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of its stripes, as well as the fineness of its shape and limbs, excels all the other quadrupeds (of Africa), either of the wild or tame kind.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiv. p. 78.

3557. (Job vi. 6.] The Eastern people often make use of bread, with nothing more than salt or some such trifling addition, such as summer-savory dried and powdered.

See Russel's Hist. of Aleppo,

Tu twenty-five thousand nine hundred and twenty years, the fixed stars appear to perform their long revolution eastward.

The practice of observing the stars began, with the radiments of civil society, in the country of those, whom we call Chaldeuns ; from which it was propagated into Egypt, India, Greece, Italy, and Scandinavia, before the reign of SISAC or Sa'cya, who by conquest spread a new system of religion and philosophy from the Nilé to the Ganges about a thousand years before Christ. (Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. pp. 115, 283, 348.) — Arcturus, rising in September, ushers in the Autumnal quarter.

Orion makes its first appearance in December, at the cominencement of Winter. The Pleiades lead the Spring; and, during Summer, Sirius and four others issue successively from the chambers of the south.

See 1 Kings xiv. 25.

p. 27.

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3564. [Job xviii. 5, 6.] William the Conqueror, in the first year of his reign, commanded that in every town and village, a bell should be rung every night at eight o'clock, and that all people should then put out their fire and candle, and to bed. The ringing of this bell was called in French, Curfew; that is, Cover-fire.

Observations on Popular Antiq. p. 18, note,

3561.

There are in all only sixteen fixed stars besides the sun, (supposed to be one of them), that can indisputably be accounted of the first magnitude ; of which four are Extra Zodiacım ; viz. Capella, Arcturus, Lucida Lyræ, and Lucida Aquila, to the north ; four in the way of the moon and planets, viz Palilicium, Cor Leonis, Spica, and Cor Scorpii; and five to the southward, that are seen in England,

viz. the foot aud right shoulder of Orion, Sirius Procijon, and · Fomalhaut; and there are three more that never rise in our

horizon, viz. Canopus, Acharmâr, and the foot of the Centaur (Abs. Phil Trans. R. S. vol. vi. p. 458.) — The advenlurous Idumeans, who first. gave names to the stars, and hazarded long voyages in ships of their own construction, could be no other than a branch of the Hindoo race, under the name of Phenicians.

3565. [Job xix. 20.] An order had been issued to Suruparatana, to put to death some of the principal inhabitants of Cirtipur, and to cut off the noses and lips of every one.

As this order was carried into execution with every mark of il percrive its approach at a distance; and, in general, have horror and cruelty, it soon became most shocking to see so time to avoid it, or turn out of its ways, as it generally many living people with their teeth and noses resembling the extends but to a moderate breadth. However, when it is skulls of the deceased.

extremely rapid, or very extensive, as sometimes is the case, Asiat. Research. vol. ii. p. 187. no swiftness, no art, can avail; nothing then remains, but to

meet death with fortitude, and submit to be buried alive with

resignation. 3566. Job xix. 20.] The winds from the eastward, in

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c. passing over the snowy mountains and dry sandy deserts of

vol. i. p. 363. Thibet in Tartary, come divested of all vapor or moisture, and produce the same parching effect as the hot dry winds in more southerly situations. — The nativos say, a direct exposure to those winds occasions the loss of their foreteeth ; and our faithful guide, says Mr. ROBERT SAUNDERS,

3570. [Job xxiv. 5.] The most remarkable property in ascribed that defect in himself to this cause. We escaped,

wild asses is, that after carrying the first load, their celerity he adds, with the loss of the skin from the greatest part

leaves them, their dangerous ferocity is lost, and they soon of our faces.

contract the stupid look and dullness peculiar to the assiniue Abs. Phil. Trans. (1789), p. 546.

species. It is also observable, that these creatures will not permit a horse to live among them; and if one of them

happens to stray into the places where they feed, they all 3567. [- 24.] The Indians use an iron style for fall on him, and, without giving him the liberty of Aying writing on palm-leaves. (BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 70.) from them, they bite and kick him till they leave him dead on - The Antients used wax-tablets to write their first thoughts

the spot. on, as the wax easily admitted obliteration. There is in the

Ulloa's Voy., by Adams ; 4th. Edil. cabinet of Herculaneum, an edged instrument for this kind

vol. i. p. 301. of writing, rounded off at one end. — The tablets there have on the edges a thick rim of silver ; but the wood of them is burnt to a coal. WINCKELMAN’s Ilerculaneum, p. 110.

