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2009. [Exod. xv. 1, &c.) St. JEROM (Epist. ad Paulin. $ præf. in chron. Euseb. vid. et comment. Ezek. C. xxx.) tells us, that ihe songs of Moses, the books of Isaiah, Job, and some others, were hexameters and pentameters; that the Psalms were sapį hic, iambic, and alcaic, after the manner of Horace, and Piodar ; that the Lamentations were of the sapphic kind : and in his preface to the book of Job he says, that from the third verse of the third chapter, the verse is mostly hexameter and pentameter, consisting of dactyls and spondees; though, he adds, it is here and there intermixed with some other foot or feet, and that some verses, though still more irregular, do yet preserve such a cadence and larmony, as never fails of pleasing those who are judges of the rules of poetry. But, says he, Moses' song in Deuteronomy, the 1191h Psalın with some others, were written in iambic verse of four feet.
- Certainly however, say the Editors of Universal History (vol. iii. p. 392), the two solemn songs of Moses were of the lyric kind, composed and set to music, sung in an alternate manner, and accompanied with the sound of divers instruments, and with dances suitable to the music.
2012. (Exod. xv. 20. A timbrel] This instrument con sisted of a skin stretched on a ring of metal, which was held in one hand, and beat with the other. On this ring are hung shells, which rattle, as the instrument is whirled round. It is engraved in Plate 14 of Russel's Natural History of Aleppo, p. 94. - Ainong the modern Greeks, the Great Lady still leads the dance; and is followed by a troop of young girls, who imitate ler steps, and if she sings, make up the chorus. The tunes are extremely gay and lively, yet with something in them wonderfully soft. The steps are varied, according to the pleasure of her who leads the dance, but always in exact time; and infinitely more agreeable than any of our dances.
(Lady WORTLEY MONTAGUE's Letters, vol. ii. p. 45.) — During such festive rites, the Brahmius offer sacrifices in the temples and adjoining groves.
FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 295.
2013. (23.] As food entirely failed the Israelites whilst they were at this bitter fountain, it is certain they must either have eaten no flesh, or have wanted flocks and herds.
See No. 2004.
JOSEPHUS says, Moses composed this song in Herameter verse. (Antiq. b. ii. ch. xvi. $ 4.) In Indian heroic or hexameter verse, the first line of each strophe consists of eighteen syllables or feet; the second has always twelve.
BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 369.
2014. [-27.] The grove of Elim yet remains, and its twelve fountains have peither increased mor diminished in number since the days of Moses. (See Bryant on the Plagues of Egypt, pp. 404, 410. - Dr. Shaw.) - In Dr. Shaw's time, those seventy palm-trees had produced, he says, more than two thousand.
See No. 756, 768.
2015. [Exod. xvi. 5. On the sixth day - it shall be twice as much] In the same inander, during the Theocracy, every seventh or sabbatical year, in which there was neither tillage, nor reaping, was abundantly provided for in the miraculous fertility of the preceding sixth year; Lev. xxv. 21, 22.
The sacred text of the four Hindoo Beids is chanted, without regard to the sense, as the length of the vowels is determined alid pointed out by a musical note placed over every word. In the sanie kind of melody, the Jews in their synagogues chant the Pentateuch; and it is supposed that this usage has descended to them from the remotest ages.
The Sauscrit poetry, comprehends
1. The line of twelve or nineteen syllables, scanned by three syllables in a foot : the most approved foot is the Anapæst.
2. The line of eleven syllables. 3. The line of eight syllables.
The stanzas generally consist of four lines ; and the regiilar stanza has eight syllables in each line. The rhyme in this kind of stanza should be alternate; but this may be dispensed with, provided the feet of the verse be accurately kept.' This kind of poetry is generally written by two verses in one line, with a pause between ; the whole assuming the form of a long distich.
The irregular stanza comprises most commonly the line of eleven, and the line of eight syllables, alternately ; resembling the Lyric measure of the English.
The Four Beids are not in verse, but in a kind of measured prose.
Halved's Preface to Gentoo Laus,
pp. 24 - 30.
2016. [- 13.] When the manna first fell, the
people knew not what it was, and thought it snowed. (JosePHUS' Antiq. b. iii. ch. i. $ 6, nole.) — Hence perhaps we should read selag (Hebr.), snow, instead of seluv, quails.
