We see clearly, then, that the Brahmins, Sir W. Jones, vol. iv. p. 528.) It was situated on the united issuing from a country where this language (the Sanscrit) stream of the Tigris and Euphrates; Ezek. xxvii. 23. was in use, and where these (sacred) books had been committed to writing, brought them along with them to India. A people among whom we find a rich and copious language 172. (Gen. ii. 8.] Ptolemy describes an Addan or Eden, confined to a few individuals; a language in which are depo- probably the same as that of Moses, as lying on the borders sited the treasures of philosophy and science; a stranger to of the Euphrates. Cartwright informs us that, about twelve this language is not the anthor of the riches it contains: they miles above Mausel, there is an island in the Tigris, still have preserved them, but they also received them.

called Eden. The Brahmins, in whose hands that antient philosophy

See the Preacher's Trar. pp. 91, 95. was deposited, communicated it to us, and laid the foundation of all the kuowledge we possess. Ibid. vol. i. pp. 101, 102, 103. 173. (Gen. ii. 14.] This river, now called Tigris, which

skirts the western borders of Assyria, Rauwolf assures

was, in his time, by the inhabitants still called

Hiddekel. 169. (Gen. v. 1.) At the foot of Mount Caucasus, the

See his Travels, part ii. chap. 9. supposed birth-place of Adam, the present inhabitants, termed Mamelukes or military slaves, by the Crusaders in the thirteenth century, are distinguished (like Jesus Christ,

174. (Gen. ii. 10.) According to THEVENOT ( Trav. part the Son of Mun) by the flaxen color of their hair. Intro

ii. chap. 9.) there is a river called Shat-al-Arab (the river duced into Egypt in 1227, they formed in the year 1230 a

of the Arabs) which, five leagues below Bassora, passing body of the handsomest and best soldiers in Asia, to the

out of Eden, divides into four heads or different branches, number of at least twelve thousand, who in 1250 deposed,

constituting the four rivers of Paradise that empty themselves and eventually slew, the last Turkman prince; substituting one

ultimately into the Persian Gulph, about eighteen leagues of their own chiefs, with the title of Sultan. If their estab

below where the Shat throws out its two upper branches, the lishment in that country was thus a singular event, their

Euphrates and Hiddekel. The lower western branch of continuation there is no less extraordinary. “During the five hundred and fifty years that there have been Mamelukes

the Shat encompassing Havilah, is the Pison; and the

eastern branch, encompassing the country of Cush, or Khuin Egypt, not one of them has left a subsisting issue; there

zestan as the Persians now call it, is the Gihon of Moses. does not exist one single family of them in the second gene

This view of Eden and the rivers of Paradise, first pointed ration ; all their children perish in the first or second descent.

out by Calvin, and followed by Stephanus, Morinus, Almost the same thing happens to the Turks ; and it is observed that they can only secure the continuance of their

Bochart, Huet and others, appears to be sanctioned by the

following Scriptures. Ezekiel (xxvii. 23) says, Haran and families, by marrying women who are natives, which the Mamelukes have always disdained. Let the naturalist explain be Calneh, or Calyo, which is supposed to be Ctesiphon, or

Canneh, and Eden were thy merchants. Now if Canneh why men, well formed, and married to healthy women, are unable to naturalize on the banks of the Nile, a race born at

Medain, the seat of the Parthian race of the Persian kings; the foot of Monnt Caucasus ! and let it be remembered, at

then Eden must have been south of that city, as the places the same time, that the plants of Europe in that country, are

seem to be mentioned in their due order from north to south.

The same order is also observable in Isai. xxxvii. 12, and in equally unable to continue their species !"


