« VorigeDoorgaan »
HOUSE. - It consequently appears, contrary to what has generally been supposed, that the greatest sectarians, are the least enlightened ; that those who clamour most for the particular doctrines of men, understand those doctrines the least; and that, when religious truth is properly understood, it is always believed, and held, under God, independently of man.”
These principles, which were professed by the AUTHOR, will be found to be purely scriptural, and a key to the unfolding of the various accounts of the manifestations of God recorded in the Bible. The Editor considers it unnecessary to say any thing more than to recommend the work to the serious perusal of every sincere lover of truth, earnestly desiring that it may answer all the good purposes for which it is designed; by enabling every reader to see that the Word of God is both true and good, being given for the instruction, reformation, and regeneration of all who are desirous of knowing the Lord's will, and of living according to Divine direction, that they may receive that change of affection in this life, which will prepare them for everlasting bliss in the world to come.
Salford. April 29th, 1818.
Science and Religion.
ON THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF THE EARTH ;-ITS perfect absurdity. The universe, therefore, which is an GASEOUS, FLUID AND SOLID STATES.
image of God, and full of God, could not be created but (Genesis i. 1.]
from God, in God; yet not continuous from himself, though
contiguous, and conjunctively analagous, as an image in a IN the beginning, says Sir Isaac NEWTON, God formed mirror.—Canses produce effects, not by continuity, but dismatter into particles solid, massy, hard, impenetrable, of cretely. such magnitudes and figures, with such other properties, in
Swedenborg's Divine Love, nn. 55, 56, 59, 185. such number and quantity, and in such proportion, with regard to space, as best answered the end for which He formed them. And as these primitive particles are solid, they on
God contains all things, and is a being that very account are incomparably harder than any of the every way perfect and happy, self-sufficient, and supplying porous bodies which are composed of them; and so very hard all other beings. are they, that they neither wear out nor can be broken : con
JOSEPHUS Against Apion, B. ii. $. 23. sequently, that nature may be durable, the alteration of corporeal beings ought only to consist in the different separations, new assemblages and motions of these permanent par- 6. (Gen. i. 3.) That philosophy, which blames Moses for ticles.
See his Optics. having made the birth of the body of the light of more antient date than that of the sun, is at present generally exploded.
Nat. Delin. vol. vii. p. 37. 2.
Had those antient philosophers, who con- The electric fluid, or light, appears to be universally diffused tended that the world was formed from atoms, ascribed over the face of nature, and particularly attracted as an their combinations to certain iminutable properties received atmosphere around each sun, or gaseous earth centering each from the hand of the Creator, such as general gravitation, solar system. chemical affinity, or animal appetency, instead of ascribing So soon as this vast Auid, which penetrates and contains them to a blind chance; the doctrine of atoms, as all the spheres, begins to turn, the universe is in motion : stituting or composing the material world by the variety of and from that very instaut it is, that the revolutions, which their combinations, so far from leading the mind to Atheism, are the measure of the night and the day, are reckoned. would strengthen the demonstration of the existence of a
ABBE Pluche. Deity, as the first cause of all things; because the analogy resulting from our perpetual experience of cause and effect would have thus been exemplified through universal nature.
Il is probable that light, once emitted from Darwin's Temple of Nature, canto iv. l. 147. Luminous bodies, never returns to them.
PRIESTLEY, on Vision, p. 777.
It is commonly said that the world in its complex was created out of nothing. But to create what is, from a nothing, or from that which has no existence, is a
7. [Gen. i. .] In the solar system there are bodies of three kinds ; as planets, their satellites, and masses which
circulate round the sun and have been thence called solar spots. These being separated into globes, are thrown forth into the plain of the vortex-and in process of time extend themselves to a greater or less distance from the sun, proportionably to their cravity and magnitude; till at length, having attained their stated periphery or orbit in the solar vortex, they are in a state of equilibrium with its whole volume.
See SWEDENBORG's Principia, part iii. $ 4. p. 394.
now appears that stars must receive an addition to their solid contents, when they are in contact with nebulosity, there is an evident possibility of their being originally formed of it.
HERSCHEL, Phil. Tran. for 1814, part i. p. 257.
Comets move round the sun by the same laws as the planets.
