON's Coll. part ix. p. 14.See No. 1164.

X. p. 337.

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3732. [Ps. cxiii. 1.] When the Jews speak of singing Hallelujah, they understand hy it this Psalm and those that follow to the 118th inclusively.

Essay for a New Translation, p. 7.

3739. [Ps. cxx.] This and the fourteen Psalms following, appear to be composed on the subject of the happy ascent or return from Babylon to Jerusalem.

See Univer. Hist. vol. ix. p. 528.


A song at the Gradual.
Before the Gradual, prostrate they ador’d,
The pavement kiss'd, and Themis' aid implor'd.

Garth's OVID, b. i. 1. 507,-8.

3733. [Ps. cxv. 4.] The worship of human figures, or idols, had its origin about 700 years before the birth of Christ. Prior to that epoch, Sabæism (the planetary worship) was the prevailing religion in India. For this reason no other deities occur in the most antient Indian Writings, but the Sun and the Moon (See Josh. x. 12); and no other offerings were presented to them, but fruits or flowers.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnsion, p. 372.

3741. [Ps. cxxiii. 2.) The Eastern ladies are waited on even at the least wink of the eye, or motion of the fingers, and that in a manner not perceptible to strangers.

De la MOTRAYE, Trav. vol. i.

p. 249.

2734. [Ps. cxviii.] This finishes the Hallel, or six Eucharistical Psalms : the first is the 113th.

These were sung by our LORD and his Disciples, at his last Passover. See Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. 26.

3735. [- 27.] Luther would render this passage, adorn the feast with leades ; and others, bind on the feastday branches, as was usual on the Feast of Tabernacles, Lev. xxiii. 40. The heathens used to strew their altars with green herbs and flowers, particularly vervain, Ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras.

Virg. Æn. iii. 25. See also Ovid de Trist 1. ii. El. 13.

BURDER, vol. ii. p. 214.

3742. [Ps. cxxvi. 5, 6.] The ingenious publisher of the Ruins of Balbeck, tells us, that in Palestine he has often seen the husbandman sowing, accompanied by an armed friend, to prevent his being robbed of the seed by the Arabs.

Surely it is much more natural to suppose these verses refer to an apprehended violence of this sort, than to imagine that they allude merely to a countryınạn's anxiety, who sows his corn in a very scarce time, and is afraid of the failure of the next crop. Though the Arabs might at first barrass the Israelites, on their return from captivity to the culture of their hereditary fields; yet the Psalmist expresses, perhaps predicts, his hope, that there would be a happy issue even of such beginnings to repeople their country.


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four tons of new mown grass to make one ton of bay, which, deprived of its virtue and goodness, becomes of too dry and binding a nature for cattle, causing an intense thirst that often produces colds, the gripes, and even death itself.

See Drury's Recent and Important discoveries of

Substitutes for Hay, p. 25. Second Edition by Longman, Hursi, g Co. London, 1813.

3749. [Ps. cxxxvii. 1. We wept] Bakinou, from Beke, cries, in the Hebrew and Phenician languages. Hence the women who lament the death of Adonis are called mebaccoth, bacchanalians.

ABBE Pluche's Hist. Heav. vol. i.

p. 17, note.

3745. [Ps. cxxxii. 17. I will make the horn of David 10 bud] By adding the smaller horu which, in the doublekorued rhinoceros, grows above and after the larger horn : so that the meaning is, I will add to his power and dignity.

See Deut. xxxiii. 17.


The French call this species of patriotic regret, la maladie du pays. Nothing indeed revives so lively a remembrance of former scenes, as a species of favourite music which we were accustomed to hear amid our earliest and dearest connections; on such an occasion, a long train of associated ideas rise in the mind, and melt it iuto tenderness. There is in souls a sympathy with sounds.

Wherever I have heard
A kindred melody, the scene recurs,
Aud with it all its pleasures and its pains.

Cowper's Task, b. vi. - Pinkerton's
xxii. .



3746. [-18.] The idea of a crown of gold and jewels flourishing is at least unnatural : whereas flourishing is natural to laurels and oaks. These were put on the heads of victors in full verdure.

Pirie's Works, vol. iii. p. 124.

3751. [-7.] When the Babylonians were withdrawn from the siege of Jerusalem, the Edomites made an end of the temple with fire; prosecuting their revenge to the uttermost, hoping the Jews were never more to be a nation, insulting God, and slaughtering the few that remained of his miserable people.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii.



3752. 9. Thy little ones] Thy citadels, or thy subordinate towns. See Ps. cxlvii. 13.

3747. [Ps. cxxxiii. 2.] The manner of performing the ceremony of anointing the high priest has been particularly transmitted to us by the rabbinical writers. They inforın us that the oil was poured on the top of the priest's head, which was bare, so plentifully, as to run down his face on his beard, to the collar of his robe. It has been said, that at the consecration of tlre bigh priest the unction was repeated seven days together; an opinion founded on Exod. xxix. 29, 30. JENNINGS' Jewish Antiq. vol. i. p.

210. The Hebrew word translated the skirt signifies more properly the neck-band, whereby the garment is fastened immediately under the chin.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii.

p. 22:3, note.

3753. [Ps. cxxxix. 8.] The wave of a river communicates, to a great distance, a single impulsiou, or one several times reiterated. The undulations of the air carry still quicker, and in all directions, the motion caused by the said air. From these examples any one may easily perceive, bow solar light must in a few minutes convey very far the impulsion of that solar matter which presses it; and thus render the presence and influence of the sun sensible at prodigious distances.

Nature Displayed, vol. iv. p. 72.

3748. [- 3.] The summit of this mountain being called Hermon, and its lower part Sion, the dew falling from the top of it down to the lower parts, was beautifully emblematic of those blessings of unity and friendship, which diffuse themselves from the bigliest to the lowest in a truly religious society.

See Pococke's Trav. vol.ii. p. 74.


No elastic fluid is a sufficient barrier against the passage of another elastic fluid.

Dalton's Chem. Philos. part ii.

p. 426.

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