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JOSHUA.

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AEST you should ascribe battle and murder in no small degree to Joshua, as you read this Book, hear first his own account of the matter as recorded at ch. xxiij. 3. And particularly Acts vii. 45. Ps. xliv. 1,2,3.

“ Drave out,” as in Acts vii. 45, should be the rendering throughout this Book. See Exod. xxiii. 27, 28, &c. Deut. vi. 19. vii. l. xi. 23.

On the division of the Holy Land, See Dr. A. Clarke's FLEURY,p. 279.

2801. [Josh. ii. 1. Harlot's house] The Hebrew word is zoneh, hostess or hospitable receiver of strangers; not kedeshah harlot.

Zonah, derived from the root zon, which signifies to give food, is the feminine participle active, and denotes a victualler as Junius has fully proved, in his notes on the Epistle of James.

A hostess like this, was a woman appointed to eutertain at her table men of her own nation, tribe, or family.

2798. (Josh. i. 3.] At Sierra Leone, among the natives, present possession is the only tenure of lands : if a man changes his situation, any other native may take possession.

Lieut. MATTHEWS.

2802.

Most of the Eastern cities contain one caravansary at least, for the reception of strangers.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs.

2799. [- 4.] Thus, the utmost of their limits would be, from the Desert of Arabia Petræa on the South, to Lebanon on the North ; and froin the Euphrates on the East, to the Mediterranean on the West. But the Israelites did not possess the full extent of this grant, till the days of David. 2 Sam. viii. 3, 8c. and 2 Chron. ix. 26.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

2803. [-6.] In China, at the imperial city of Pekin, the gates are shut every night at ten; and, until dawn of day, all communication is suspended between the city and the suburbs. During that space, a special order from the prinei. pal mandarin of the city is absolutely necessary to procure ingress or egress.

MACARTNEY's Embassy.

2804. [ -6.] The roofs of houses belonging to persons of quality in Persia, on every side of the central hall, are flat, and there is a staircase to the top, where the family walk in the cool of the day, and sometimes carry up a mattress, and lie there all night, there being balusters all round the top of the building.

PINKERTON, vol. ix. p. 187.

2800. (Josh. ii. 1.] About Jericho is the most fruitful country of all Judea. It produces palm-trees in great abundance; and is peculiarly distinguished and enriched by the Balsam-tree, whose sprouts being out with sharp stone-knives, the juice issuing at the incisions drops on the ground like tears. (Joseph. Wars, b. i. c. 6. § 6.) - Jericho was the ouly place in the world where the genuine balsam-tree was to be found.

Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. xvi. c. 32.

2805.

The inhabitants of Aleppo pass their nights in summer on the roofs of their houses, which are not rendered damp by any dew.

Russel's Nat. Hist. of Alep. p. 152. earthquake. This accounts for the flying back of its waters into the sea of Tiberias, from the heaving of the earth, &c.

2806. (Josh. ii. 6, 8.) In China, the natives sleep on a kind of mattress, and cover themselves with a cushion of stuffed and quilted cotton. They undress only partially, when they retire to rest, and increase the number of their coverings according to the severity of the season.

MACARTNEY's Embassy. A terrace on a housetop, in the warm regions of Asia, has been immemorially considered as an apartment of the bouse both for conversation in the evening and for slumber at night.

Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. iii. p. 31.

2812. (Josh. iii. 16.] The number of people that Joshua had to conduct into Palestine, could not have been less than 3,000,000. (Michaelis.) – In the time of the Judges, we find in all Israel only 426,700 inen able to carry arms. And under the celebrated enumeration taken by David, the people of Israel, women and children included, amounted to inore than 5,000,000. But all the enumerations of the Israelites and Jews, subsequent to the time of Moses, are from th faults of transcribers uncertain, or manifestly erroneous.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. pp. 99 - 110.

2807.

Among the natives of Sierra Leone, every family spin and weave their own cloth, and make up their clothes. See No. 1019.

Lieut. Matthews.

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2313. (Josh. iv. 9.] Here, as in the midst of the Red Sea, the people, as they passed over, successively came under the cloud, and were baptized in the cloud, as it fell in a drizzling dew; and here also, at these stones, John the Baptist raised up children to Abraham, Matt. iii. 9.

See also I Cor. x. 1, 2.

2808. [Josh. iii. 1.] The river Jordan has its source in a basin termed Phiala, from the roundness of its circumference, being as round as a wheel. This fountain stands always brimful of water, at the distance of a hundred and twenty furlongs from Cesarea, on the right as you go vp to Trachonitis. It thence descends through the marshes and fens of the lake Semechonitis ; and when it has run another hundred and twenty furlongs, it first passes by the city Julias, and then through the middle of the lake Genuesereth ; after which it runs a long way over a desert, and then makes its exit near Jericho into the lake Asphaltis.

