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2386. [Lev. xxiii. 34.] Kalm saw, on an island in the river Hudson, the temporary huts or wigwams of the native Indians, built on a very simple plan. Four posts were put into the ground perpendicularly, over which they had placed poles, and made a roof of bark upon them. They had either no walls at all, or they consisted of branches with leaves, which were fixed to the poles. Their beds consisted of deerskins spread on the ground. Their utensils were a couple of small kettles, two ladles, and a bucket or two of bark, made so close as to keep water.
See Pinkerton's Coll. part liv.
and cassia, with a large quantity of other sweet spices, which used to be mixed together, and offered as incense to God every day.
Exod. xxx. 34. Joseph. Wars, b. vi. ch. viii. $ 3.
Of the willow there are several species, the most remarkable of which is a small sort that grows on the banks of the Mississippi, and some other places adjacent. The bark of this shrub supplies the beaver with its winter-food; aud where the water has washed the soil from its roots, they appear to consist of fibres interwoven together like thread; the color is of an inexpressibly fine scarlet: with this the Indians tinge many of the ornamental parts of their dress.
CARVER's Trav. p. 336.
PLUTARCII affirms that, at the feast of tabernacles in particular, the Jews entered their temples with branches of the vine and with the thyrsus of Bacchus in their bands. (See his Symposiac. probl. v.) — These branches of the vine, &c. were their usual offerings or sacrifices.
In Palestine, grapes, pomegranates, and figs, are ripe from the beginning of August till about the middle of September. (See HARMER, vol. i. pp. 108 - 110.)- In Persia also, the small white grape caine into season, August 6th ; and the large red grape, September 10th.
Dr. A. CLARKE.
2391. [Leo. xxiii. 40.] Jovi item (sacræ erant) e plantis dicata quercus, esculus, fagus, omnesque arbores glandiferæ.
See No. 946, Vossius, de Physiol. Christiana, 8c. 947, 944.
lib. ix. p. 248.
2388. [-36. On the eighth day shall be a holy convocation] This eighth day festival, according to MICHAELIS, bad, in the most antient times, and also after its institution by Moses, been the Wine-press-feast of the Israelites.
See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii.
2392. [Lev. xxiv. 10. The son of an Israelitish woman] In order to understand this verse, we must remember that in the introduction of a person to the Church of Israel, a womau stood as sponsor or godmother, who was in some degree answerable for his conduct. Now this man who had been blaspheming was an Egyptian who had been adopted into the Jewish Church. He was brought forth, tried and excommunicated or cut off from the privileges of Israelite.
2393. - 11.] The word here translated blaspheme, does properly signify to pierce; as they that curse, do in a manner pierce with their spiteful tongues.
See Reo. i. 7.
-39.] The Jews commenced their feast of tabernacles on the appearance of the full moon first after the antumnal equinox. (KENNEDY's Chronol.)- This was the second first sabbath ; or the sabbath commencing the latter
See Luke vi. 1. The first sabbath of every former half-year commenced with the appearance of full moon at, or next after the vernal equinox. – Thus the Jews did regulate their sabbaths annually, from spring to autumn, and from autumn to spring; the “eighth day,” each primary sabbath being counted inclusively, was the second sabbath in each half of every year,
2394. [-16.) Stoning, among the Jews, was decision made with white and black stones put into an appropriate vessel, antiently by the elders, afterwards by the Sanhedrim. The white stones acquitted, and black stones condemned.
See John viii. 5. Rev. ii. 17.
2390. (-40. Thick trees.] Cinnamon trees. The treasurer of the temple, whose pame was Phineas, sbewed Titus the coats and girdles of the priests, with a great quantity of purple and scarlet, which were there reposited for the use of the vail; as also a great deal of cinnamon
2395. [- 19, 20.] The private mode of redressing corporal injuries, according to what is here written, was allowed, says MICHAELIS, to free persons only : the law of
2401. [Leo. xxv. 9.] Hobil (in Hiphil), from the obsolete root, yabal, signifies to recal, restore, bring back a thing to its pristine state. Ps. lxxvi. 11.