Ibid. p. 123.
"There is a compound spot, or rather two or
Every cometic figure, which is not already three neighbouring spots, a little south of the sun's equator, globular, must have eccentric nebulons matter, which, in its and nearly parallel with it, which I observed, says Mr. CA- endeavour to come to the centre, will either dislodge some of PEL LOFFT, Feb. 9th, 1815. It extends, he adds, 5 minutes the nebulosity which is already deposited, or slide on it sidein length, equal to 130,000 miles; and cannot, he thinks, be ways, and in both cases produce a circular motion ; so that less in breadth than a diameter of the earth. There is also, in fact we can hardly suppose a possibility of the production continues this intelligent observer, a very round, opaque, of a globular forin without a consequent revolution of the well-defined spot of about 24 minutes diameter, or larger than nebulous matter, which in the end may settle in a regular the earth, north-west of the sun's disc; and a small obscure rotation about some fixed asis. spot east of it, and nearly in apparent contact. In position
Ibid. for 1811, part ii. p. 319. and appearance,
he says, the larger of these two is very like a spot seen 15th December, 1813, which was very planetlike.-Such planet, he remarks, whether of the same spe
16. (Gen. v. 4.] Our earth, which is at the distance of cies as ours, or whether cometary, may be so near the sun, about ninety-five millions of iniles from the sun, revolves and so much immersed in its dense atmosphere, as nearly to about him yearly in a little more than three hundred and sixty partake of the solar period of rotation, instead of what would five days, at present. But, as our planet is regularly rebe the law of its revolution if moving freely in open space. eeding, we have cause to conclude, that, like those solar Month. Mag. for March, 1815, p. 101. spots, seen successively to break away froin the sun,
ejected originally out of the immediate atmosphere of that
great luminary, and that, in passing to her present place in 9.
The Comet of 1811 had a nucleus and a the solar system, her year has gradually lengthened in its head, that of 1812 had a nueleus only. Hence we may progressive periods of time, having been at first proportionaconclude, that the first had an attendant moon, the second ble to one, now to three hundred and sixty-five, nearly, of probably had not.
our days.--"I found,” says the Rev. John JACKSON," at HERSCHEL, Phil. Tran. for 1812. parti. p. 232. last with great satisfaction, that the most antient computa
tiou of days for years amongst the Chaldæans, and of
months for years amongst the Egyptians, warranted by the 10.
The comet of 1811 might very possibly be testimony of writers of the greatest credit, and most conan incipient world, just passed its gaseous state, but not hav- versant in the histories and antiquities of these nations, reing yet derived solidity from the precipitation and condensa- conciled all their accounts together, made them consistent tion of its surrounding atmosphere. On this point, succes- with the course of nature, and the history of the first ages sive observations on different comets, in the course of which of the world, delivered in the authentic Mosaic writings. we may probably distinguish progressive stages from their JACKSON's Chronological Antiquities, Dedication, p. 12. chaotic to their distinct formation, can aloue furnish the desirable knowledge in which we are allowedly deficient at present. See some sensible observations on this comet, in
16. [Gen. i. 2.) Sir Isaac Newton's principles began The Morn. Chron. for Nov. 18th, 1811. || by assuming the earth to be a homogeneous fluid; but the
theory did not then correspond with actual experiment. MAC
LAURIN was the first who demonstrated that a homogeneous 11.
As the permanently visible solar system fluid in rotatory motion would always remain globular; and extending to Herschel, on one side, and Saturn on the other, the question is now finally established by James Ivory, Esq. is not quite 3000 millions of miles; our planetary system, M. A. whose ingenuity was rewarded by the Royal Society seen from Sirius, must probably appear as a stellar nebula of London, in 1814, with the Copleyan gold medal. of just about 18 seconds in diameter.
Month. May for Feb. 1815, p. 52. CAPEL LOFFT, Month. Mag. for Dec. 1814, p. 415.
Nou, there are many corroborating testi12.
It is highly probable that stars are origi- monies which evidently shew, that the earth was originally in mally formed by a condensation of the nebulous matter ; for, a state of fluidity; and therefore the presumption is great, tha the Newtonian philosophy was familiarly known in remote anti- creation ; and endeavours to prove them by geological quity, possibly much anterior to the Phænician or Egyptian phenomena : nations. 2 Peter iii. 5.
