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the Angelic Sun first (as the earth turns daily towards that sun), and joining itself with that influence come down again in blessings on the obedient; whilst the infernal sphere arising from the disobedient, thrown back upon them from Hades, is next precipitated in curses on their devoted heads.

pomegranates, as we do lemous, in forming their delicious and cooling drinks. The honey of bees, he adds, is very abundant in the land of promise ; particularly near Nazareth, where they make their bee-hives, he says, of clay,– four feet long, and half a foot in diameter, as in Egypt. of which they lay teu or twelve, he adds, one on anotber, on the bare ground ; and then build over them a small roof. Mr. MAUNDREL perceived also in many places of the great saltplain near Jericho, a smell of honey and wax as strong as if he had been in an apiary. — And Dr. Shaw tells us, that it is impossible for pulse, wheat, or grain of any kind, to be richer or better tasted, than what is sold at Jerusalem.

2614. [Deut. viii. 8.) The olive oil of Palestine was not only most abundant, but also, peculiarly excellent ; and Hasselquist prefers it even to that of Provence.

Smith's MICHAELIS, col.iii. p. 137.

2617. (Deut. xi. 10.) In irrigating the oriental gardens and orchards, two menials raise water from a well into a reservoir by a yoke of oxen, working on an inclined plane, extended according to the depth of the well; the head-gar. dener attended by a boy conducts it from thence, by artificial channels, to each bed of herbs, and every favourite flower. These little conduits being made in the mould, near the borders, require constant attention to remove obstructions, and give a free circulation to the rill, which seldom exceeds a few inches in breadth. This the gardeners sometimes do iu a stooping posture with their hands, oftener in an upright position with their feet, and by practice become very expert.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ii. p. 241.

2615. [Deut. ix. 18, 19.] The late Dr. John HUNTER, as appears from his own account, retained his senses though the heart had apparently ceased to act. See No. 1272, 1013. See his Life, as prefixed 10 his Work

on the Blood, Inflammation, and Gun-shot Wounds.

2618. [-am 10, 11.] See Fragments to Calmet, Third Hund. pp. 115, 116.

lu the cisterns of Egypt formed for preserving the overflowings of the Nile, there are plugs fixed at the bottom, which are drawn up when the various sorts of pulse, saffron, musk, melons, sugar-canes, &c. there planted in rills, require to be refreshed. Ou this the water gushing out is conducted from one rill to another by the gardener, who is always ready, as occasion requires, to stop and divert the torrent, by turuing the earth against it with his foot, and opening at the same time with his mattock, a new trench to receive it.

Dr. Shaw's Trad. p. 408.

2616. [Deut. xi.] Those that obey the LORD have the inner mau opened, and receive their governing influence from Puradise; whilst those who disobey have their inner man shut, and their outer man opened under the influence which they receive and appropriate through the medium of Hades. The former is the blessing, the latter the curse, pointed out in this Chapter, as respectively cousequent on obedience, and on disobedience.

When the ceremony of blessing and cursing, here referred to, was realized according to the account we have in Josh. viji. 33; six tribes, representing the spirits iu Paradise, stood on Gerizim, to the east of the intervening valley; and the other six tribes, or at least their chiefs, stood also as representing the spirits in Hades, on mount Ebal, to the west. The reason is obvious : as Paradise is higher than Hades, and as the spiritual atmospheres (like the natural) send up rays ever diverging from the zenith or perpendicular point supposed to stand over any particular place; the heavenly sphere, re turning from the obedient, will in Paradise (whither it arises) necessarily catch the easterly influence of

2619. [14.) The first or former rain was that which fell in the month of October, and prepared the eartb for the springing up of the seed then sowu in it: the latter rain was that which fell ia the month of March, and served to ripen the corn.

Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 186.

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2620.

It has been determined by observation, that the mean annual quantity of rain is greater at the equator, and decreases gradually as we approach the poles.