Univer. Hist. vol. iii.
retaliation, he adds, did not extend to servants or slaves, they being less protected members of the community. (Sce Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 448.) Retaliation how. ever, though always allowed when awarded by a court of justice, is utterly prohibited by Jesus, the Christ, as most illegal and unchristian, when thus inflicted from a spirit of revenge, privately, instantaneously, or without legal permission; Matt. v. 38, 39.
2396, (Lev. xxiv. 21.] But if a cow should attempt to kill any person, and there is no way of escaping, that person may kill the cow, for the preservation of his own life; and, in this case, he shall not be amenable.
Halhed's Genloo Laws, p. 97.
2402. [-14. Ye shall not oppress one another] Ye shall take uo advantage of each other's ignorance either in buying or selling : for he that buys an article at less than it is worth, or sells one for more than it is worth, taking advantage, in both cases, of the ignorance of the vender, or buyer, is no better than a thief; as be actually robs his neighbour of as much property as he has bought the article at below or sold it above its current value.
Dr. A. CLARKE.
During the space of six years, while Jupiter is passing from the ascending to the descending node of his satellites, they are eclipsed to the north of his equator, departing to the greatest distance thence at the middle of the period. For the six years while Jupiter is passing from the descending to the ascending nodes of the satellites, they will be eclipsed to the south of his equator, departing also to the greatest distance thence at the middle of the period.
2405. (44 - 46.] In the Dukedom of Muscovy, the plaintiff may swear in some causes of debt, over the defendant's head. Then, if the party defendant be poor, the Duke taketh him home to his house, and useth him as bis bondman, and putteth him to labor, or letteth him for hire to any such as need him, until such time as his friends make provision for his redemption : or else he remaineth in bondage all the days of his life.
PINKERTON's Coll, dol. i. p. 21. 2406. [Leo. xxvi, 1.] The Ebn Masheith, or stone of judgment, here forbidden by Moses, is the Liath Meisicith of the Irish Druids, the Maschith of the Syrians and Egyptians, and the Lapis Braetan of the Turks and Arabs. It is a very large crystal stone set in silver, with some other stones round it; accurately engraved in the Ar. chæologia, vol. vii. p. 167, and amply treated of in SPENCER's Treatise “ De Legibus Hebræorum,” vol. i.
See No. 965, 963. Vince's Practical Astron. art. 198.
2412 [Lev. xxvi. 26.] An oven was designed ouly to serve a single family, and to hake for them no more than the bread of one day. This usage still continues in some places, and gives peculiar force to these words.
HARMER, dol. i. p, 269.
2407. [4.] In Palestine, rain falls seldom, but the time of its comiug is well regulated : it falls in the spring and autumn, and is therefore called the early and latter rain, or the evening and morning rain, in Scripture, which reckons the year as one day,
FLEURY's Manners of the Israelites,
by Dr. A. Clarke, p. 54.
2413. [-29.] Joserhus indeed, gives a particular instance of a woman named Mary, who in the extremity of the famine, during the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, killed her sucking child, roasted, and had eaten part of it, when discovered by the soldiers ! - This however, is too solitary and too remote an instance to apply appropriately either here, or to the prediction in Jeremiah xix. 9. Both passages, doubtless, have an immediate reference to that dreadful famive in Samaria, during which, according to Nehemiah v. 2, 5, parents were necessitated to SELL THEIR CHILDREN FOR BREAD; saying, We, our sons and our daughters are many ; therefore we take up corn for them, that we may EAT AND LIVE. Yet now our FLESH is as the flesh of our brethren, our CHILDREN
as their children : and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be slaves, and some of our daughters are brought into bondage already: neither is it in our power to reucem them; for other men have our lands and vineyards. See No. 968, 817, 813.
See Gen, xlvii. 17, 19.
In Samaria, they have abundance of trees, and are full of autumnal fruit, both of that which grows wild, and that which is the effect of cultivation,
Joseph. Wars, b. iii. ch. iii. § 4.
