immemorial celebrated on account of the intense saltness of its waters, which is such as to prevent either animals or vegetables from living in it; a peculiarity from which it has derived its name.

Phil. Trans. 1807, p. 296.

1654. [Gen. xv. 1. The word of the LORD came unto Abram by a vision] It appears from 0. 5, that during this vision Abraham was not in a state of sleep, but had an actual view of exterior objects.

See No. 451, 448.

1649. [Gen. xiv. 13.] Heber (Hebr.) signifies simply the other side. In this sense the messenger, enquiring for Abraham, might describe him as one that came from the other side of the River Euphrates.

Univer. Hist. vol. ii.

1655. [9.] These were, probably, different fruits of the four seasons of the year; which seasons were denoininated by their principal zodiacal animals.

p. 355.

1650. [14.] The army this Turk (Ibrahim, one of the Kiajas or colonels of the Janisaries) had collected, was composed solely of volunteers : his domestics were of the number.

BARON DU Tott. vol. ii. part iv. p. 152. In trained or military servants, the most powerful House is that of Ibrahim Bey, who has about six hundred Mamelukes. Next to him is Manrod, who has not above four hundred. The rest of the Beys, to the number of eighteen or twenty, have each of them from fifty to two hundred. See No. 541.

VOLNEX's Trav. vol. i. p. 116.

1650. [ 10. Divided them in the midst] That is, he split in two each sacrificial branch, and placed the sides parallel to each other whilst they bled forth, respectively, their sacred juice. The fowls came to peck the fruit from these branches, v. 11. -- Oaths (or sacraments) relating to important matters, were made by the division of the victim. (EUSTATHIUS, on Iliad ii. l. 124.) - Agamemnon, to confirm his faith sworn to Achilles, ordered victims to be brought. He then took one, and with his sword divided it in the midst, placed the pieces opposite each other, and passed between the separated pieces.

Dictys Crelensis, lib. 2. & 5.

1651. [- 16.] If in battle one Roman saved another out of the hands of the enemy, he became entitled to the civic crown. This crown consisted only of oak-leaves. Yet, says Pliny, it was the most illustrious of all crowns, and communicated higher privileges than the mural, the obsidional, and naval crowns; because there is more glory in saving a single citizen than in taking cities, or in gaining battles.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. i. p. 326.


At the Areopagus in Athens, the parties concerned in any legal covenant, were placed between the severed members of consecrated victims, where they bound themselves and families by a most solemn oath, to the sacred fulfilment of all the stipulated conditions of such covenant.

See Antiquities of Athens.

1652. [18.] When the (Arabian) shepherd kings went away from Egypt with their whole families and effects, not fewer in number, says MANETHO, than two hundred and forty thousand, they took their journey through the wilderness, for Syria; but as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem. — Here, remarks the judicious Whiston, we have an account of the first building of the city Jerusalem, when the Phænician shepherds were expelled out of Egypt, about thirtyseven years before Abraham came out of Haran.

See Joseph. against Apion,

b. i. § 14.

1658. [-2.] Abraham, though a stranger, reigned iu Damascus, whither he came with a great number of followers from a country beyond Babylon, called Chaldæa. But the people after some time conspired against him; in consequence he and his followers (amongst whom might be Eliezer) removed southward into Canaan, since called Judæa ; where he fixed his abode, and became the father of a numerous offspring. (See Nicholas of Damascus, as quoted by Josephus, l. i. c. 8. And Euseb. præp. I. ix. c. 16. Or Univer. Ilist. vol. ii. p. 356 ) — Meshek (Ilebr.), included or adopted: that is, the adopted son of my house.

1659. [

-- 18.] Egypt was in Africa. But the Antients, assigning this country to Asia, made the Nile the Asiatic boundary on the West.

See PLINY, and the Antient


1653. [-22.] The antient kings of North Britain, in swearing at their coronation to observe the laws of the land, never took the oath by kissing the Bible, but by holding up the right hand.

See No 452, 433, Pinkerton's Coll.part x. p. 352. 435, 430, 444.

1660. [Gen. xvi. 4. He went in to Hagar) She hereby rose to freedom and to au equality with Abrain ; as Solomon's women, in the same way, became princesses ; 1 Kings xi. 3.

JOSEPHUS contends, that the law respecting marriage (Gen. ii. 24) owns no other mixture of sexes but that which nature has appointed, of a man, with his wife, and that this be used only for the procreation of children. See 449, 466, 461.

Against Apion, b. ii. $ 25.

Volnsius Saturnius; and that among the common People, even the age of eighty-five afforded such prolific examples.

