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3256. (

-33.] Theophrastus mentions à fossil tesembling decomposed wood, which inflamed when oil was poured on it; a property belonging to no other fossil substance now known but the black wad, an ore of manganese, and which is now found in Derbyshire.

Sir HUMPHREY Davy. Phil. Trans.

for 1815, part i. p. 117.

3251. [ 13.] The bread, in China, is baked without any intermixture of yeast, on bars ranged across an iron pan, in which is a certain quantity of water, over an earthen stove. When the water begins to boil, the steain is confined by a shallow tub for a few minutes; and thus the business ends. The loaves, thus baked, though made of excellent Aour, are not agreeable to the taste, being little better than pieces of dough: in shape and size, they resemble a cominon wash ball, divided in two.


3252. [- 21.] Was this revival caused by the Prophet's iuflating the child's lungs with his own breath?

See Phil. Trans. Abr. vol. i. p. 105. Sec No. 1061, 1062.

3257. (-41, 44, 45.] This cloud, which is the forerunner of an approaching hurricane, appears, when first seen, like a small black spot, on the verge of the horizon ; and is called, by sailors, the bull's eye, from being seen 80 minute at a vast distance. All this time, a perfect calm reigns over the sea and land, while the cloud gradually increases to the size of a hand, enlarging as it approaches. At length, coming to the place where its fury is to fall, it invests the whole horizon with darkness.

During all the time of its approach, a hollow murmur is heard in the cavities of the mountains; and beasts and animals, sensible of its approach, are seen running over the fields, to seek for shelter. Nothing can be more terrible than its violence when it begins. The houses, made of timber the better to resist its fury, bend to the blast like osiers, and again recover their rectitude. The sun, which, but a moment before, blazed with meridian splendor, is totally shut out; and a midnight darkness prevails, except that the air is incessantly illuminated with gleams of lightning, by which one can easily see to read. The rain falls, at the same time, in torrents; and its descent

3253. [1 Kings xvii: 24.] At that day men were not so self-sufficient as they are now, but depeuded each ontheir god;

kas been resembled to what pours from the spouts of our houses after a violent shower. These hurricanes are uot less offensive to the sense of smelling also ; and never come without leaving the most noisome stench behind them. If the seamen also lay by their wet clothes, for tweuty-four hours, they are all found swarming with little white maggots, that were brought with the hurricane. Our first mariners, when they visited these regions, were ignorant of its effects, and the signs of its approach ; their ships, therefore, were dashed to the bottom at the first onset; and numberless were the wrecks which the hurricanes occasioned. But, at present, beiny forewarned of its approach, they strip their masts of all their sails, and thus patiently abide its fury. — These hurricanes are common in all the tropical regions.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, vol. i. p. 359. When a thunder storm is gathering, small specks of clouds are observed to unite, till a large cloud highly charged with electricity is formed, which giving a spark to the earth, occasions a heavy torrent of rain; other clouds join the large cloud, another spark is taken, succeeded by more rain : Cornelius VARLEY (and so on, during the thunder storm).

See Phil. Mag. No. 106.

in the east, whirling violently rouud as if on an axis ; but arrived near the zenith, it first abates its motion, then loses its form, and extends itself greatly, and seems to call up vapors from all opposite quarters. These clouds having attained nearly the same height, rush against each other with great violence, and put me always in mind, he obseryes, of Elijah's foretelling rain on Mount Carmel. The air, impelled before the heaviest mass, or swiftest inover, makes an impression of its own form in the collection of clouds opposite, and the moment it has taken possession of the space made to receive it,' the most violent thunder possible to be conceived instantly follows, with rain ; and after some hours the sky again clears.

Trav, vol. iji.



3260. (1 King's xviii. 44.] On the 6th of June, 1796, the thermometer 81 degrees, and the wind S.S.W., about one o'clock in the afternoon, a black cloud appeared in the horizon of Frederic Town, America, and a tremendous gust came on, accompanied by thunder and lightning. By the wind several large trees were torn up by the roots. Hailstones, about three times the size of an ordinary pea, fell for a few minutes: and afterwards a torrent of rain came pouring down, nearly as if a water spout had broken over-head.

