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1917. (Gen. xlviii. 2.] A sofa in the East, consists of boards raised from the ground, above five feet broad, and one and a half high, reaching sonetimes quite round the room, sometimes only in a part of it; on which there are mattresses covered with silk or stuff to sit on, and cushions placed against the wall to lean oa: they serve for beds at night.

De la MOTRAYE, vol. i. p. 78.

1924. [- -10. The threshing-floor of Atad] In the way to Ephrath: the same is Bethlehem, ch. xlviii. 7. This threshing-floor, this house of bread, is situated on the declivity of a hill, about six miles from Jerusalem.

See No. 640, 642, 648, 645, See Dr. A. CLARKE, 650, 645, 647, 649.

on Matt. ii. 1.

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1929. [Exod. ii. 22.] Adopted sons shall not devise the property acquired by adoption : but, if they leave legitimate sons, they themselves may return to their natural family. If they do not return, the estates shall go to the heirs of the persons who adopted them.

Laws of Athens, as stated by
Sir WILLIAM JONES.

1925. [Exod. i, 13, 14.] The Egyptians constrained the Hebrews to cut a great number of channels for the Nile, and to build walls for their cities, and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating, upon its rapning over its own banks: They set them also to build pyramids, and by all this wore thein out; and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanical arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor.

JOSEPH. Antiq. b. ii. ch. ix. § 1.

1930. - The Gershon, mentioned Num. iii. 17 in the generations of Aaron and Moses, was not the same with this Gershom, but a son of Levi, the great Patriarch from whom Moses and Aaron were lineally descended, Gen. xlvi. 11. So that the generations of a man include frequently his progenitors as well as his descendants.

1926.

The greater part, or rather almost all the pagodas on the coast of Coromandel, are built of large square stones, so arranged and convected that they form a pyramid.

BARTOLOMEO, by Joknston, p. 379.

1931. [-25.] The Arabic, Chaldee, Coptic, Septragint, and Vulgale, countenance the reading of alihem, (Hebr.), on them ; instead of Elohim, GOD. And God looked on the Israelites, and approved them.

See 659, 658, 662, 665, 671, 666.

1927.

Indian temples, their external inclosure excepted, are built in general either in a conical and pyramidal form, or cylindric and round; to represent Fire, the oldest of all the gods of the Indians, the Egyptians, the Phenicians, and the Persians. But, as the Brahmins divide themselves into two different sects, one of which worships fire, and the other water, as the principal deity; there are also two different kinds of temples.

See No. 653, 651, See SONNERAT, vol. ii. chap. 4. 657, 654, 656.

1932. [Exod. iii. 1.] The country of Midian, a part of Arabia Petræa, lay south-eastward of the lake Asphaltis, or the Dead Sea. Ou the north it was bounded by Moab; on the east, by land uncertain ; ou the south, by the Red Sea; and on the west, by Edom or Idumæa.

Univer. Ilist, vol. ii. p. 110.

1933.

After crossing two plajus from Huleh which is a populous city on the banks of the Euphrates, you come to the tomb of Jetbro, where there is a Mivareh wbose top will shake, apparently at the word of command, — most probably, after the manner of the Druidical rocking stones.

Gladwin's Khojeh Abdulkerrcem,

p. 123, &c.

1928. [Exod. ii. 5.) Thermuthis was the king's daughter.

JOSEPHUS, Antiq. b. ii. ch. ix. 2.

1934. [Exod. iii. 8.] Providence has in America deposited milk and butter in the nuts of the cocoa-tree, and perfuined creams in the apples of the atte.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iji. p. 172.

1939. [Exod. iv. 26.) Had circumcision been practised, as some suppose, in Jethro's family, or among his people the Midianites, it is not likely that Zipporah, on that account, would have left her husband till he returned from Egypt, when, it appears, Jethro and his family were converted to the worship of the One living and true God.

See Exod. xviii.

1935. [

-22. Shall re-demand] In those days, when a person became a slave, he was stripped of all his ornaments and even clothing. Nothing was left him but a simple girdle, for his ordinary attire at labor. When however he went to worship, or had recovered his freedom, he was allowed to appear in full dress. — Moses, though he had planned the deliverance of the Israelites, only asked leave to worship. The women, in consequence, asked and obtained their dresses and oruaments. See No. 678, 679, 683.