Month. Mag. for Jan. 1815, p. 551. 2625. [Dent. xii. 2.) The green tree appropriated by the Brahmins of Hindostan to this kind of worship, is called by some the Indian fig-tree ; by others, the Banian-tree, and the war-tree. From its branches stems shoot downwards, and, taking root, produce another tree, whose branches propagate in like manner : so that one tree spreads over a large space of ground. To this tree they bring offerings : under it they receive unctions, pay their adoratious, and celebrate their festivals.

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi.

2621. (Deut. xi. 24.] The full extent of the land, thus promised, can hardly be said to have been peaceably poslessed, during any considerable length of time, by the Israelites as its rightful owners. Reuben indeed, having subjugated the Hagarites, iuhabited eastward to the entering in of the wilderness, from the river Euphrates ; 1 Chron. v. 9. And Solomon eventually had dominion over all the region on this side the river from Tiphsah even to Azzah, over all the kings on this side the river : and he had peace on all sides round about; 1 Kings iv. 24. 2 Chron. ix. 26. But in this extensive empire, we find Solomon ruling the Gentiles rather llian the Israelites in what may be called the Exterior Canaan. For an aocount of the Interior of that country, as originally settled by the Nine Tribes and a Half, see Josh. xiji — xxjj.

In the Exterior Canaan, before the Israelites besieged any city, they were strictly comunanded to offer terms of peace, Deut. xx. 10. But uo peace was to be made with the sinful idolaters in the Interior of the land, Deut. vii. 2, 4: they were to be utterly banished into the Exterior. Thus sin is removed, only from the Internal to the External Man, where it remains to tempt and to humble us.

P. 600.

2626. [2, 3.] The old inhabitants of Canaan, in imitation of their forefathers who had intended to set up a Name or Idol on Babel (Gen. xi. 4), did actually make for thenıselves Images, the large ones

of wood or stoue, the smaller of gold or silver, or covered with gilt; some carved, some molten, some engraved. They called their cities after the name of their gods.

Some of their Images stood in their temples ; some iu groves of growing timber, hung over with costly tents or taberuacles : And where they had high places, which, says HUTCAINSON, I suspect were raised of timber, or part of timber (because some of them were burnt), with altars on their tops, the Images stood on poles, or pillars, on high above the altars ; and some on the tops of their lowers, it is likely, in imitation of the tower of Babel See No. 781.

See his Nat. Hist. of the Bible,

Works, vol. i. p. 91.

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2627. [--- 14.] Throughout the Mosaic history Jerusalem appears highly distinguished as the place where, as early as the days of Abraham, the True God had a Priest, to whom the Patriarch presented the tenth part of his spoils, Gen. xiy. 18-20.

See Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iii.

p. 101.

2624. Deut. xii.] In this Chapter, the blood or the wine denotes the interior influence from the Infinite Human, as it comes to the spiritual-minded out of the Grand Man of Heaven ; the flesh, or the sacrificial bread, denotes the ex. ternal influence from the finite angelic Human, as it descends from the same Grand Man on the external-minded, the people at a distance from the Holy Place, in the gates of moral justice. - Consider here the nature and quality of a proselyte of the gate.

2628. - 15.] All others of the deer-kind are in. constant in their affection : but the roe-buck never leaves ite mate ; and as they have been generally bred up together, from their first fawning, they conceive so strong an attachinent, that they never after separate.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, &c. vol.iii. p. 134. The roe buck and the hart.] - Raisins are of two sorts. See Leo. i. 14-17. — The flesh of the Golden Galician grape is bard, but of a tolerable flavor.

SPEECHLY, on the Vine, p. 7. 2629. [Deut. xii. 27.] In a sacrifice found at Narbonne, a vase is seen with a bandle, out of which they are poaring WINE into a palera ; which vase exactly reseinbles what Antiquaries call the præfericulum.

See No. 824, 781, 2087. Archæologia, vol. xiv. p. 25.