The gust was completely over in twenty-three minutes, during which the thermometer was found to have fallen 22 degrees. -- In Pennsylvania the thermometer has varied fifty degrees in twenty-six hours.

Weld's Trav. in N. America,

vol. i. p. 243.

3258. [1 Kings xviii. 45.) A similar tempest is thus described by BARTRAM : “Darkness gathers around ; far distant thunder rolls over the trembling hills : the black clouds with august majesty and power, move slowly forwards, shading regions of towering hills, and threateuing all the destruction of a thunder storm : all around is now still as death; not a whisper is heard, but a total inactivity and silence seem to pervade the earlh ; the birds afraid to utter a chirrup, in low tremuluus voices take leave of each other, seeking covert and safety : every insect is silenced, and nothing heard but the roaring of the approaching hurricane. The mighty cloud now expands its sable wings, extending from North to South, and is driven irresistibly on by the tumultuous wiuds, spreading its livid wings around the gloomy concave, armed with terrors of thunder and fiery shafts of lightning. Now the lofty forests bend low beneath its fury; their limbs and wavy boughs are tossed about and catch hold of each other; the mountains tremble and seem to reel about, and the antient hills to be shaken to their foundations : the furious storm sweeps along, smoking through the vale and over the resounding bills : the face of the earth is obscured by the deluge descending from the firmament, and every creature deafened by the din of thunder.”

Travels, p. 341.

3261. [— 45.] The Editor of the Ruins of Palmyra (p. 37) says, in that country they seldom have rain except at the equinoxes, and that nothing could be more serene than the sky all the time he was there, except one afternoon, when there was a smart shower, preceded by a whirlwind, which took up such quantities of sand from the desert as quite darkened the sky.

See No. 712, &c.

3262. [1 Kings xix. 8.] What is here called Horeb, Joseraus (b. viii. ch. xiii. § 7) calls Sinai ; and JeROME says, he conceived this mountain to have two names (as it had two tops) Sinai and Choreb...

3259. [-44.] There are, says Bruce, three remarkable appearances attending the inundation of the Nile : every morning in Abyssinia is clear and the sun shines; about nine, a small cloud, not above four feet broad, appears

3263. [13.] The Jews in their public worship, still cover their heads, to deuote their unworthiness to appear in the Divine Presence. The antient Romaus also, according fire, and perform such offices as may please his preceptor, until his return to the house of his natural father,

Laws of Menu. - Works of Sir

W. Jones, vol. iii. p. 98.

to Virgil, performed their sacred rites with a covering ou their heads :

Tum numina sancta precamur
Palladis armisonæ, quæ prima accepit ovantes :
Et capita ante aras Phrygio velainur amictu,

Æn. iii. 543.
Our way we bend
To Pallas, and the sacred hill ascend:
There prostrate to the fierce virago pray,
Whose temple was the land-mark of our way.
Each with a Phrygian mantle veild his head.

DRYDEN. The Grecians, on the contrary, celebrated their sacred rites bare-headed. In approbatiou of this, Paul writing to the Corinthians, says, Every man praying or prophesying with his head covered, dishonours his head. I Cor. xi. 4.

See BURDER’s Oriental Customs,

dol. ii. p. 152.

3270. (1 Kings xxi. 1.] And it came to pass after these things, that Naboth the Jezreelite, who dwelt in Jezreel, had a vineyard in Samaria, hard by the palace of king Ahab.

Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 16.

3264. [1 Kings xix. 21.] The SEPTUAGINT and TARGUM of JONATHAN bere read in the VESSELS of oxen.

3271. [-8.] In Egypt they make the impression of their name with their seal, generally of cornelian, which they wear on their finger, and which is blacked when they have occasion to seal with it. (Pococke, Trav. vol. i. p. 186, notes.) — The Persian ink serves not only for writing, but for subscribing with their seal.

Shaw, Trav. p. 247.

3265. (1 Kings ix. 27. Like two small flocks of goats) Goats are never seen in large flocks like sheep.

Dr. Geddes.

3266. [-30.] In one of the halls of the seraglio at Constantinople, there were several little chambers with doors shut, like the cells of monks or nuns : these were the chambers of the Grand Seignior's women.

De la MOTRAYE, dol. ii. p. 170.