See 1 Sam. XXX. 22.

1940. [Exod. v. 1.] The word chag (Hebr.) denotes dancing in circles. All nations had this service, and it was so annexed to every feast, that it is in the Scriptures frequently used for the whole service of a feast ; see Deut. xvi. 16.By this name the Arabians called their bracelets, ear-rings, &c. (ornaments probably indispensable in this kind of dance).

Whilst moving in circles, each dancer turned round, like the celestial orbs, by a motion that was at ouce circular and progressive. (See HUTCHINSON's Principia, part ii. p. 256. And his Sine Principio, Introduc. p. ccxliv). — How strikingly does this prove, that the religious in the earliest ages, probably from revelation, knew the true motiou of the planels !

1936. [Exod. iv. 22.] Israel was first-born of the eldest line. The First-born of the eldest of his son Judah's line, was the Patriarch ; and the First-born of the eldest of Joseph's line, we suppose, had (as Priest) the chief right of sacrificing. — Eating the typical Passover, and drinking a cup of the blood of the grape, disabled the destroyer (the Antichrist in hades) from touching the First-born of the Israelites. But if the First-born of Israel had not offered this sacrifice, eaten, &c. without doubt they would have been destroyed. Whilst the defect of sprinkling that blood and eating that (sacramental) flesh, &c. suffered the destroyer (from hades) to slay all the first-born of Egypt, who had a right to offer; through faith Moses kept the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the first-born should touch them, Heb. xi. 23.

HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason

recovered, pp. 308, 309.

1941. [-3.) All along the ooasts of the Persian gulph, a very dangerous wild prevails, which the natives call the Sameyel, still more dreadful and burning than that of Egypt, and attended with instant and fatal effects. This terrible blast, which was, perhaps, the pestilence of the Antients, instantly kills all those that it involves in its passage. What its malignity consists in, none can tell, as none have ever survived its effects, to give information. It frequently, as I am told, assumes a visible form ; and darts, in a kiud of bluish vapor, along the surface of the country.

GOLDSMITH's Hist. of the Earth, fc.

vol. i. p. 358.

1937. (-25.] Before the Europeans, under the direction of Columbus, went to the West Indies, the savage Indians used, we

are told, instead of kuives, sharp pieces of fint or quartz, any hard kind of stone, a sharp shell, or a piece of bone sharpened.

1942. [-6. Oficers) These Schoterim, or scribes, must have been officers who kept the genealogical tables of the Israelites, with a faithful record of births, marriages, and deaths; and, as they kept the rolls of families, they had, moreover, the duty of apportioniug the public burdens and services on the people individually.

Michaelis.

1938.

A bloody husband] Chaton (Hebr.) signifies, not a husband, but a son-in-law. A person thus related is a son initiated into a family by alliauce or adoptioi. It is in this view of initiation, that Zipporah says to her son, a bloody chaton art thou to me ; that is, I have initiated thee into the church by the bloody rite of circumcision.

See the learned Joseph Mede,

Diss. xiv. p. 62.

1943. [7.]. Of these bricks, made of clay and straw, and dried in the sun, the remains are to be seen to this day in a Pyramid at Sacchara, which was built of them. (Linneus's HASSELQUIST, p. 100.) — The Egyptians are said to have used straw in the composition of their bricks, but in a sun-dried brick brought from Babylon, there is no appearauce of any thing of the kind.

Archæologia, vol, xiv. p. 58.

P

1944. [ Exod. v. 7.] A sun-dried brick of this description brought from the site of antient Babylon, may now be seen in the British Museum. It is of a friable nature, intermixed with pieces of broken reeds. Such bricks are every where found, in the dry and hot climates of the East. — The Egyptian pyramid of unburnt brick seems to be made of the earth brought by the Nile, being a sandy black earth, with some pebbles and shells in it: it is mixed up with chopped straw, in order to bind the clay together. (Pococke's Observations on Egypt, p. 53.) – The Chinese have great occasion for straw in making bricks, as they put this layers of straw between them, without which they would, as they dried, run or adhere together.