2 Kings xix. 12, where mention is made of Gozan, Haran, Rezeph, and the children of Eden that were in Telassar.

See Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 113, 170. (Gen. v. 3.) HIPPOCRATES (lib. de Acre, Locis 8 Aquis) asserts, that among the Scythians (Sethites, or Ma

175. [Gen i. 15.] The earthly paradise lay between the melukes), all the individuals resemble each other, though they point where the Tigris and the Euphrates join, and the other are like no other nation. He adds, that in the country inhabited point where they separate, in order to discharge themselves, by this extraordinary race of men, the climate, seasons, ele

one eastward the other westward, into the Persian Gulph, Inents, and soil, possess a uniformity no where else to be found.

over against the isle of pearls. The gold of Arabia, the pearls of Katif, the names of the rivers, those of the nations

that have inhabited their banks since that time, and many 171. It is observable that Aden, in the Eastern

other characteristics mentioned by Moses, fix our mental dialects, is precisely the same word with Eden, which we apply

views, and assist us in thus finding again that River which to the garden of paradise : it has two senses, according to a

ran through the seat of bliss, and help us to discover the slight difference in its pronunciation; its first meaning is, a

four channels, which running from thence went by four difsettled abode, its second, delight, softness, or tranquillity :

ferent names. the word Eden, had probably, one of these senses in the Sa

Nat. Delin. vol. vi. p.52. cred Text, though we use it as a proper name. (Works of


same manner

179. [Gen. ii. 9.] During fine weather in Karamania THE TREE OF LIFE, AND THE TREE OF KNOWLEDGE OF on the south coast of Asia-Minor (and in that climate three

fourths of the year are fine), the men live under the shade

of a tree. A mountain stream, near which they always chuse 176. (Gen. ii. 9.) And oui of the ground made the this umbrageous abode, serves for their ablutions and their LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, beverage ; and the rich clusters of grapes, which hang from and good for food : the tree of life also in the midst of every branch of the tree, invite them to the ready repast. the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. The vines are not cultivated in this part of Asia in the The Antients had sacred groves, which

as in the wine countries, where each plant is they made use of for temples; and some one tree in the centre every year pruned down to the bare stalk : they are here of each such grove was usually had in more eminent and trained up to some tall tree, frequently a palm, or an apricot; special veneration, being made the penetrale or more sacred the tendrils reach the loftiest as well as the lowest branches, place, which doubtless they intended as the anti-symbol of and the tree thus seems to be loaded with a double crop of the tree of life and of the knowledge of good and evil in the fruit. Nothing can present a more delightful appearance midst of the garden of Eden.

than the intimately blended greens and the two species of HOLWELL’s Orientals, vol. i. p. 16.-See also Isai. Ixvi. 17. fruit, luxuriantly mingled. How alluring to the parched and

weary traveller in these sun-burned regions ! and in none

perhaps will he meet with a more hearty welcome. See Micah 177. [Gen. iii. 8.] The Banian, or Indian fig-tree, is iv. 4. Gen. xviii. 8. continually increasing in dimensions; as every branch from BEAUFORT's Karamania.-Monthly Mag. vol. xliii. p. 579. the main body throws out its own roots, at first in small tender fibres, several yards from the ground; which by a gradual descent, reach its surface; where striking in, they increase to a large trupk, and become a parent tree, throw

180. ing out new branches from the top. These in time suspend preparation, was sufficient to be instituted a corporeal Sa

The simple fruit of a tree, without any their roots, and, receiving nourishment from the earth, swell into truuks, aud shoot forth other branches ; thus continuing conveyed by eating it, and give life, immortality, &c., to

crament of that spiritual food (from heaven) which would be in a state of progression so long as the first parent of them

innocent man. all supplies her sustenance.

See HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason Recovered, p. 300. Such is the banian tree, the pride of Hindostan, which Milton has thus discriminately introduced into his Paradise Lost : Then both together went

181. Into the thickest wood; there soon they chose

The centre of the garden (where stood The fig-tree. Not that tree for fruit renown'd,

distinctly the Tree of Life, and the tree of good and evil) But such, and at this day to Indians known

supplied the place of a temple, in which there were probably In Malabar or Decan, spreads her arms,

divisions of holy, and most Holy, for God and man), as Branching so broad and long, that in the ground

afterwards in the Tabernacle and Temple: the Heathens had The bending twigs take root, and daughters grow

such distinctions in their gardens; and the Jews on their About the mother tree; a pillar'd shade

mountains or high places, had such trees.—The fruit of the High over-arched, and echoing walks between.