3571. - 8.) Those Arabs who cannot afford a tent, spread out a cloth on four or six stakes; and others spread their cloth near a tree, or endeavour to shelter themselves from the heat and the rain in the cavities of the rocks.

Niebuhr, Voy. en Arabic, tom. i.

p. 187. 3568. [Job xx. 17.] A great quantity of butter is made in Barbary, which, after it is boiled with salt, they put into jars, and preserve for use.

3572. [ 16.] Such houses were built of mad, or at Shaw, p. 169. best of sun-dried bricks.

3569. [Job xxii. 10, 11.] of all those terrible tempests that deform the face of Nature, and repress human presumption, the sandy tempests of Arabia and Africa, are the most terrible, and strike the imagination most strongly. To conceive a proper idea of these, we are by no means to suppose them resembling those whirlwinds of dust that we sometimes see scattering in our air, and sprinkling their contents upon our roads, or meadows. The savd-storm of Africa exhibits a very different appearance. As the sand of which the whirlwind is composed, is excessively fine, and almost resembles the parts of water, its motion entirely resembles that of a fluid; and the whole plain seems to float onward, like a slow inundation. The body of sand thus rolling, is deep enough to bury houses and palaces in its bosom : travellers who are crossing those extensive deserts,

3573. [Job xxvi. 7.] He hangeth the earth on nothing ; - the constricting mixture of ethers.

Penrose, Let: xvi. Whiston, in his Prælect. Phys. Mathem. Prop. Ixxxviii. Corol. 2 says, the common Centre of Gravity of things in this world, being only a Mathematical Point, is plainly a Nothing.

3574. (Job xxviji. 18. Rubies Dr. Hide shews, that the Chaldee Jews mention the loadstone in their eldest private writings ; and that the Arabians understood its uses. —

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the ether of Newton; and which, pressing every extraneous substance from every side, is the common agent by which are inechanically and necessarily effected all the phenomena of gravitation.

The above theory supposes a centripetal impulse arising from the pressure of the substratum, or subtle medium filling all space, which inclines the planetary bodies mechanically towards each other, on their near sides, by a very slight and finely diminished force; and which is counteracted by a centrifugal force, created by a rotative motion; which again is itself a consequence or a nicely adjusted arrangement of the integral parts of the masses with respect to density and fuidity. It states the result of the combined forces to be a progressive motion of all the 'systems of bodies round their commou centres of motion, such as we observe in the solar system, and such as doubtless exists in every system in the universe, whether of separate bodies — of planets and satellites

of suns, comets, and planets — of suns among themselves or of systems of suns in regard to each other.

See Month. Mag. for Oct. 1811,

pp. 209, 214.

3576. [Job xxix. 7.] The people of quality in Asia, cause carpets and cushions to be carried wherever they please, in order to repose themselves on them inore ay reeably. See No. 2908.

CHARDIN.

3575. [Job xxviii. 25. To make the weight for the winds] By barometrical observations, taken every hour from the latitude of l degree north lo l degree south, it appears, that the combined actions of the sun and moon produce a flux and reflux of the atmosphere, causing in the barometer the variation of a live and to of the English division, wbich supposes a rise and fall in the atmosphere of about a hundred feet : while the combined action of the sun and moon, according to Mr. Bernoulli, causes an elevation in the sea at the equator of only seven feet.

Perouse's Voyage round the World, vol. ii.

pp. 518, 523. He weigheth the uaters by measure] The fluid part of the contents of the earth, its perpetual oscillation, ils excess of quantity over the solid parts, its uniform opposition to the solid parts (all the land having water for its antipodes), seem to indicate that the principle of the earth’s rotation is a consequence of the peculiar disposition and adjustment of its component parts. The oscillations of the waters necessarily change constantly the centre of the earth's motions, and force it to perform its dailymotion round that centre, being at once an effect of the motion, the cause of its continuance, and also the cause of the centrifugal impulse. -- for this impulse or force, we have the oscillation of the vast Pacific ocean, ten thousand miles over, besides the Atlantic of three Thousand, and the vast seas round the south poie, adapted in that situation to increase the centrifugal force when the earth is in its perihelion. - An excess of water or oscillation in either hemisphere, as in our southern hemisphere, and an excess of land or defect of oscilJation in the other hemisphere, as in our northern hemisphere, will occasion corresponding increases and decreases of centrifugal force and motion, producing an obliquity of the ecliptic, and leading to all the varied phenomena of the seasons. - In the months of November, December, and January, the earth is at its nearest distance from the sun, and the centripetal force is then the greatest ; but in these months the direction of the forces is in the southern heinisphere, where we find a vast excess of oscillating Huid ; -and of course the tides, or oscillations, become equal to the increased centrifugal force required to counteract the increase of centripetal force, — and the earth ascends from its peribelion, — till the pressure towards the sun gets the better of the centrifugal force, and then the earth descenus from its aphelion. According to this hypothesis, the ceutripetal force throughout the universe, particularly that 10wards the suu in our system, is caused by a sulistratum, fluid, or medium, that fills infinite extension, something like