3272. ( 10.] As Jezebel was the daughter of a Heathen king, had introduced Baal for Elohim, had slain all the prophets of Jehovah Elohim, except one, and had sworn by her Elohim to put that one Elijah to death in a day after he had shewed by miracle which were the True Elohim, and made the people slay her priests of the false Elobim; where is the wonder that she made Naboth, whom she wanted to destroy, be accused of blessing the true Elohim, and caused him to be put to death for it, as a crime? Had she nat put all the prophets or priests except Elijah, to death, for blessing the True Elobim ?

Jlutchinson's Sine Principio, p. 173.

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3273. (1 Kings xxii. 11.] These might be two horns, one for each king; or a double horti, like that of the two-horned rhinoceros, to shew the greater power, and convey an idea of complete security.

See Ps. cii, 10. and Deut. xxxiji. 17.

3269. [--- 35.] Let the twice boru youth, who has been girt with the sacrificial cord, collect wood for the holy

3274. [- - 19.] They stand not to gaze, but as the prophet Daniel expressly says, to minister.

BOYLE. The LORD, as to aspect in the Sun of heaven, is above

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the angels ; but, as to the life of their love and wisdom, Hell 3278. [1 Kings xxii. 39.] The ivory mosque, in Ahmedabad, is in them.

although built of white marble, has obtained that distinction, SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, n. 31. from being curiously lined with ivory, and inlaid with a pro

fusion of gems, to imitate natural flowers, bordered by a

silver foliage on mother of pearl, similar to those in the wiuter 3275. (1 Kings xxii. 22.] One spirit cau infuse his thoughts apartments of the palace at Adrianople, described by Lady and affections into another spirit, without the other's knowing

Wortley Montague ; which “were wainscotted with inlaid work but that the same is of his own thought and affection.

of mother of pearl, ivory of different colors, and olive wood, Thus all evil with its false flows from hell, and all good like the little boxes brought from Turkey.” with its true flows from the LORD; yet both appear as if

Forbes' Orient. Memoirs, vol. iii.p. 126. they were iu man, because what is spiritual exists not in distance as what is natural does. Think of the sun and moon, or of Rome and Constantinople: Do they not exist in thought without distance, provided such thought be 3279. [ 43.] In early time, mountains were relinot connected with experience acquired by sight or hearing ?

giously resurted to for contemplation and prayer. They who Why then do you persuade yourself, because distance appears frequented them seemed raised above the lower world ; and not in thought, that the good and the true, as also the evil fancied themselves brought into the vicinity of the powers of and the false exist in the thought, and do not enter there by

the Deity whom they believed to be visibly exhibited in the influx ?

higher regions. The good and the true are in man things really Divine ; for

See Holwell's Mythological Dict. by what is good is here meant the whole of love, and by what

p. 225. is true the whole of wisdom : if therefore a man clain these to himself as his own, he cannot but think himself like to God.

That which is from the Lord in man, is perpetually the Lord's, and never man's. He who thinks otherwise, is like

3280. ( 44.] This peace or alliance he made by one who has his master's goods deposited in his hands, and

suffering his son Jehoram to espouse Athaliah, Ahab's daughlays claim to them, or appropriates them to himself as his

ter, who by her wickedness or idolatry, brought Judah into own; who is in consequence not a steward, but a thief.

much evil aud punishment. See 2 Chron. XX. 6, &c. See No. 220, &c.

Ibid. nn. 312, 313, 316.


1 3 9. The ivory house] All the following materials have been used for writing upon, in the different ages of the world : wax-tables, bark of trees, skins of dead animals, palm-leaves, iron-plates, marble, ivory, brick, &c. Consequently, an ivory-house might be what we would call a library.

3281. [- 52.] In Malabar, the throne of Travencore does not descend from father to son, but invariably devolves to the eldest son of the eldest sister, that the blood-royal may be clearly and indisputably preserved.

The same law exists among the Hurons in America : on the demise of a chief in that tribe, he is not succeeded by his own child, but by the son of his sister; and in default of such an heir, by the nearest relation in the female line. A similar custom prevailed among the princes of Ethiopia.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs, vol. i.

pp. 384, 386.

3277. – Some of the sacred books of the Birmans are written in letters of gold on leaves of ivory.

See Symes Account of the Embassy Ada.

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