Tree of Lives, the meat and the juice, was the (first) sacrament. (HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason recovered, p. 45.)

The fruit of the secondary tree, the tree of knowledge, the 178. (Gen, ii. 8.] The Egyptians represent the year by

vine, as to its flesh and blood, was appointed, we shall find, a palm-tree, and the month by one of its branches; be

to be used sacramentally, under proper restrictions, by Noah cause it is the nature of this tree to produce a branch

and his Church, after the flood. See Gen. ix. 3, 4. every month. (HORAPOLLO, as quoted by Volney.)-In the midst of the street of the city, and on each side of the river, was the tree of life, which bore twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves 182.

Arabia and the neighbouring regions were of the tree were for the healing of the nations. Rev. inhabited by the first (civilized) generations of men. There xxii. 2.

it pleased the Creator first to reveal himself to his creatures; and there the Son or GOD assumed the human nature.

In Arabia, the faculties of the human mind attain to as high This tree from thus dipping its branches into the ground, and rising

a degree of strength and vigor, even at this day, as in any thence into new stems, became the emblem of our resurrection to a future other country in the world, and the symmetry and beauty of life, and is found as such engraven or painted (though indeed as a common the human person in Arabia are not surpassed by any other palm) on the large liles, which close the mouths of the graves in the Cata

portion of the human race. sombs near Rome. Wonders of Nature and Art, rol. ji p.50.

See Christian Researches, p. 189.


183. [Exod. iii. 2.] He, whom alone the mind can perceive, whose essence eludes the external organs, who has no visible parts, who exists from eternity, even He, the soul of all beings, whom no being can comprehend, SHONE FORTH IN 190. (Gen. iii. 1.) Now the serpent was more subtile PERSON.

than any beast of the field. See Laws of Menu.--Works of Sir W.JONES, vol. iii.p.66.

Among the first names which distinguished mankind, were those taken from creatures. The ox, the

stag, the elk, the dog, &c., appear to be truly antient de184. (Gen. iii. 24.] On the west side of Eden, opposite the signations of persons, and afterwards of the families of those morning sun, was the First SCHECHINAH manifested in the persons, as they descended in process of time.--Among similar figure of a Man, encompassed with an Irradiation of fire : names that of serpent appears to have been adopted ; and this and here some suppose the Cherubim remained visible till the not in a single district only, but as well in the remote wilds flood.

of America, as on the shores of the Indies, the Caspian, or HUTCHINSON's Introduc. to Moses' sine the Red Sea. Principio, p. cclxxxi, to cclxxxiv.

See Frag. to CALMET, vol. ii. p. 206.

185. (Gen. ii. 16.] After Idolatry had commenced, different trees were made sacred to the different Men and Women, who had discovered their peculiar uses.

Ibid. p. cxxxiii-cxxxv, cxliii.

186. (Gen. ii. 9.] The Mahometans contend that the tree of knowledge is the vine (and therefore abstain from wine).

See Moracc. in Alcor. p. 22.


As each nation of American Indians has some particular symbol by which it is distinguished from others, so each tribe in every nation has a badge from which it is denominated : as that of the Eagle, the Panther, the Tyger, the Buffalo, &c. Thus one band of the Naudowessies is represented by a Snake, another loy a Tortoise, a third by a Squirrel, a fourth by a Wolf, and a fifth by a Buffalo Every band also has a chief who is termed the Great Chief, to direct their military operations; and a secondary clief for the management of their civil affairs, whose assent is necessary in all conveyances and treaties, to wbich he affixes the mark of the tribe or nation.

CARVEK's Trav. in N. America, pp. 164–5.

187. [Gen. ii. 9, 17.) Dr. Lightfoot also, as well as the Jewish Rabbins, believed the tree of knowledge to have been the vine. (See Dr. A. Clarke's Note on Num. vi. 3.)Hence wine is called in the East, the Mother of Sins.