-6. Your threshing shull reach unto the vintage] This is a nervous and beautiful promise of such entire plenty of corn and wine, that before they could have reaped and threshed out their corn, the vintage should be ready; and before they could have pressed out their wine, it would be time to sow again. The prophet Amos, ch. ix. 13, expresses the same blessing in the same manner : “ The plowman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him who soweth sted.”
2414. [Leo. xxvii. 1.] Two kinds of vows are mentioned in this chapter. Ist. Of those things, which whey ouce de voted, might be redeemed at a certain price according to the valuation of the priest, 2ndly. Of those things vowed to God, of which there remained no power of redemption ; they were most holy; that is to say, so absolutely devoted to God, that they could neither be changed, alienated, nor redeemed.
In order to understand the subject clearly, it is necessary to know that the priesthood had no possessions with the people, but that there were cities appointed for the Levites, and around them two thousand cubits of land for their support (Num. xxxv. 2–6). Of course, servants or slaves would be needed for the tilling of this Jand, and for the service of the Levites ; also animals, clean and unclean, as the cow for inilk and the ass for burden &c. Now persons might either devote to this service themselves, or some part of their family; as their children, or slaves, cattle, &c. A value was put upon their service, and if the son wished to redeem an aged parent who was employed in this service, he had to pay the price of his redemption. When any thing had been voued to the service of God, it could only be redeemed by giving something better in the room thereof. But if a person were devoted to the LORD as a priest he could not be rea deemed.
Joshua ix. 7. Num. viii. 6. Judges xi. 39.
2410. (10.] The Arabs of Spain have the secret of preserving grapes sound and juicy from one season to another.
SWINBURNE's Trav. in Spain,
Lett. xxii. p. 164.
2411. [- 13. The bands of your yoke] That is, those bended pieces of wood, or bows, by which the necks of steers are bound to the yoke.
See Dr. GEDDES.
Verse 5.] These twenty shekels amount to two pounds, five shillings, and seven-penice half-penny.
2415. (Lev. xxvii. 1.] Those who had devoted themselves to serve under the Levites, were called Nethinim, that is, persons who had given themselves up, from the Hebrew word nathan, which signifies to give.
Others devoted themselves as Nazarites, or, as call them, Nazareans, only for a time; after which they cut off their hair, paid the fines required as in this chapter, with the expenses of the necessary sacrifices, and were then no longer considered as separated to any particular austerities or singularities of life.
Num. vi. Acts xxi. See Dr. A. CLARKE's Fleury,
2418. [Lev. xxvii. 16.] A chomer contained 75 gallons 3 pints ; a homer, only 3 quarts, or 5 pints and a little more.
See Essay for a New Translation,
part ii. p. 38.
Probably the temporary penances of the Catholics had this law for their foundation ; at least, they have it to a certain degree, in their vindication.
It was usual also with those who were either afflicted' with a distemper, or with any other distresses, to make vows; and for thirty days before they were to offer their sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and to shave the hair of their head.
JOSEPH. Wars, b. ii. ch. xv. g 1.
-28, 29. No devoted thing - shall be sold or redeemed] This is the cherem (Hebr.), which always meant an absolute unredeemable grant to God.
Dr. A. CLARKE. Verse 29. But shall surely be put to death] The plain meaning of this verse, which has caused a great deal of controversy, is this : every thing which is devoted of men shall not be redeemed, but shall surely die ; that is to say, every person that is given in perpetuity, shall not be redeemed, but shall die in that devoted state. For though our version has it, He shall surely be put to death, in the original it is only dying he shall die; which is not to be understood of being sacrificed or put to any violent death ; but he shall not be redeemed, he shall continue till death, in a devoted state. Gen. ii. 17. Num. xxvi. 65. 2 Kings viii. 20. Ezek. ji. 18. 1 Sam. i. 11.
JAMESON, on the Pentateuck.
2416. [-2, 3, &c.] These were to serve under the Levites in the capacity of what were afterwards called Nethinim. The Gibeonites became such devoted slaves.