Pliny says also, that Masinissa had a son born to him after he was eighty-six years of age ; and that Cato, the censor, had one at the age of eighty. Savonarola asserts, that Nicholas de Pellavicinis had a son in his hundredth year. Alexander Benedictus knew a German who had one in his ninetieth ; and Semnius mentions another, who, at the age of a hundred, married a woman of thirty, and had a numerous offspring by her.

The celebrated Physician Felix Platerus, who died at Basle, in 1614, says, his father married when he was seventytwo years old, and had six sons; and at the age of eightytwo, his wife bore him a daughter. He mentions also that his grandfather had a son in the hundredth year of his age,

Dr. Moseley's Treatise on

Tropical Climates.

1661. [

-13.] Acharey (Hebr.) the REFLECTED IMAGE of Him that sees me. As Exod. xxxiii. 23. I have looked back on Him that sees me. Rev. i. 10, 12.

See No. 480.

1662. [-15.] He who has no son, or grandson, or grandson's son, or brother's son, shall adopt a son; and while he has one adopted son, he shall not adopt a second. Ser No. 440, 454.

Gentoo Laws, p. 263.

1663. [Gen. xvii. 11.] A complete cylinder of the bark about an inch in height was cut off from the branch of a peartree against a wall in Mr. Howard's garden at Lichfield about five years ago ; the circumcised part is now not above half the diameter of the branch above and below it, yet this branch had been full of fruit every year since, when the other branches of the tree bore only sparingly.

DArwin's Phytologia,

sect. xv. 2. 3.

1667. [Gen. xvii. 21.] When wolves cross a river, they follow one another directly in a line, the second holding the tail of the first in its mouth, the third that of the second, and so of the rest. This figure was chosen by the Greeks to denote the year, composed of twelve months following one another; which they, denominated Lycabas, that is, the march of the wolves.

See No. 483, 415, 481, See Abbe Pluche's Hist. of 417,480, 469, 472, 468, 467. the Heav. vol. i. p. 249.

1664. [ 12 ] In the new birth, as in the natural birth, the adopted person was washed or baptized, and had a little of the skin cut or circumcised from his navel, Ezek. xvi. 4.


1668. [Gen. xviii. 1, 2, &c.] And the Lord appeared to him (Abraham) at the oak Mamre. (See Gen. xiii. 18.) On the 12th of January, 1800, about eight in the morning, several persons in Southern Prussia saw three suns appear on a sudden.

They rose majestically from the hori. At seven o'clock the sky was clear and serene; a few minutes afterwards it was covered with clouds, and at half past eight there were seen in the East three columns of fire, the middle one of which rose to the height of 45 degrees. The two others, formed by the two other suns, were only a third as big as the middle one : they seemed to burn like a blazing fire, and, as they rose, produced a majestic and awful effect.

The Lady's Monthly Museum,

No. 29, p. 491.

1665. [- 14.] By being extirpated, Le CLERC here understands the loss of civil rights, and exile.- Among the Druids, the moment any one was excluded from the communion of their mysteries, he was abandoned by every one, his own wife and children not excepted.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iv. p. 127.

1666. [- 17. Shall Sarah that is ninety years old bear?] History furnishes some instances of remarkable fecundity in extreme age :

Valescus de Taranta knew a woman who had a child at sixty-seven ; and Cardan mentions another, who had a child when she was more than eighty. — Pliny says, that Cornelia, of the family of the Scipios, brought forth a child in her sixty-second year, which child was afterwards the Consul


Passing along near an Indian settlement, I observed, says BARTRAM, some elderly people reclined on skins spread on the ground, under the cool shade of spreading Oaks und Palms, that were ranged in front of their houses : they arose, and eyed me as I passed, but perceiving that I kept on without stopping, they resumed their former position. They were civil, and appeared happy in their situation.

Trav. p. 90. 1670. (Gen. xviii. 2–5.) Hospitality to travellers prevails throughout Guzerat : a person of any consideration passing through the province, is presented at the entrance of a village, with fruit, milk, butter, fire-wood, and earthen-pots for cookery ; the women and children offer hiin wreaths of flowers. Small bowers are constructed on convenient spots, at a distance from a well or lake, where a person is maintained by

he nearest villages, to take care of the water-jars, and supply all travellers gratis. There are particular villages, where the inhabitants compel all travellers to accept of one day's provisious ; whether they be many or few, rich or poor, European or native, they must not refuse the offered bounty.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol, ii. p. 416.

1674. (Gen. xviii. 20 – 22.]