Sir W. Jones' Works, vol. vi. p. 119.

192. [Isai. si. 6.] The lambs, says M. BAILLY, were a quiet race of people.

Antient Hist. of Asia, vol. i. p. 225.

188. [Gen. iii. 8.] Having passed in the night through a town called Chah Chakor, in Persia, we encamped for the day, says PIETRO Delle VALLE, under the shade of the luli dagheli; a tree whose branches hanging to the ground take root and produce a new tree, and this so repeatedly as to form a forest of arches, sufficient in some instances to shelter an immense number of people. Its leaves are thick, oval, somewhat resembling those of the quince, but much thicker and larger. Its fruit is very small, of a grayish scarlet color, but when quite ripe inclining to black : the wood of it is extremely light. (See Pinkerton's Coll. vol. ix. p. 123.)—This tree probably, forms the grove so often mentioned in Sacred Writ as a place of resort for idol worship

193. [Gen. iii. 2.) The skins of beasts, originally, gave names to the different nations or castes by whom they were worn. Thus in some parts even of Germany, the natives were called Reeno; which is derived as CLUVERIUS thinks, from the rein-deer of whose skins they made their garments. In others, they were called Mastruga; that is, monsters, or brutes in human shape. Tacitus adds, that in those days the only distinction between men of quality and the vulgar consisted in the richness and fineness of those furs. See Germ. Antiq. p. 110. Isidor. Orig. l. xix. c. 23. Tacit.

Germ. c. 17.


The Negroes, in all parts of Guinea, have selected and consecrated some particular trees, under which they perform their religious worship; which are generally such, in whose production nature has displayed her greatest perfections.

Bosman's Guinea.--Pinkerton's Coll. part Ixvi. p. 457.

194. [Gen. i. 28.] Thus distinguished and denominated by dress, in the army of Xerxes, the bodies of the Persian and Median warriors, as also of those who came from the island of the Red Sea, were covered with tunics of different colors, having sleeves, and adorned with plates of steel, in imitation of the scales of fishes.—The Æthiopians were clad in skins of panthers and lions.—On their heads the Asiatic Æthiopians wore the skins of horses' heads, on which the manes and ears were left; the manes served as the plumes, and the ears remained stiff and erect : instead of shields they been multiplied on ornaments, with a variety almost infinite, held out before them the skins of cranes.-The Thracians produced by the caprice of human vanity, or the new neceswore on their heads skins of foxes: they had also buskinssities to which man rendered himself subject by those many made of the skins of fawns.-The Thracians of Asia used inventions which took place after he ceased to be, as God short bucklers made of hides : they had also helmets of bad created him, upright.-See Historical Remarks on Dress, brass, on the summit of which were the ears and horns of an prefixed to a Collection of the dresses of different Nations, os, made also of brass, together with a crest.-The Col- autient and modern. See Gen. iii. 17. chians had small bucklers made of the hard hides of oxen.--

See also HERODOTUS, Thalia. n. 90. Note 113. The people of Cicilia also had a small buckler made of the untanned hide of an ox.— And the Lycians had from their shoulders the skin of a goat suspended, whilst on their heads 200. [Gen. xlix. 9.] The American Indians, for the most they wore a cap with a plume of feathers.

part, take upon them the name of some animal, as, the Blue See HERODOTUS, Polymnia, n. 61-92. Snake; the Little Turkey; the Big Bear, &c. and their sig.

natures (to conveyance deeds of land, &c.) consist of the

out-line, drawn with a pen, of the different animals whose 195.

Accordingly in North America, at the names they bear. Indian town Attasse the pillars and walls of the houses of

WELD's Trav. in North America, vol. ii. p. 258. the square are decorated with various paintings and sculptures, supposed to be hieroglyphic, and as a historic legendary of political and sacerdotal affairs: they are however

— In the temple of Serapis, says Suidas, an extremely picturesque or caricature, as men in variety of ox, was dedicated, as being the hieroglyphic of a husbandman. attitudes, some ludicrous enough, others having the head of

See GREGORY's Notes and Observations, p. 64. some kind of animal, as of a duck, turkey, bear, fox, wolf, buck, &c.; and again those kinds of creatures are represented as having the human head. The pillars supporting the front 202.