2017. [ - 36.] Au ephah, in English measure, was three pecks, three piuts, and a little more.
Essay, for a New Trans. part ii. p. 38. It is probable that there were various other measures in use (besides the homer, the tenth part of the ephah), although Moses has not inserted in his writings any account of their contents.
See No. 765, 777, 760, 764. Smith's MICHAELIS, 765, 795, 761, 766,
vol. iii. p. 391.
2018. (Exod. xvii. 8.) in passing through this wilderness, it appears that cach tribe of Arabs has iis particular road, to avoid disputes. (See VolNEY's Trav. vul. i. p. 15.) Was this the reason why Amalek here opposed the route of the Israelites?
2022. [Exod. xviii. 6.] The words of Jethro in this verse must have been sent by way of letter, to prepare Nioses for bis reception. Had they becu nitered face to face, Moses could, with no propriety, be said afterwards to go out to meet his father-in-law. Nor could this notice have been delivered by a messenger, saying, “I, Jethro, am coine to thee," &c.
See LIGHTFOOT's Spicilegia in Exod.
2019. 9.] The Israelites might debate, but they could not fight with Amalek, as they came out of Egypt un. armed, or without weapons.
Exod. xiv. 14.
I, thy father-in-law) For ani (Hebr.), I; read hinnch, Behold : according to the Septuagint, the Syriac, and several Samaritan MSS. (KENNICOTT's Re. marks.) — 'This renders the passage consistent. A Messenger might say, " Behold ;” bat Jethro could not yet say, l”, as Moses had not yet come out to meet him.
Dr. A. CLARKE in loco. Dr. A. CLARKE has rendered it pruhable, that the fact here related of Jethro's coming to Moses, did not take place till the beginning of the 2d year of the Exodus.
See also Num. s. II.
2020. (11. When Moses held up his hand] With the rod of God in it as a signal. See o. 9.
This holding up of the hand may be considered as the first nataral ensign of military direction. The Romaus, it is well known, in after ages alluding to this primitive mode of giving command, terminated the tops of their standards in the figure of a wide-spread hand. If we attend to the import of the word hand in the sixteenth verse of this Chapter, in 1 Sam. xv. 12, and in 2 Sam. xviii. 18, we shall perceive, that military trophies, if not ensigns, had a similar figure among the antient Israelites. As these trophies were unquestionably constructed of durable materials, they were, in all probability, stone pillars, appearing at a distance like an elevated arm and hand.
The word ces (Hebr.) rendered, in the margin, throne, is probably an erroneous reading for nes. This being corrected, join the yod to nes and the he to melcheme ; and you will read, consistently with nesi in the preceding verse, nesi emelchemi, the banners of war.
See HOUBIGANT's Bihlia Hebraica. Large slones, in form of columns, set erect, but quite rude, are frequent in North Wales, where they are called men-pillars: they are frequent in Cornwall, and are also found in other parts of England. Their use is of great antiquity as memorials of the dead, as monuments of friendship, as marks to distinguish places of worship, or of solemn assemblies. The northern nations erected them to perpetuate the memory of great actions, particularly in Denmark and Scotland.
Exod. xix. 18. PINKERTON's Coll. part. x. p. 261.
-21.) Whatever matter the decarchs could not decide upou, or terininate, went to the pentecontarchs, and from thence by degrees to the hecatontarchs, to the chiliarchs, to Moses, and at length to God Himself. Each magistrate had the care or inspection of only ten men : the decarch superiutended ten private characters; the hecatontarch ten decarchs ; and the chiliarch ten hecatontarchs.
See SCHEUCHZer; and Dr. A. CLARKE,
on Num. ii. 2. In Egypt, the Bedouin Arabs are distributed into little companies, each with a chief, whom they call schech : they dwell always under tents, and each platoon forms a little camp.
Norden's Trav, in Egypt, p. 96.
It is likely that Moses held up the rod of God in his band, der. 9, as an ensign to the people.
Dr. A. Clarke in loco. Verse 14 Rehearse it] This writing probably, was to be alphabetical, as hieroglyphic symbols conveyed sense rather than sounds. See No. 768.