1. That the waters of the ocean for a long time covered HUTTON's Whitehurst, Formation of the Earth, p. 18. the whole earth.
2. That no organized being existed for a long time in this
universal ocean. 18. - It was the sublime opinion of Thales, that
3. That the water had subsided before the creation of orall things have proceeded from water.
ganized beings. See Month. Mag. for Sep. 1814, p. 116. 4. That an indefinite period followed, during which the
vegetable creation was formed.
5. That in the next period the sea produced locomotive 19.
Water, by frequent distillations, is changed animals, and aerial volant animals or birds. into fixed earth.
6. That the creation of quadrupeds followed.—And PRIESTLEY, on Vision, p. 774. 7. That the creation of man was later than all the above
Tilloch's Journal for Oct. 1815. pp. 285, 290. 20. (Gen.i. 20.] All sublunary bodies are made from water, condensed by the power of seeds which ferment the particles of water, and alter their texture and figure. This action 25. [Gen. i. 1.] The interior structure of the earth, whereby ccases not, till the seed have formed itself a body, exactly its various fossil substances,-though differing exceedingly corresponding with the proper idea, or picture contained in it. from each other in specific gravity,--though not arranged (near Thos. SHERLEY, on the Origin of Bodies, and Nature the surface) according to any regular law of situation, do yet of Petrifaction, p. 24.
constitute a world self-balanced, a sphere whose centre of graFermeniation is an intestine motion in the principles or par-vity coincides with its centre of magnitude (without which all ticles of which any body consists, with an intent to perfect the its motions must have been in an extreme degree irregular), said body, or change it into another.
Dr. Willis. evidently demands a First Cause, which neither acts blindly,
nor of necessity.--Again : The projectile force by which the
earth was, in the beginning, made to move round the centre 21.
The oarth was originally covered with of light and heat; its diurnal rotation, duly diffusing this light waier, as appears from some of its highest mountains, con- and heat over the surface; the inclination of its axis to the sisting of shells cemented together by a solution of port plane of the ecliptic, whereby the tropical climates receive of them, as the lime-stone rocks of the Alps. FERBER's fewer of the sun's rays, while the inhabitant of the polar Travels. It must, therefore, be concluded, that animal life circle enjoys a much larger share : all these effects, far surbegan beneath the sea.—Nor is this unanalagous to what still passing the present powers of nature-most aptly combined occurs, as all quadrupeds and mankind, in their embryon together-working in concert without interference or disorstate, are aquatic animals.
der, for the attainment of one great, and good, and excelDarwin's Temple of Nature, canto i. 1. 295. lent end, clearly prove that this world has been produced by
one powerful, intelligent, and benevolent Principle, utterly
unlike to any mechanical cause which now does exist, or that 22. (Gen. i. 2] “All birds, beasts, and fishes,” says New- can be conceived to exist. TON, “insects, trees and vegetables, with their parts, grow PINKERTON's Voy. and Trav. part xiï, pp. 917, 918. from water, and, by putrefaction, return to water again.” In short, almost every substance that we see, owes its texture and firmness to the parts of water that mix with its 26. (Gen. i. 5.) The Creator has composed this globe and earth; and, deprived of this fluid, it falls away into a mass its inhabitants solely of contraries, which are maintaining an of shapeless dust and ashes.
Our soil is formed of earth and water; GOLDSMITH's Hist, of the Earth, vol. i. p. 165. our temperament of hot and cold; our day of light and dark
ness; the existence of vegetables and animals, of their youth
and of their old age, of their loves and of their strifes, of 23.
The most patient and accurate examina- their life and of their death. The equilibrium of beings is tions of detached mineral substances, and of the strata of the established only on their collisions. Nothing is durable but globe, which late inquirers have made, afford every reason to their lapse, nothing immutable but their mobility, nothing perbelieve, that the earth was for a considerable time wholly manent but their combination: and Nature, every instant varying overflowed with water.
their forms, has no constant laws but those of their happiness. Accum's Chem. vol. i. p. 39.
ST. PIERRE's Works, vol. iv, p. 226.