Plutarch (advers. Stoic.) informs us, that or piazza of the council-house of the square, are ingeniously a certain Ethiopian nation always elected a Dog for their king formed in the likeness of vast speckled serpents ascending (as a Mameluke was regularly elected in Egypt; see above, upwards; the Ottasses, or uatives of Altasse, being of the n. 169) : whilst at the same time, he judiciously observes, snake family or tribe.

that all the high posts were filled with (free) men. See BARTRAM's Trav. p. 482.

See Univer. Hist. vol. xvii. p. 502. Note.


196. (Gen. iii. 1.) Kalm saw some of the Indians near Fort 203.

In North Ainerica, the Six Nations, as St. Frederick in Canada, who had girdles, of the skins of well as the Hurons, subdivided every village into three famiTaitle-snakes with the rattle on them.

lies, those of the Wolf, the Bear, and the Tortoise. Each See Pinkerion's Coll. part liv. p. 606. had its antients, its chiefs, and its warriors. The whole of

these united, composed one of the estates of the republic,

which consisted of several villages regulated after the same 197.

According to Regis du Halde, the usual manner, and which, in times of war or of danger, arranged clothing of the Monguls and Kalkas is sheep and lamb-skins, themselves under One Chief.-The dignity of Chief was the wool next to the body.

perpetual and hereditary in his cabin or family. When the line See Modern Univer. Hist. vol, iv. p. 299. became extinct, or, to úse the native expression, the tree

was fallen, another was immediately resorted to. The suc

cessor was chosen by the MATRON who held the greatest rank 198. (Gen. iii. 21.] The Arabs also, at this day wear amongst the tribes or villages, and who usually selected a sheep skins sewed together, with the wool innermost.

person, not only distinguished by figure and bodily strength, See Thevenot, part 1. lib. 2. cap. 32. but who was capable also, by his good qualities, of supporting

the state of elevation in which he was to be placed.

HERIOTT's Canada, p.549.-See also respecting such Matron 199. To trace the modern dress back to the

or “ King's Mother," Judg. v. 7. 2 Sam. xx. 19. simplicity of the first skins, and leaves, and feathers, that

1 Kings ii. 19. 2 Kings xxiv. 15. were worn by mankind in the primitive ages, if it were possible, would be almost endless; the fashion has been often changed, while the materials remained the same : the mate- 204. (Gen. i. 28.] Mankind, in their weakness, have rials have been differeut as they were gradually produced by always attached a degree of distinction to whatever inspired successive arts, that couverted a raw hide into leather, the terror; it would be difficult otherwise to account for the wool of the sheep into cloth, the web of the worro into silk, adoption of the figures of the birds of prey throughout Euand flax and cotton into linen of various kinds. One gar- rope for the arms of our nobility. meat also has been added to another, and ornaments have Whoever chooses to analyze the mischievous instinct of

beasts of

prey will find there all the shades and expressions SERPENT clothed with green feathers, was a white and of hatred; a cowardly appetite for the flesh of the dead in bearded man; was High-priest of Tollan, a legislator, and the vulture; silent cunning in the fox; treachery in the chief of a religious sect, which, like the Sonyasis and the spider ; horrific cries in the ospray; thirst of blood in the Bouddhists of Hindostan, inflicted on themselves the most pole-cat; ferocity in the tyger; cruelty in the wolf; and the

cruel penances. fury of despotism in the lion. In the serpent, in the shark,

HUMBOLDT. in the sea-polypus with long arms which are provided with suckers, and in other tribes, we should find animals that grow pale at the sight of every living being ; who insinuate them- 208. (Gen. iii. 14.) The Fakeers, or Yogees, of the selves for the purpose of stinging; who crawl that they Senassee tribe, are a sort of mendicant philosophers, who may bite; who fatter that they may tear, and hold out travel all over Hindostan, and live on the charity of the embraces that they may stifle; in fact, creatures full of con- other castes of Hindoos. They are generally entirely naked, cealed rage, and murderous, in the shape of affection, to a most of them robust handsome men : they admit proselytes degree which there is a difficulty in pourtraying in the lan- from the other tribes, especially youth of bright parts, and guage of man, although there exist but too many examples take great pains to instruct them in their mysteries. These of similar actions on the part of his species.