2635. [Deut. xiv.] In this Chapter we are taught, that the influences from good societies, exhibited in Paradise, may be received by men on earth; whilst the influences from unclean animal-appearing societies in Hades, are not to be received.

2636. [-1. Ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness). The Khalif Omar commanded the citizens of Jerusalem, in the articles of their capitulation, to have the fore-parts of their heads always shaven.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 429.

2630. [Deut. xiii. 1. And he give thee a sign] That is, by natural means. Thus BEAULIEU, in the account of his expedition to the East Indies, tells us that at Table Bay they had a severe storm from the uorth-east, which, says he, “we foresaw the night before. Under the wind there appeared a great black cloud, in the centre of which we observed what the Portuguese call the ox-eye, which is generally esteemed the harbinger of a storm.”

MAVOR, vol. ii. p. 216.

2631. [-2-6.] The very prediction often brings about its own fulfilment. Thus, if a man has it prophesied to him, that he will die in such or such a year, the very dread of that event may induce a disease, and render it mortal. A singular example of this occurred to Dr. Wedeln, who cured a disease, by demonstrating to his patient the inanity of astrological predictions of death.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. iv. p. 81.

2637.

For the dead) That is, in the opinion of CALMET, in reverence of the dead idols. This is consistent with the preceding words, “ye are the children of the LORD your God;" — ye shall not imitate the votaries of idolatry; for instance, the propbets of Baal, who cut themselves, in their profane rites, till the blood gushed out upou theni

This cutting, tearing the flesh, &c. appears to be the practice of most idolaters. Mavor, in his account of Drake's voyage, tells us that, near a commodious harbour of the Moluccas, the English were apprized by the voices and gestures of the Indians, that they meant to pay them a kind of religious veneration, ascording to the customs of the country. After a long oration delivered by one of the savages, their women first began to tear themselves with their nails and to fall prostrate on the ground, in token of reverence. After Drake had been, as it were, deified by the king and his grandees, the common people tore their flesh in such a manner as to affect the feelings of the English. Had

pare her nailsbeen a proper translation in chap. xxi. 12 of this Book, we might have supposed that the women alluded to, being idolaters, had suffered their nails to grow to an exorbitant length, for purposes similar to the above; and that, as upon marrying the Israelites, they were required to worship only the one living and true God, they were not henceforth to bear any symptoms of idolatrous practices, – not even to the Manes of their dead.

2632. [~ 10. Thou shalt stone him with stones] Perhaps this voting against the convict by throwing together ihe stones of bis condemnation, was originally a natural representation of the opinion of the court, and might be designed to shew that all present thought him unworthy of life, and deserving no other protection than what is given to a dead body when it is ultimately covered with a heap of stones, its disgraceful monument, its barrow.

See, on Matt. xxvi. 65. John yiii. 10.

2633.

The Arabs, in general, make use of no other monument, than a heap of stones over a grave.

Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii. p. 207.

2638. [-4, &c.] These figures were moulded in the skins of their respective animals. Of which skins, some were clean and fit for culinary purposes; others not. All those clean animals on earth, are represented above, in the four degrees of Paradise ; and all the unclean give up their images and invest wicked spirits, in Hades.

The Pagan Tartars raise over their common dead distinct heaps of stones, on each of which they place a characteristic banner. But, as inonuments to distinguish the rich, or their chiefs they erect stone pyramids, or small conic bouses of brick; with an image on each, facing the east.

2639. [ 5. The wild goat] Tragos, equally with Olynthos, siguities in Greek the wild Fig-tree.

See Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 318, note (E). The Greek word, meion, sigmfies cattle in general, and all manner of fruit thal grows ou trees.

Greek Lericon.

2634.

See Modern Univer. Hist. vol. iv.

p. 304.

2640. [Deut. xiv. 24. To carry] Not drive ; the proper term, had animals been sacrificed.