If in this low disguise
Wander perhaps some inmate of the skies:
They (curious oft of mortal actions) deign
In forms like these to round the earth and main,
Just and unjust recording in their miud

And with sure eyes inspecting all mankind.
See No. 484, 418, 420, 485. Odyss. xvii. ver. 485.

1675. (Gen. xix. 1.] In Paris, all the houses of persons of distinction are built with Porte-cocheres, that is, wide gates to drive in a coach, and consequently have courts within.

PINKERTON's Coll. part xiv. p. 4.

1676. [ -- 2.] But they said to him, We would rather lodge in the street all night. - This is justified by some MSS, that have lo (Hebr.), to him; instead of la, nay.

So when angelic Forms to Syria sent
Sat in the cedar-shade, by Abraham's tent,
A spacious bowl th' admiring Patriarch fills
With dulcet water from the scanty rills ;
Sweet fruits and kernels gathers from his hoard (v. 7.),
With milk and butter piles the plenteous board;
While on the heated hearth his Consort bakes
Fiue flour well kneaded in unleavened cakes.
The Guests ethereal quaff the lucid flood,
Smile on their hosts, and taste terrestrial food ;
And while from seraph-lips sweet converse springs,
They lave their feet, and close their silver wings.

Darwin's Temple of Nature,

canto 2. l. 447.

1677. [5.] To know here means to examine : as all persons who came into a city late in the evening were liable to be exainined legally, by the town's officers and their servants.

It is contrary to true order for what is human to have influs into what is Divine : This is hell,


A morsel of bread] This morsel was a whole fatted calf, three measures or pecks of fine flour, besides cream and milk ! — Rebekah also prepared for her husband, dim with age, two kids for one meal! – Those who conceive that such calf and kids were animals, must have a strange idea of patriarchal stomachs. — Homer in the same kind of language (Odyss. 14) tells us, that when Cumæus entertained Ulysses, he dressed a whole hog, five years old, for him and four more.

1678. (8.) I have two of your daughters ; – Not Lot's daughters : those, it seems, were married and elsewhere in the city, v. 12; and were afterwards sought and found there, v. 15. — He carried not forth these daughters; only those he found with their husbands in the city.

1079. ( 11.) With blindness; probably, through the smoke which even then might have begun to precede the volcanic eruption. See Wisdom xix. 17.

1672. [- -6.] At present, among the Bedouins (wandering Arabiana), as soon as the dough is kneaded, it is made into thin cakes, which are either iinmediately baked on coals, or else in a ta-jen, a shallow earthen vessel like a frying. pan.

Dr. Shaw, T, av. p. 296. See

also 2 Sam. xiii, 8. i Chron. xxiii. 29:

1680. ( 15.] Doubtless there were many more of his family not yet found, on account of the volcanic darkness; whom alas ! he is no longer to seek, lest he himself be consumed.

1681. (20.) Among the Gentoos, a place that is sixteen mijes in length and breadth, and on the skirts of which, on all the four sides, is a ditch, and above the ditch, on all the four sides, a wall or parapet, and on all the four sides of it are bamboos, and on the east or north side thereof a hollow or covered way (Millo), such place is called a city : in the same manner, if it be eight miles in length

1673. [- 8.] The Eastern butter is not solid like ours, but merely a kind of thick cream. See Isai. vii. 15. And Job xx. 17.

and breadth, it is an ordinary city, and if it be but four miles in length and breadth, it is called a small city. Esther ix. 19.

Halhed's Gentoo Laws, p. 172.

1682. [Gen. xix. 26.] On Tuesday the 2d of July, 1737, we went, says OUTHIER, to the Copper Works near the town of Fahlon (Copperberg) in Sweden, to see a man who they said was petrified; he had been crushed under a mass of rock. After forty or fifty (“forty-nine") years, in digging, his body was found; it was changed, that a woman recollected him ; for sixteen years he had been kept as a curiosity in an iron chair. We saw nothing (now) but a body perfectly black, much disfigured, and which exhaled a cadaverous smell.

See No. 490, 491. Pinkerton's Coll, vol. i. p. 328.

1688. [Gen. xx. 16.] Then to Sarah he said, Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand shekels of silver. Behold here, to thee I give a veil for the eyes : let it be ever witla thee, and ever speak the whole truth. (See the Septuagint V'ersion.) — A thousand shekels are equivalent to about fifty-seven pounds seven pence half-penny, English.

The (Arinenian) bandelette, embroidered by the needle, and covered with jewellery according to the quality of the wearer, appears to be the antient tiara or diadem of the queens of Persia : only married women wear it; and it is of course the mark by which they are known to be under subjection.