Joseph. Wars, b. iii. ch. x. § 7.

2814. [

-12, 13.] The external Church is returned from Judgment, and not admitted into heaven, till it become, by love, interval ; Matt. xxv. 9.

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2818. (Josh. v. 10.) This is but the third time they kept the pass-over since they left Egypt.

The second time, was at the foot of Mount Sinai, at the setting up of the taberuacle in the second year after the Exodus.

2824. (Josh. vi. I.] Wlien the Mahrattas intend to besiege a town, they generally encamp round the walls ; and having by that measure deprived the garrison of all external means of assistance; the besieging army waits with patience, sonetimes for several years, until the garrison be starved into a capitulation.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 63.

2819.

It was a sufficient reason why they kept not the pass-over in the wilderness for 39 years successively, that, during those years, they could not possibly procure there the requisite blood of the grape. It will be seen also, that for the same reason, during the said period, they had no other sacrifices.

2826. [4.] This was done probably on the last day of the feast of Tabernacles, when they used to carry palms round the altar seden times, with the greatest solemuity. — They might hence have faith in this sacred performance; Hleb. xi 30.- Ps. cxi. to cxviii, viii, Ixxxi, Isxxiv, were composed for this solemoity. The title Gittith signifies a wine-press.

2820. [10, 11.] Here they might easily supply themselves with what was needful for this Passover; for the land of Gennesereth, which lies not far above where they had crossed the Jordan, not only nourishes different sorts of autumnal fruit beyond men's expectation, but preserves them also a great while: It supplies mei, says JOSEPAUS, with the principal fruits, with grapes and figs, continually, during len months of the year, and the rest of the fruits as they become ripe together throughout the whole year. — So that, adds the judicious Waisron, when St. Mark says, ch. xi. 13, that our Saviour, not long before Easter, came and found leaves on a fig-tree near Jerusalem, but no figs, because the time of new figs ripening was not yet, he says very true; nor were they therefore other than old leaves which our Saviour saw, and old figs which he expected, and which even with us commonly hang ou the trees all winter long.

See Joseph. Wars, b. iii. ch. x. & 8;

and Whiston's note there.

2826. - 12 - 16.) During the first seven days of the feast of Tabernacles, says Dr. A. CLARKE (on Matt. xxi. 9), the Jews went once round the altar, each day, with palms and other branches in their hands, singing Hosanna: but on the eighth day of that feast they walked seden times round the altar, singing the hosanna, and this was termed the hosanna rabba ; the Great hosanna, i. e. assist with the greatest succour.

See STEALIN's Jewish Traditions,

vol. ii. p. 322.

2827.

On the morning after the calamitous slaughter in the fortress of Masada, the Romans, says JOSEPHUS,

" made a shout, as if it had been at a blow given by the battering ram." See No. 1024.

Jewish Wars, b. vij. ch. ix. § 2.

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2833. [-21. A goodly Babylonish garment] The invention of embroidered cloth, or cloth of various colors, is attributed to the Babylonians. --Literally, a Garment of Shinar; Shinar being the plain where Babylon stood.

The Babylonians were so famous for their rich embroideries, maguificent carpets, and fiue linen; that Cato was ashamed to wear a Babylonian mantle, which had been left to him by inheritance. (PLUTARCH, in vitâ Catonis.) And it has been said, that at Rome, inore than £6,000 had been paid for a suit of Babylonian hànginys.

Piin. Hist. Nat. l. 8. c. 48. MAVOR. - A wedge of - fifty shekels) Weighed twelve ounces and a half.

2839. - 29.) The tree on which etiminals were hanged (in effigy) aipong the Rotñalis was called arbor infelix, and lignum infelix, the unfortunate, ill-fated, or accursed tree or log. (Dr. A. CLARKE ) — A contrast to the tree of life, the tree of liberty or freedom.

See No. 2554.

2834.

It is very probable, that this was the robe of the king of Jericho; for the same word is used, Jonahi iii. 6, to express the royal robe of the king of Nineveh, which he laid aside, in order to humble himself before God.

Dr. A. CLARKÈ.

2840. [

-32.) The place where these stones were to be deposited, was on one of the two mountains between which Sichem is situated, in a very narrow vale. This Sichem had been a sacred spot as early as the time of Abraham. It was at Moreh, another name for Sichem, that God first appeared to Abraham after his entry into Palestine; and there the patriarch built him ah altar, Gen. xii. 6; 7. There too, Jacob purchased a bield, where he also built áñ altar, Gen. xxxjji. 18, 19; and at last lie acquired the city itself through the decision of his sons, Gen. xxxiv. 25 — 29. He bequeathed it to Joseph, Gen. xlviii. 22, whose posterity continued in possession of it during all the time that the Israelites abode in Egypt.