See on Gen. ii. 19.
which often descend from father to son, withont always keeping one regular course, but attacking sometimes one, and, sometimes another of the progeny. We could never, he continues, discover any constant rule, as to the age at which this disease might be expected to shew itself in the children of infected parents, at least, in regard to males. In regard to females however, he adds, as far as our access to observation has extended, we have remarked, that it commences with the accession of the catamenia, but makes no considerable progress, until they have been once or twice in child-bed ; after which its more striking and formidable symptoms make their appearance.
See on Lev. xiji. 2.
2026. (Exod. xix. 11, &c ] On the suminit of Pen-mainmauer, in Caernarvonshire, Wales, there appears to have been one of the druid's consecrated high-places of worship. There, as on this mount of God, is, first, an outward line of holy separatiou, by which the whole mount is consecrated. Next, there is a double and more sacred separation, by which the top of the mount, the Bre-y-Tinas the loount of the Holy Fire, or the representative presence, is made secret and sacred ; into this the arch-druid, or high-priests alone could enter. The space between the outward and inward, or more sacred, line of separation was the Pronaos, in which all the secondary rites of religion, and all those duties wherein religion mixed with the civil, were performed : such as the ordinary sacrifices, the consecration of the children, the judgments, the teachings and disming, and lastly the burials. Hence it is, that in this space were found cromlechs, cistvaens, judgment-seats, holy basins, rocking-stones, and circular chapels. I do not mean, says the writer of this account, Governor PowNAL!, to be understood as supposing that all these several particulars are to be found within this space, ou this Holy Mount, now the subject of my enquiry; but in this, and in that of Carn-bre (in Cornwall), I may venture to say all may be enumerated. (Archæologia, vol. iji, p. 352.)
- Were these designed to be visible representations of the three distinct spiritual strata, supposed to rise circuitously, like Saturn's Belts, above our terrestrial ball, forining distinct apartments in the intermediate state or World of Spirits”, answering severally to the three superior Heavens, which spherically encompass the throne of God ? See John xiv. 2,3. and 2 Cor. xii. 2, 3.
2029. [Exod. xx. 7.] Thou shalt not profane the name of the LORD thy God. See No. 789. SwedeyBORG, on Divine Pvovidence,
2027. [ 15.] The Israelites left Egypt on the 15th of Abib or Nisan; they came to Sinai on the third day of the third month, and received the decalogue two days after their arrival at the mount. Hence the feast of Pentecost.
See No. 772, 773, 776, 778.
2030. (13. Thou shalt not kill] Among all the mysteries and anomalies in the moral world, which at different times have led presumptuous man to question the benevolence, and distrust the dispensations of Providence, there is noue which so totally baffles oonjecture as the system of carnage and war. That nation shall confederate against nation, to soothe and gratify the distemper of a solitary madman ; that the happiness of empires should be dependent, as it has been, upon the smiles and frowns of a capricious harlot, or the sordid treachery of an ambitious Minister: That the great mass of mankind, the reputed pride of the universe, the noininal Lords of Creation, should themselves be as toys and playthings, to be broken and destroyed by the mischievous hands of an ideot, or an infant ;-that all this should happen, day after day, and year after year; that it should happen too, unheeded and unresented by the sufferers, appears, to the view of a superficial observer, as the act of some overruling necessity, unpropitious to the interests of man.
Yet let not man impiously iuveigh against the order of the universe, but rather search for the cause of this evil in his own persevering indifference to the means of good : rather let hiin consider the calainities of war as a just punishment for his voluntary acquiescence in it, as a merited return for his own share of a conspiracy against his own happiness.
2028. [Exod. xx. 5.] This, says MICHAELIS (by Smith, , p. 267), being spoken of the Divine judgments on idolatry, is unquestionably to be understood in reference to leprosy, with which God is wont to threaten his people, if they transgress his commandments. Whatever may be thought of the bereditary nature of leprosy, this, says M. P’eyssonel, inay be depended ou as a fact. We have seen (at Guadaloupe) whole families that were infected ; and almost every child of a leprous father or mother, btcoines generally leprous in its tarn : aud yet in various other families we have seen some of the children sound, and others leprous, whose father died of leprosy, and they themselves were old before they took it. Hence, he remarks, although it certainly is hereditary, we are nevertheless of opinion, that its procedure, in this respect, is the same as what is observed in asthma, stone, and other hereditary diseases, with which families are afflicted, and
In Persia, it is not allowed even the sovereign to put any one to death for a single offence.