24. (Gen. i. 20.) Dr. J. C. PRICHARD, supposes the following series of facts are detailed in the Mosaic account of the
27. (Gen. ii. 19.) From petrifactions of animals every where found throughout the world, it appears, that genera
tions of species long extinct have preceded those, which now people the earth, the waters, and the air,
HUMBOLDT's Researches in South America.
3. The night and day of the world of the spirits of deceased ancestors ; 4. The night and day of mortals.
Halhev’s Introduction to Code of Gentoo Laws, p. xix.
28. (Gen. i. 20,21.] The Mosaic creation may be considered 34. (Gen. i. 6.] The Mosaic account of creation compreas only a new modification of the creatures living on this hends only the earth with its firmament, or atmosphere, globe, adapted to its present state, under which it will re- called heaven. main till circumstances shall make a new change necessary ; Jackson's Chron. Antiq. vol. i. p. 5. See also Jameson's and then our globe will again, by a new creation or revolu
Preliminary Discourse to the Pentateuch. tion, appear more adapted to its state, and be stocked with a set of animals more suitable to that state. This gives us a grand idea of the Creator, his economy and management of the universe; and is, moreover, conformable to what is written in Psal. civ. 29, 30. “Thou hidest thy face, and
35. (Gen. i. 14.] Let there be lights in the firmament, they (small and great beasts) are troubled; thou takest away
and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days
and their breath, they die and return to their dust. Thou send
A universal law of nature can be referred est forth thy spirit, they are created; and thou renewest the
to no intermediate cause, but must be derived immediately face of the earth.” Dr. HUNTER's Remarks on Fossil Animals in the Phil.
from the infinite and eternal energy of the divine mind.
CAPEL LOFFT, Month. Mag. for December, 1813, p. 392. Tran. vol. lviii. as referred to by Forster, in his Notes on KALM's Trav. in N. America.
The cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun are among themselves, as the squares of the times of their revolutions.
KEPLER. 29. (Gen. i. 5.) And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night. It is properly the atmosphere that pro
The variety of seasons arises from the duces the day, by collecting for us the light which the sun axis of the earth not being perpendicular to the plane of the casts thereon.—The earth receiving his rays, beats them back ecliptic; for if it were, the ecliptic (the sun's revolution on all sides : thus they ascend again into the atmusphere, amongst the fixed stars) and equator would coincide, and the which once more returns us the greatest part of them, and sun would then be always in the equator, and consequently maintains around us, during day, that heat which is the soul it would never change its position in respect to the surface of of nature, and that splendor which is the beauty thereof. the earth. VINCE's Astron. vol. i. p. 81.-The antient Nature Displayed, vol. iv. pp. 39, 40. astrological works of the Hindoos have preserved many va
luable facts relating to the Indian sphere and the precession
of the equinox. 30. WAISTON admits that the sun, moon and
Works of Sir W. Joxes, vol. i. p. 154. stars, which must have been previously created, are in Gen. i. 17. only described as lights rendered visible in our atmosphere on the fourth day.
Plato believed, that the sun and moon See his Theory. p. 24, &c. which mark out the times and seasons, the days and years,
will return, after fifteen thousand years, to the same point
they occupied at the beginning of the world : Aristotle, on 31.
For no one of a sane mind, says ORIGEN, the contrary, maintained that such a revolution cannot take can imagine that there was an evening and a morning, during place till the thirty-six thousandth year from the creation. the three first days,--without a sun.
Long Livers, p. 36. Pire Archon, lib. iv. cap. 14.
Of course the word day in the first chapter of Genesis, denotes a period of undetermined length, and not one of our days of twenty-four hours.
J. A. De Luc. Month. Mag. Feb. 1814, p. 12.
Men have found that, in a long train of ages, all the celestial signs have by little and little receded from the point of the vernal equinox, and have drawn back vow more than thirty degrees towards the east. Notwithstanding this alteration, the point of the zodiac that cuts the equator is still called the first degree of Aries, though it be in reality the first degree of Pisces which at the time coines above the horizon.
ABBE Pluche's Hist. of the Heav. vol. i. p. 24.
Night and day are of four kinds : 1. The night and day of Brihma; 2. The night and day of angels;