3577. [Job xxx. 22.] The life of man is here beautifully compared to a transitory sand-storm. - At Waadi el Halboub, says Bruce, we saw in the desert prodigious pillars of sand at different distances, sometimes moving with great celerity, and then stalking with a majestic slowness : at intervals we thought they were coming in a few minutes to overwhelm us; again they would retreat so as to be almost out of siglit. Their tops, reaching to the very clouds, osten separated from their bodies, and were then utterly dispersed in the air. Sometimes they were broken near the middle, as if struck with a large cannon shot. About noon they began to advance upon us with cousiderable swiftness, the wind being very strong behind them. Elevel of them range along side of us about the distance of three miles. The grealest diameter of the largest appeared at that distance as if it would measure ten feet. These phanioms of the plain before four o'clock in the afternoon, had all of them fallen to the ground and disappeared. - Un an ensuing day similar pillars were again seen; but thicker, and apparently containing more sand. The sun shining through them, exhibited

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those nearest us as spotted with stars of gold. — We third time beheld these moving pillars, more in number, but less in size. They began iminediately after sun-rise, like a thick wood, and almost darkened the sun : his rays shining through them for near an hour, gave them an appearance of pillars of fire.

Trad. vol. iv. pp. 553, — 555.

swell, or distend, as a bladder. The Editor of Calmet takes it for a large skin-bottle. See 1 Sam. xxviii. 7. See Fray. to Calmer's Dict.

First Hundred, p. 107.

3582. [Job xxxii. 21.] The Arabs make court to their superiors by carefully avoiding to address them by their proper names ; instead of which they salute them with some title or epithet expressive of respect.

Рососкв. . See No. 1279.

3578. [Job xxx. 31. Organ] Hugab, which the Chaldee renders abuba. Now abub in its primary sense signifies an ear of corn ; and in its derivatives abuba, anbuba, and ambubaja, it comes to denote progressively in the lapse of ages, a corn-pipe, a reed, a sonorous tube of wood, brass, or other metal. See among Dr. GREGORY's Posthumous Tracts, that entitled " What time the Nicene Creed began to be sung in the Church,p. 48, &c.

3583. (Job xxxvii. 6.] Thus it should seem, in Job's time, snows fell in Arabia, that is, toward the thirtieth degree of North Latitude.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 223.

3579: [Job xxxi. 26 - 28.] In Africa, on the first appearance of the new moon, which the Negroes look upon to be newly created, the Pagan natives, as well as Mahometans, say a short prayer; and this seems to be the only visible adoration which the Kafirs (unbelievers) offer up to the Supreme Being. This prayer is pronounced in a whisper; the party holding up his hands before his face : its purport is to returu thanks to God for his kindness through the existence of the past moon, and to solicit a continuation of his favor during that of the new At the conclusion, they spit on their hands, and rub them over their faces.

MUNGO PARK's Travels, p. 271.

3584. [-9.) Mr. Savary speaking of the southern wind, which blows in Egypt from February to May, says, torrents of burning sand roll before it, the firmament is enveloped in a thick veil, the sun appears of the color of blood, and sometimes whole caravans are buried by it in the trackless waste.

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3580.[

36. I would - bind it as a crown to me] When the Mogul, by letters, sends his commands to any of his governors, those papers are entertained with as much respect as if he himself were present ; for the governor, having intelligence that such letters are come near him, bimself, with other inferior officers, ride forth to meet the messenger that brings them: and as soon as he sees those lelters, he alights from his horse, falls down ou the earth, then takes them froin the messenger, and lays them on his head whereon he binds them fast : then returning to his place of public meeting, he reads and answers them. See Exod. xiii. 16. Deut. vi. 8. Sir T. Roe's Em.

bassy, p. 453. See No. 2186.