2641. [- 2:3, 28, 29.] These second and third tenths were in reality but one and the same (lithe, brought on the second and third of the three annual festivals, at the conclusion of the tuco harvests) to be then spent in hospitality and charity.

See Dr. DURELL's Parallel Prophecies, p. 179, note. . This, which is very obscurely stated by the Doctor, must be further examined.

Where every debtor is thus generally in possession of land; where his person, his wife, and his child, may, in cases of non-payment, be brought to sale; and where justice is expeditious, and costs the creditor nothing ; – there and there alone, may the law venture to exhort to the duty of lending, and brand with the stigma of baseness, the unfeeling man, who withholds from his brother when in need of his aid, a loan, which he might grant him with perfect security, and without the smallest risk.

Ibid. p. 352.

2642.

The last of these tithing times, when the fruit of the trees was also gatliered, was called the Feast of Tabernacles; and was held in the seventh month, answering in part to our September. See No. 995, 925. Hutchinson's Sine Principio,

Introduc. p. ccxxvii.

2646. [Deut. xv. 7, 8.] Ye modern Jews! brethren according to the flesh ! see here, how your fathers who were believers lived contentedly, and happily, on the plentiful increase that God made their land produce; they neither traded oor sought for other people's lands, nor labors ; much less did they live on usury and fraud.

HUTCHINSON.

20. Thou shalt eat it - year by year] That is, thou shalt eat what has been figured in the skins of such firstlings at the annual feasts till the next sabbatical year, when new skins of the same kind shall be introduced iu room of the old ones ; as the shew-bread was changed every sabbath.

2643. [Deut. xv. 1.] It is very confidently asserted, not only by the Indians, but also by great numbers of the white people who live on the shorts of Lake Ontario in America, that the walers of tbat lake rise and fall alternately every | seventh year. See No. 963, &c. 2399. Weld's Trav. in N. America, |

vol. ii. p. 75.

2648. [ 21.] As things which were imperfect, unclean, ill-favoured, ill-coloured, &c. were emblems of vice, and depravity ; they are represented as odious : whilst things which were perfect, clean, odorous, bright, &c. were emblems of virlue, and are represented as acceptable.

HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason

recovered, p. 285.

2644. (- 7 — 11.] Among the poor, may be in. cluded all those who are poor in the proper sense of the word, although they apply to none for relief, or but to a few people of their acquaintance ;- all those who have not enough to support them in a manner suited to their station, or are unable to carry on that business, by which they should be supported.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 242.

2645. - We must here recollect, that Moses gave a portion of land to every Israelite, which remained with his family in perpetuity. A hail-storm, or other misfortune, might reduce him to the uecessity of applying to his neighbours for their aid — although ivdeed be inight borrow on the credit of his land and its future crops — but be would not be constrained to beg by profession : from that degree of indi. gence his land and its culture would either wholly preserve or speedily recover him.

Ibid. p. 251.

2649. [Deut. xvi. 13. Feast of Tabernacles] lu Aleppo at this feast, the booths or tabernacles of the Jews are vari.' ously coustructed, and disposed in different situations, according to the size and other conveniences of the house. They are sometimes placed ou the small terraces in front of the upper rooms; but inost commonly in the court-yards : sometimes on the flat tops of houses. The ordinary method of building them is by fastening to the corners of a wooden divan four slender erect posts; which serve to support on all sides a reticulated work of green reeds; a small place only in the front being left for the entrance. This work on the outside is covered with fresh nyrtle; and is hung on the in-side with chintz or burdet hangings. The roof is thatched with reeds not stripped of their leaves : and the

best cushions and carpets are employed to dress the divan. 2654. [Deut. xvii. 7.) This legal custom, in which the These divans have the advantage of being easily moved, and accusing witness laid his hand on the head of the criminal, two or more may be joined together. In some of the prin- will give an appropriate and merciful turn to many exprescipal houses a permanent wooden kiask, built on a stone sions of Scripture that, improperly understood, appear to be mustaby, in the middle of the court, is made to serve the ferocious and bloody. purpose ; which, being already latticed, is easily covered