Hence the Israelites accounted it sacred, and the chief seat, as it were, of their new governinent in Palestine ; more especially, as the tabernacle of testimony continued for a long time stationed in that quarter; and a city thus distinguished, and its neighbouring mountain Gerizim, on which, perhaps, Abrabani's altar might bare siidi remained standing, was certainly a very suitable situation for the rearing of what was meant to form the everlasting monument or memorial of the Law. Deut. xi. 30.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. i.

2835. [

24, 25.] That which is made with hands is cursed, as well it, as he that made it : he, because he made it, and it, because being corruptible, it was called god. — For a father afficted with untimely mourning, when he has made an image of his child soon taken away, now bonoured him as a god, who was then a dead man, and delivered to those that were under him, ceremonies and sacrifices. Thus iu process of time an ungodly custom grown strong, was kept as a law, and graven images were worshipped by the commandments of kings. Wisdom xiv. 8, 15, 16.

p. 358.

2847. [Josh. x. 10.] At Lattakoo, a royal African city, Mr. JoAN CAMPBELL and his associates were treated with hospitality: not a single article, he says, was stolen from them during their stay, except two buttons ; for which offence the culprit was driven out of the public square.

See Gen. iv. 14.

2841. [Josh. ix. 2.] The Moreh Nevochim, or resolution of doubtful questions, by Maimonides, soon raised him many admirers, but a much greater number of opponents; insomuch that the synagogues, who took part for and against him, made no scruple to excommunicate each other. In particular, the doctors of Narbonne, with the great Joseph Kimchi at their head, not only stood up in his defence, but engaged all their brethren in Spain to do the same. This war between the doctors of both nations lasted about forty years, and employed the most learued heads and pens on both sides ; neither can it be said to have been effectually ended, seeing his works have been attacked and censured, from time to time, in the subsequent centuries by fresh ductors of all dations.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. xiii. p. 286.

2848. [-11.] Lightning and thunder are wont, in the western countries, to be in the summer, but happen in the Holy Land in winter. In summer it seldom rains there : but in winter, though the returns of rain are not so frequent, after they begin to fall they pour dowu for three or four days and nights together as vehemently as if they would drown the country.

JACOBUS de Vitriaco, in his Gesta Dei, dol. i.

P.

1097.

2849.

2842. (4.) Leathern bottles are frequently rent, when old and much used, and are capable of being repaired by being bound up. This they do, says CHARDIN, sonetimes by setting in a piece; sometimes by gathering up the wounded place in manner of a purse ; soinetiines they insert a round flat piece of wood, and by that means stop the hole.

Hailstones) PAILOSTORGIUS, who lived in the latter part of the fourth Christian century, says, that, in his time, “hail greater than could be held in a man's hand fell down in several places, weighing as much as eight pounds."

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2850.

At Marmorice, on the 8th of February, commenced the most violent thunder and hail storm ever remembered, and which continued two days and nights intermittingly. The hail, or rather the ice stones, were as big as large walnuts. The camps were delayed with a lorrent of them, two feet deep, wbich, pouring from the mountains, swept every thing before it (Sir Robert Wilson.) There fell at Lisle in Flanders, May 25th, 1686, hail-stones which weighed from a quarter of a pound to a pound weight

One among the rest was observed to contain a dark brown matter in the middle, and being thrown into the fre, it gave a very great report, Others were transparent, which melted before the fire immediately. This storm passed over the citadel and town, and left not a whole glass in the windows on the wind ward side. The trees were broken, and some beat down, and the partridges and hares killed in abundance.

Abr. Phil. Trans. col. iii. p. 568.

and more.

2844. [

-14.] They took of their victuals, and ate with them, by way of covenant. (R. KIMCHI.) – In consequence, Joshua made peace with them.

See No. 575.

2845. [ 19.] This shews the extreme veneration which the Israelites paid to the letter of their oath.

MICHAELIS,

2851. [ 12.] The Sun, that stood still in the sight of Israel, was the 'Sun of righteousness,' the Lord to whom, it is said, Joshua spake.

2846. - 27.) Nethinim (1 Chron. ix. 2) signifies given or offered; the Gibeonites serving in the same capacity as Jacob's handmaids given him by Laban. See Gen. xxix. 29. XXX. 4. As subordinate menials, they cut wood for the Levites, and drew water in aid of the women-helpers. Gen. ij. 18, xxix. 29. 1 Cor. xi. 3-12. xii. 28.

See No. 2415.

2852. [

13.] The book of Jasher is the book of Psalms, the first word of the Psalms being asher (Hebr.), corrupted into Jasher. The antient Hebrews used to call every sacred book by the first word in it.

Ps. cxxxyi. 17 - 21.

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