MACARTNEY's Emb. p. 269. Four miles to the sonth of Saccara stands a pyramid built of unburnt bricks. This is in a very mouldering state. The bricks contain shells, gravel, and chopped straw: they are of the saine nature as the unburnt bricks in modern use

1948. (Exod. vi. 3 ] If the naine Jehovah were the common appellation of the God of the Patriarchs, Moses's question, Exod. iii. 15, was needless, was impertinent : for God had before told him, v. 6, that He was “the God of his (Moses's) fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” It is clear then that Moses, by asking what was the name of this same God of his fathers, knew not that he had any particular name; and that particular name Jehovah is now for the first time made known as the PECULIAR God of the Israelitish nation. - It is granted, thal the name Jehovah, once become the peculiar name of the God of the Hebrews, is indeed, by the writer of Genesis, often substituted for the more antient and more general name Elohim, or Shad dai, even in addresses to the Deity, or in relations concerning Him. But who scrnples in this way, to say proleptically that the excellent Prelections on Hebrew Poesy were written by Bishop Lowth; although we know he was no bishop when he composed that work? Or that Pope Benedict XIV was the author of a celebraled work De Canonisatione Sanctorum; although he was only Cardinal Lambertini, when he wrote it?

See Dr. Geddes' Critical Remarks,

pp. 175 — 179. In the four grand Revelations which have been successively made of God in Paradise, to Noah after the flood, to the Hebrews, and to Christians, - His first name is Elohim; His second, Shaddai or Adonai (the Beautiful, in allusion to the rain-how around Him in the cloud Gen is. 13); His third, Jehovah ; and His fourth, Jesus the Christ, who also is represented as encompassed with a rain-bow of glory, Reo. iv. 3.

See No. 681.

in Egypt.

Dr. Edward Daniel CLARKE.

1945. (12.) Kalm, in his observations on the maize-fields near Philadelphia, appears to have clearly pointed out the distinction bere referred to, between stubble and straw. The stalks of maize, he says, were in some fields cut a little below the ear, dried, and put up in narrow stacks in order to keep them as a fond, or straw, for the cattle in winter. The lower part of the stalk, the stubble, had likewise leaves; but as these, whilst drying on the stalks in the open air, lose nearly all their virtue and flavor, the people, he adds, do not like to feed the cattle with them.

This was undoubtedly, the kind of stubble gathered by the Israelites. The straw of rice is said to be excellent food for cattle ; and in general they eat it very greedily.

See his Trav. in Pinkerton's Coll.

part liii. pp. 428, 466.

1946. 1 14. Were bastinadoed] This mode of punishment is still continued in Egypt. The person bastinadocd, lying on his belly with his legs turned up erect, receives on the soles of his feet a certain number of blows, by which he is generally crippled for some weeks, and often lamed through the remainder of his life.

Dr. A. CLARKE.

1949.

The land of Egypt] What we call Cairo in Egypt, does not in that country bear the name of El-Kahira, given it by its founder: the Arabs know it only by that of Masr ; which has no known signification, but which seems to have been the antient Eastern name of the Lower Egypt. It is observable that this name Masr has the same consonants with that of Misr-im, used by the Hebrews; which, on account of its plural form, seems properly to denote the inhabitants of the Delta; while those of the Thebais are called Beni Kous, children of Kous (or Cush). Volner's Trav. vol. i.

P.

233. And Spaw's Trav. p. 340, folio edit, note. N. B. The town to the south of Cairo, called Mizr-el. Attik or Old Mizr, is doubtless the Mizr of Holy Writ.

1947. [

-18.) As the Egyptian bricks for natural *buildings consisted of clay and straw worked well together ; so the materials of doctrine for the edification of the Church should consist of faith and charity thoroughly intermixed : But Pharaoh withheld straw; and charity, the stem of good works, is never supplied by antinomianism.

1950. [Exod. vii. 11.] The most extraordinary performance of the Indian jugglers, says TAVERNIER, consists of planting in the earth, in the view of the spectators, a branch

of the mango, and (apparently) making it to grow and bear both blossoms and fruit. Num. xvii. 8. Wisdoin xvii. 7. See Breton's China, Ste No. 306, 687 — 691.

vol. iii. p. 119.