HERODOTUS, Clio, n. 137.
The death of a bee most assuredly never tended to preserve the prosperity of the hive. Much less still can the calamity and death of a man be of advantage to his Nation, and to Mankind; as the perfect happiness of every
civil and religious society must necessarily consist in a complete harmony between its members.
St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
vol. iii. p. 197.
2033. [Exod. xx. 17.] In the time of Moses, and down to the reign of Solomon, the horse was not in use among the Israelites, who for the purpose of labor and carriage employed the ass, the mule, the camel, and above all, the ox, particularly that species called the buffalo, which is common in Asia, and goes faster than the other kinds.
Smith's MICHAELIS, vol.ii. p. 393.
2038. [Exod. xxi. 4.) It is appointed by Law in America, says KALM, that in case you have not only male but likewise female negroes, they must intermarry, and then the children are all your slaves; but if you possess a male negro only, and he has an inclination to marry a female belonging to a different master, you do not hiuder your negro in so delicate a point; but it is no advantage to you, for the children belong to the master of the female. - The children which a freed negro had begot during his servitude, are all slaves, though their father be free. See No. 445.
Sec Pinkerton's Coll. part liji.
pp. 501, 502.
2034. [ 24.] In a charter attributed to Withred king of Kent, and granted to the abbess Eabba, are these words: Ad cujus cumulum et affirmationis cespitem hujus superadictæ terræ super sanctum altare posui, et propria manu pro ignorantia literarum signum sanctæ Crusis in hac cartulâ expressi.
See SPELMAN, pp. 192, 198.
In some Prussian families you find domestics zealous, affectionate, respectful, and attached to their masters, who are born, marry and die in the house of the master; and you frequently find under the same roof a succession of fathers and sons, who have been masters and ser. vants for two or three centuries successively.
Advertisement to Studies of
Nat. p. 23.
2035. [-25.] This prohibition was undoubtedly designed, among other reasons, to prevent the appearance of those sculptured figures of animals, &c. which were invariably cut upon the altars erected for idolatrous worship. — In the island of Rheuia, which borders upon Delos so famed for idolatry, “M. TOURNEFORT says, be counted above a hundred and twenty altars ; most of which were cylindrical, three feet six inches high, and near three feet in diameter, adorned with festoons, and the heads of rams or oxen.”
See No. 303, 785, 780, 784, 786, 789, 791, Smith. 792, 797, 809, 816, 801, 126, 798, 811, 96, 830, 136, 140,836, 841,779, 843, 771, 949,
Ainong the American Creeks and Simipoles, all slaves bave their freedom when they marry, which is permitted and encouraged: they and their offspring thence, are every way on an equality with their conquerors.
BARTRAM's Trav. p. 211.
Among the Romans, creditors had a right to imprison their debtors in their own houses, and to make them slaves. These were called nori and not servi, because their slavery lasted no longer than till their debts were paid.
Univer. Hist. vol. xi.p. 274.
2036. [Exod, xxi. 2.) There are servants of seven sorts; one made captive under a standard or in battle, one maintained in consideration of service, one born of a female slave in the house, one sold, or given, or inherited from ancestors, and one enslaved by way of punishment on his inability to pay a large fine.
Laws of Menu, p.415. – Works of
Sir W. Jones, vol.iii. p. 333.
2042. [-6.] An iron-ring in the ear, was the mark of slavery.
See Modern Univer. llist.
vol. iv. p. 115.
2037. [2–6.) If any one he sold to one of his own nation, let him serve six years, and on the seventh go free : But if he have a son hy a woman-servant, in his purchaser's house, and if on account of his good-will to his master, and his natural affection to his wife and children, he will be his servant still, let him be free only at the coming of the year of Jubilee, which is the fiftieth year; and let him then take away with him his children and wife, and let them be free also.
JOSEPH. Antiq. b. iv. ch. viii. § 28.
2043. [- - 18.] Some American Indians that inbabit the country bordering on the South Sea, in attacking their enemies on horseback, encuniber themselves with no other weapon, than a stone of a middling size, curiously wrought, which they fasten by a string, about a yard and a half long, to their right arms, a little above the elbow. These stones they conveniently carry in their hands, till they reach their enemies, and then swinging them with great dexterity, as they ride full speed, never faii of doing execution.