See Joshua ix. 27.
It would hence appear, that there had been another shekel, which Moses did not prohibit, but only directed that every thing in his laws relative to imposts, penalties, &c. &c., should be understood in reference to the shekel of the sanctuary. 2 Sam. xi. 26. See Smith's Michaelis, vol. iii.
art. 227. pp. 392 - 395. These fifty shekels are equivalent to five pounds, fourteen shillings, half-penny farthing.
2420. [- - 30, &c.] The inhabitants of Lower Egypt, where the Israelites bad dwelt, were taxed or tithed in support of the animals kept as sacred to the sole use or maiotenance of the priests. (See Plut. de Iside & Oserid.
See also Bp. CUMBERL. on the Cosmog. of Sanchon. p. 12, &c.) – But of the annual produce given in tithe by the Israelites, what is usually called the LORD's part was really appropriated by Him to three different purposes ; part to the national treasury, part to stated sacrifices, and the other part to the Priests and Levites.
Gen. xlvii. 24. Dr. DURELL, Parallel Prophecies,
as subjects to Kien-long, emperor of China, who was then in the thirty-sixth year of his reign. He received them graci. ously, furnished them with provisions, clothes, and money, and allotted to each family a portion of land for agriculture and pasturage. The year following there was a second emigration of about thirty thousand other Tartar families, who also quitted the settlements which they enjoyed under the Russian government, and submitted to the Chinese sceptre. The emperor caused the history of these emigrations to he engraven upon stone, in four different languages. — At the usual computation of five persons to a family, here was an exodus, in modern times, of four hundred thousand persons !
See Turkey in Asia of Vint's
Geography, vol. ii. p. 80.
2422. [21.] Though the way of writing and reading used by the Arabs, was from the right to the left, yet the first place or the place of units in their nameration, was that next the right hand; and so came first to be read. It appears therefore, by this remark, that we received this way of expressing numbers from the Arabians; for we keep the same posture or position of places with them, though our pro. gression in writing and reading be the contrary way. And, though we now read them also in the order they are set, twenty-one, twenty-two, thirty-six, forty-eight, &c. yet we retain also the other way of pronouncing, viz. one-andtwenty, two-and-twenty, six-and-thirty, eight-and-forty, &c.
Collectanea Curiosa, vol. iii. p. 217.
2423. (-32, 47.] Instead of Levi, Moses took Manasseh, the son of Joseph, among the heads of tribes; and Ephraim, instead of Joseph.
Joseph. Antiq. b. iji. ch. xii. $ 4.
2425. [Num. ii. 2.). According to express Scriptures, the Talmudists give peculiar ensigns to the respective tribes : Thus, a lion to Judah, Gen. xlix. 9; an ass to Issachar, Gen. xlix. 14; a ship to Zebulun, Gen. xlix. 13: a river to Reuben, Gen. xlix. 4; a sword to Simeon, Gen. xlix. 5; a lion to Gad, Deut. xxxiii. 22 : a unicorn to Ephraim, Deut. xxxiii. 17; an ox to Manasseh, Deut. xxxiii. 17; a' wolf to Benjamin, Gen. xlix. 27 : a serpent to Dan, Gen. xlix. 17; a handful of corn to Asher, Gen. xlix. 20; and a stag to Naphtali, Gen. xlix. 21.
See SCHEUCHZER. In Assyria, each person has a seal ring, and a cane, or walking-stick, on the top of which is carved a pomegranate, a rose, a lily, an eagle, or some figure or other: for to have a stick without a device, is unlawful.
H1 EROD. Clio, cxcv. It seems, says Dr. GREGORY, we have not observed yot how much of the great busisiess of beraldry we have taken
2424. (46.} In the year 1771, all the Tartars under the Russian government on the banks of the Wolga, and the laick, at a small distance from the Caspian Sea, marched in a vast body of fifty thousand families, during eight mouths, in which they suffered ivnunierable difficulties and dangers, to the plains that lie on the frontiers of Carapen, not far from the banks of the river lly, and offered themselves