1951. (Exod. vii. 3, 13.] “ It is plain, that the words ought to have been translated, that God suffered the heart of Pharaoh to be hardened, as all those who are never so little versed in the Hebrew will readily own.

Univer. Hist. b. i. 7. 2.

ened on the fourth, commenced on the fifth aud continued till the seventh. Ibid. ix. 18 — 32.

8. The locusts, threatened on the seventh, appeared on the eighth, and were removed on tbe ninth. Ibid. x. 4 – 19.

9. The three days' darkness commenced on the 10th, which was on a Thursday this year, answering to the thirtieth of our April. lbid. xii. 3 — 21.

10. The first-born, the priests, were smitten on the 14th, answering to our Monday, May 4th, in the evening.

See Usher's Annals, p. 14. At the ending of this 14th day was celebrated the feast of the passover and sweet-bread.

See No. 685, 690, 692, Univer. Hist.vol. ii. p. 521. 697, 699, 695,700, 698, 693, 694.

1952. - The same sun dries and condenses some things, and melts and dissolves others. The power is not changed ; but the effect is diversified, from the temper and disposition of the receiver. Exod. iv. 21.

Bp. CHANDLER.

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1953.

In all chemical processes, where aerial or Quid bodies become consolidated, a part of the heat, which was before latent, becomes pressed out from the uniting particles; as in the instant that water freezes, or that water unites with quick Jime. On the reverse, when solid bodies become fluid, or Auid ones become aerial, heat is absorbed by the solution, whence it inay be said in popular language, that all chemical combinations produce heat, and all chemical solutions produce cold.

Darwin's Phytologia, sect. xiii. 2. 4.

1957. [21.] The air, we are well assured, is re. plenished with a vast variety of flying insects that are invisible to the naked eye. If a small quantity of meal, or chaff, be infused in water and set in an open place, a thousand such little animals will be attracted, and there deposit their eggs.

Nature Delineated, col.iii.p. 3.32.

1954.

Jeliovah hardened the beart of Pharaoh, by taking of plagues which had bumbled him, softened his heart, &c.

HUTCHINSON's Trinity of the

Gentiles, p. 186.

THE PLAGUES OF EGYPT.

1955.

The waters were turned into blood, and continued su for seven days; i. e. from the eighteenth to the 24th inclusive, of the sixth month altered to the twelfth in the year following. Exod. vii. 25.

2. The plague of frogs began on the 25th and ended on the 26th of the said month. Ibid. viii. 10.

3. The plague of lice [ticks] began and ended on the 27th. Ibid. viii. 17.

4. The flies appeared on the 29th, and disappeared, on the 30th. Ibid. viii. 24, 29.

6. The murrain of cattle, threatened on the 1st of Abib, coinmenced and ended on the 2d of that month. Ibid. ix. 3, 5, 6.

6. The boils appeared on the third. Ibid. ix. 8, &c. 7. The thunder, rain, and hail mixed with fire, threat

1958. [-22.) Under the Divine Government, what may be called the Egyptian fiy appears to have been made occasionally an instrument of corrective punishment to man, in dispersing or even banishing into distant parts bis fucks and herds. —- This insect, the pest of all the countries from the mountains of Abyssinia northward, to the confluence of the Nile, has not been described by any naturalist. It is in size, very little larger than a bee, of a thicker proportion, and its wings wbich are broader than those of a bee, placed separate like those of a fiy; they are of pure gauze, without color or spot on them'; the head is large, the upper jaw or lip is sharp, and has at the end of it a strong-pointed bair, of about a quarter of an inch long; the lower jaw has two of these pointed hairs; and tliis pencil of hairs, when joined together, makes a resistance to the finger, nearly equal to that of a strong bog's bristle. Its legs are serrated in the inside, and the whole covered with brown hair or down. As soon as this plague appears, and its jarring lamming buz is hearil, all the cattle, even the camel, the elephant and rhinoceros, forsake their food, roll themselves in mud and mire, or run wildly about the plain till they die, worn out with fatigue, fright, and hunger. No reinedy remains but to leave the black earth, and hasten down to the sands of Athara ; and there they remain while the rains last, this crucl enemy never daring to pursue them further. It is well known that the land of Goshen or Geshen, the possession of the Israelites,

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