CARVER'S Trad. in N. America, 2014. (Exod. xxi. 18.] A curiously cut stone (which appears to have been formed for boxing with), was found 14 feet under ground, about 50 yards from the side of a large river, three miles from the sea, in the island of Dominica, in the year 1800.
The period of time necessary for 14 feet of solid earth to be accumulated over this stone, must have heen very long, as it did not appear probable that it had been buried there. — The fine polished figure into which the stone had been cut, was (probably) the workmanship of the Charaibes or aborigines of these islands, before Europeans had visited them, or the use of iron-tools were known there.
Archæologia, vol. xv. p. 406.
sequently, obliged to use a degree of diligence adequate to the charge : Dow sheep can hardly be stolen in the day-time without some neglect of the shepberd; and we find that, when Jacob, who was, for a long time at least, a bailee of a different sort, us he had a reward, lost any of the beasts eutrusted to his care, LABAN made him answer for them whether stolen by day or stolen by night."
Works of Sir W. Jones,
vol. vi. p. 623.
2045. [-26, 27.] In return for these injuries, the slave received his freedom ; but no further punishment was inflicted on the master.
2051. [Exod. xxii. 13.] When a cow-herd has led cattle to any distant place to feed, if any die of some distemper, not. withstanding the cow-herd applied the proper remedy, he shall carry the head, the tail, the forefoot, or some such convincing proof, taken from that animal's body, to the owner of the cattle; having done this, be shall be no further auswerable: if he neglect to act thus, he shall make good the loss.
Halled's Gentoo Laws, p. 150.
2046. [Exod. xxii. I, &c.] A man is better than a beast, as his spirit is created into a permanent form ; whilst that of a beast is nut fixed into a permanent form, but is merely inAuxive, like the spirit of life within a human soul. ·
2052. (14, 15.] That is, when a borrowed beast of burden had received any hurt, or come by its death ; in case it had been lent for hire, its owner was to bear the loss : but if lent gratis from good will, it was to be paid for by the person using it ; unless the owner happened to be present, and of course a witness bimself, that the borrower was, by no imprudence, accessory to the misfortune.
Smith's MICHAELIS, vol. ii.
2047. (-5.] In the vineyards about Smyrna, we remarked, says CHANDLER, that the leaves were decayed, or stripped by the camels and herds of goats, which are admitted to browze there, after the vintage.
Trav. in Asia Minor, p. 142.
2048. [-6. The stacks of corn] Rather the shocks, as the heaps of the East consist only of such shocks disposed into a form proper for being immediately trodden out.
See HARMER, vol. iv. p. 145. The latter end of July being the season for consuming the dry herbage and undergrowth on the mountains, we then often saw, says CHANDLER, the fire blazing in the wind, and spreading a thick smoke along their sides.
Here it is by no means certain, that the original word signifies the owner, for it may signify the possessor, and the law may import, that the borrower vught not to lose sight, when he can possibly avoid it, of the thing borrowed ; but, if it was intended, that the borrower should always answer for casualties, except in the case, which must rarely happen, of the owner's presence, this exception seems to prove, that no casualties were meant, but such as extraordinary care might have prevented; for I cannot see, says Sir W. JONES, what difference could be made by the presence of the owner, if the force, productive of the injury, were wholly irresistible, or the accident inevitable.
See his Works, vol. vi. p. 647.
2049. [-9.] If a man, having found any thing that was lost, either a stranger's property or his own, should neglect to inform the magistrate, he shall receive the same punishinent as a thief.
Halaed's Gentoo Laws, p. 257.
2054. (18.] There shall not be an enchanter (among you, Deut. xviii. 10 – 14).
See Smith's MICHAELIN, vol. iv. p. 91.
2050. [- 12.] If it be stolen from him — by day, I presume. When cattle are delivered to be kept, the bailee is rather a mandatary than a depositary, aud is, con
What is here rendered wilch, JOSEPHUS understood to mean a poisoner, who, he says, ought to "suffer the very same mischief that he would have brought on them for whom the poison was prepared.”
Antig. b. iv. ch. viii. $ 34.