See Lev. i. 4. xvi. 21. Gen, xxii. 12. with reeds and myrtle-branches. There is still another

Neh. xiii. 21. Esth. ii. 21. iii. 6. method used, in order to avoid the litter of withered leaves.

ix. 2. Matt. xxi. 46. Luke xx. 19. This is by erecting a temporary booth, consisting of slight

xxi, 12. 1 Tim. v. 22. posts papered over, and wreathed from top to bottom with Aakes of cotton : hangings supply the place of walls; and the whole is roofed with mats.

2655. [- 16.] Absalom was the first who introduced Russel's Aleppo, vol. ii. p. 69.

horses into Israel; previously, the kings used to ride on mules, and the greatest nobles on asses.

Solomon was the first that brought chariots and horses into

use in Israel : these he sent for out of Egypt, obliging several 2650. [Deut. xvi. 14.] Cecrops, who reigned at Athens neighbouring kings to pay him six hundred shekels for every about the time that Israel came out of Egypt, ordained hy chariot aud four horses, and a hundred and fifty for every law, that the master of every family should, after harvest, single horse. make a feast for his servants, and eat familiarly with them

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. pp. 532, 554. who had assisted in tilling and reaping his ground.

According to an estimate published in the year 1800, the Burper's Oriental Customs,

number of horses in Eugland and Wales only, amounted to vol. ii. p. 77.

1,750,000; besides colts. It was said moreover, that these horses and colts would consume the produce of 7,500,000 acres of land; an extent of territory adequate to support more

than half the inhabitants of the two countries. 2651. (16.) About Sidon, and at the foot of mount Lebanus, they gather a triple produce from the same vine every year; that is, they have three vintages in one year. In March, after the vine has produced the first clusters, 2656. - Arabia and Syria had in antient times they cut away from the fruit that wood which is barren. no breed of horses. The Phoenician and Syrian kings had (BORCHARD, Exactissim. Descript. Terræ Sanct. in nov. their horses from Egypt, and that through Palestine ; so that Orb. p. 332.) – Grapes ripen (again) at Algiers, and in the when they sustained any great loss in horses, it was not empire of Morocco, about the end of July; yet the (second) easily repaired ; especially as Egypt of old had no maritime vintage, as Shaw informs us, does not take place till Sep- commerce ; and, at any rate, the transporting of horses by tember, with which account Borchard agrees, Korte has sea is difficult and expensive. observed, that the grapes are then ripe about Aleppo, A great deal of land that might be applied to the producnotwithstanding which they remain on

on the vines until

tion of human food is requisite for the maintenance of horses November.

in every country: and in England, this is a subject of perJohan Buhle. — See Frag. to Calmet, petual complaint, the high price of corn being ascribed to the

vol. ii. pp. 147, 155, 161, 163, 164, immense number of superfluous horses.
166, 168.

Smith's Michaelis, vol. i. p. 340.

vol. ii. p. 397.

were

2652. [Deut. xvii. 5.] Those that entirely separated from human society, were in effect dead persons.

See Josera. Antiq. b. iii. ch. xi, $ 3.

2657.

The horse appears in the early ages of the world to have been devoted to war; and as every rude and barbarous people attach a high degree of importance and dignity to any thing connected with that vile pursuit, the horse has been held, in their estimation, as little less than sacred ; and the sentiment has in some measure been handed down to the present day.

Dr. JARROLD, Month. Mag. for July,

1814, p. 487.

2653. (7.) But let not the testimony of women be admitted, 'on account of the levity and boldness of their sex.

Ibid, b. iv. ch. viii. § 15.

2658.

At Constantinople, three thousand horses are continually kept for the Sultan, besides a

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