Gymnosophists often unite in large armed bodies, and perforin Certain it is that man combines in himself the passions of pilgrimages to the sacred rivers and celebrated temples ; all these animals, and that which predominates, whether but they are more like an army marching through a province, from Nature or habit, becomes displayed iu his physiognomy than an assembly of saints in procession to a temple ; by something like the features of the auimal of which it is and often lay the countries through which they pass under characteristic.

contribution. In a mixed assembly, a physiognomist may imagine that

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, vol. i. p. 68. he traces the features of the most artful or cruel animals. Animals differ from man in this respect, in as much as each species may be said to possess only one kind of expression. 209.

In Hindostan, there are at this day a It is by the portion of our nature which resembles the lower sort of religious devotees called Fakeers, who wear nopart of the creation that we are led into contentions and wars ; thing about them but what is merely sufficient to cover —it is by the celestial portion of our soul that we are brought their nakedness; and, like mendicant friars, make a proback to peace. See Luke xiii. 22.

fession of begging for their subsistence. They comSt. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature, monly abide in the out-skirts of towns; where making vol. ä. pp. 429, 430, 452, 466. little fires in the day, they sleep at night in the warm

ashes, with which also they besmear their bodies. They

occasionally take intoxicating drugs, which cause them to 205. (Gen. iii. 1.] The Principal of the great Miami talk wildly : this draws the common people around them, tribe, living near the waters of Antaria, is a poor diminu- who easily mistake such jargon for prophecy. tive creature called by his people, in reference to his wisdom

See TERRY, Voy. Ind. sect. xvi. p. 427. and power to injure, the “ Little Snake.” During the Indian war, this Little Snake was the first in council and second to none in the field : and in proportion as he became 210. (Gen. iii. 7.) Indian Gymnosophists, or naked phiterrible to his enemies, he was the pride and praise of his losophers, in the time of Appollonius, resided on a cerfriends.

tain mountain not far from the Nile. To such men, the Ashe's Travels in America, vol. i. p. 322. warmth of the climate would make clothing superfluous.

But, as they led a merely contemplative life, from that

circumstance especially, they were called by the Greeks, 206.

Near the Falls in North America, the Gymnosophists. inbabitants of the Columbian plains crowd annually, about See, respecting them, Phoc. in Vit. Apoll. Tian, cod. May, to the (Missouri) river, and fix themselves on its

cclii. L. Vives Comment. in lib. xiv.-S. Aug. north side, to avoid the incursions of the Snake Indians.

de Civitate Dei, p. 1734. edit. Paris.-Euseb. Travels by Capts., LEWIS & CLARK E.

in Chron. p. 72. edit. Scalig.- And Philostrat, in Vita Apoll. lib. iii. cap. 6. & lib. iv. cap. 6.

Also Bartolomeo, p. 316. 207:

The greatest, most antient, and most celebrated of the whole of the pyramidal monuments of Auahuac is the sacred structure of Cholula. At a distance, 211.

“In winter these Gymnosophists, enjoy it has the appearance of a natural hill covered with vegeta- the benefit of the sun's rays in the open air ; and in sumtion. It is called in the present day the Mountain made by mer, when the heat becomes excessive, they pass their the hand of Man ; also the Mountain of unbaked bricks. time in cool and moist places, under large trees; which, It had an altar on its top, dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, the according to the accounts of Nearchus, cover a circumgod of the air. This Quetzalcoatl, whose name signifies ference of five acres, and extend their branches so far, that

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