3585. ( 10.] The water at the bottoms of all deep lakes is constantly at the same temperature (that of 41 degrees Fahrenheit), suminer and winter, without any sensible variation. — I have hopes, says Count RUMFORD, of being able to shew why all changes of temperature, in transparent liquids, must necessarily take place at their surfaces. – la a Paper read before the R. S. February 2d, 1804, he combats the hypothesis of modern chemists respecting the materiality of heat, contending that caloric is nothing more than the motion of constituent particles of bodies among themselves : an hypothesis,' says hé, 'of antient date, and which always appeared to me to be very probable'.

( -- By a transparent Auid, he explains himself to mean such a one as admits the calorific and frigorific rays, emitted by hot and by cold bodies, to pass freely through it, without obstrucling their passage, or diminishing their intensities'.)

— The rapid undulations,' he argues, 'occasioned in the surrounding ethereal fluid, by the swift vibrations of the hot body, will act as calorific rays on the neighbouring colder solid bodies; and the slower undulations, occasioned by the vibrations of those colder bodies, will act as frigorific rays on the hot body; and these reciprocal actions will continue, but with decreasing intensity, till the hot body, and those colder bodies which surround it, shall, in consequence of these

3581. [Job xxxii. 19.] Aub, in general, signifies to

actions, have acquired the same temperature, or until their of cold, and drought of the star called the heart of vibrations have become isochronous.'

Scorpio ?
Phil. Trans. 1804, p. 25.

Essay for à New Translation,

part ii. p. 59.

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3586. (Job xxxvii. 18.] In the year 1663, James Gregory of Aberdeen in Scotland published in his Optics the first idea and figure of a reflecting telescope, without being able to find in his own country a workman capable of executing it aright.

Abbe PLUCHE.

3592. [Job sxxviii. 31.) “Will it be in thy power to unite the brilliant stars, the Pleiades; and to dissipate the attraction of the Arctic Pole." The Antients had observed seven stars in the Pleiades. Six only are now perceptible. The seventh disappeared at the siege of Troy. Ovid says, it was so affected by the fate of that unfortunate city, as from grief to cover its face with its hand. — This passage in Job seems to presage such disappearance.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 53.

3587. [Job xxxviii. 6.] The epithet corner-stone seems to denote the North Pole, which, by its magnetic attraction, distinguishes itself from every other point of the Earth. Matt. xxi. 42.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, Eph. ii. 20.

vol. i. p. 179.

3593. (Job xxxix. 6.] The food of the wild asses is the saltest plants of the deserts, such as the atriplex, kali, and chenopodium; and also the bitter milky tribes of herbs. They also prefer salt water to fresh. - Hence the propriety of Bochart's rendering what we have translated « barren land,salt places.

BINGLEY.

3588. [ 11.] The Indian Ocean flows for six months toward the East and six toward the West.

Ibid. col. iv.

p.

515.

3589. [ 17.] The Poles, being uninhabitable, are in reality the gates of Death. They are obviously also, the place of darkness, and that of the Aurora Borealis.

Verse 18.] The Earth's Latitude : There were in the times of Job, many Arabian travellers who went eastward, and westward, and southward, but very few who had travelled northward, that is to say, in Latitude.

Ibid. vol. i. p. 181.

3594. (—9— 12.) The (single-horned) Rhinoceros is said to run with great swiftuess, and from his strength and impenetrable covering, is capable of rushing with resistless violence through woods and obstacles of every kind; the sinaller trees bending like twigs as he passes thein, — The Asiatics sometimes lame and bring these animals into the field of battle, to strike terror into their enemies. They are, however, in general so unmanageable, that they do more harm than good; and in their fury it is not uncommon for them to turn ou their inasters.

The single-horned Rhinoceros is a native of several parts of India ; as well as of the islands of Ceylon, Java and Suinatra. It is also found in Ethiopia.

BINGLEY's Animal Biography, vol. i.

pp. 116, 118.

3590. - 22.] Vapors, fogs, clouds, dews, rains, hail, snow, lightning, thunder, earthquakes, subterraneous fires, tempests, regular and irregular winds; all these surprising phenomena of nature, are the effects of the elastic power of the air, which is sometimes condensed, and at others rarified, according as its caloric, or solar fluid, is in any particular part, accuinulating or dispersing.

See Nat. Delin. vol. ii. p. 190.

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3591. [-31.] Can you stop or hinder the sweet influences of the Pleiades, or moderate the binding influences

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