See No. 506, 511, 531, CHARDIN's Voy. en Perse, 594, 510, 506, 688.

tom. ii. p. 50.

so little

1689. [Gen. xxi. 8.) From 2 Maccab. vii. 27, we learn that it was usual to suckle children three years, that is, till the beginning of the third year. Matt. ii. 16.


Looked back] A Hebraism denoting she turned buck; Luke xvii. 31, 32.

1684. [

-32. Corne, let us make our father drink erine] Unfermented, as this necessarily must have been, which was made so speedily from the vines of the mountain. Such wine would not intoxicate, and could not have been given for that purpose.

1690. [~ 9.] At the time Isaac was weaned, “ Ishmael was probably”, says Dr. GEDDES, “ in his sixteenth or seventeenth year.” Now, from Gen. xv. 13, it appears, that the promise of posterity was made to Abraham 400 years before his descendants returned from Egyptian bondage ; that is, in the hundredth year of Abraham's age, when Isaac was born, and Ishmael adopted being then 13 years old, Gen. xvii. 35. — See Exod. xii. 40.

1691. [ 13.] The seed are the charch-born : the sous, the heaven-born.

1685. [35. Perceived] Embraced her not, which act would have constituted a real marriaye: whereas, by only lying together on the sacramental table, she did but become his adopting woman, or spiritual wife.

See No. 489, 499, 504, See Canticles ii. 6. viii. 3. 505, 563, 501, 500, 502.

1686. (Gen. xx. 2.) The Assyrian kings had each a new dame when he came to the crown; and those names were given them successively from their predecessors, the gods (or deified rulers).

See Dr. GREGORY's Assyrian

Monarchy, p. 254.

1692. [ 14. Abraham took bread, and a bottle of water, 8c] The bread and water which a woman could carry in a hot country, seem but ill calculated to support life in a journey of this descriptiou. But the fact is, that in all transactions of refusal or agreement, certain formulas were observed : when a man swore to perform a promise, he embraced the thigh (Gen. xxiv. 2); when a nan refused to raise posterity to his brother, the woman, in the presence of the elders, was to loose his shoe and spit out in his presence (Deut. xxv. 9); or in conveying an estate, the party took off his shoe (Ruth iv. 7). So when a person agreeably to a contract was under the necessity of providing for another in a case of this description, he presented the party with bread and water. Thus we find a reference is made to this custom by the prophet Isaiah (xxxiii. 16), bread shall be given him, his waters shall be sure. Nothing more nor less was understood by the bread and water being given to Hagar and Ishmael, than that it was a pledge, signifying that Abraham would provide for them; and this we find was done in the most ample manner; see Gen. xvii. 18, 20. xxy. 9, 12. See No. 467.

1687. - 15. And Abimelech said, Behold, my land is before thee, dwell where it pleaseth thee.] Thus we find the Patriarchs, who exercised the Priests' office for their own families, held lands on sufferance, in strange countries.

HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason

Recovered, p. 78.

1693. [Gen. xxi. 14.] The Eastern nations, particularly the country-people of Persia, never go a journey without a small leather-bottle of water hauging by their side like a scrip: The great leather-bottles are made of the skin of a he-goat; and the small ones, that serve instead of a bottle of water on the road, are made of a kid's skin.

Harmer's Observ. by Clarke,

vol. i. p. 220.

been laid upon him to carry, especially to any considerable distance.

Essay on the Sacrifices, p. 245. FULLER derives Moriah from Mareh (Ilebr.), vision, and Yah, God; because God was seen there in his IMAGE

or Son.

See Miscell. Sacra. l. 2. c. xiv. - Verse 3.) Sandal-wood, while consuming by fire, emits an odor most delicious.

See No. 512, 524. BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 376.


When the Oriental princes and great men travel, they generally have the water which they are accustomed to drink carried with them, either in earthen jars, or leather-vessels, called pacauleys. This is a wholesome custom, as the variety of water on a jouruey is the cause of many disorders, especially to those who neither mingle it with wine, nor drink any other liquor.

FORBES' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. iii. p. 272.

1698. [Gen. xxii. 2.] The antient Eastern saddle was proba bly nothing more than a kind of rug girded to the beast.

PARKHURST's Heb. Lex. p. 213.


CHARDIN mentions that the Persians use rose-water for cleansing the leather-bottles which contain the water for drinking; they cause them to imbibe the rosewater, to take off the taste of the skin : roses being the delight of the Orientals on all occasions.

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 30.

1696. (20. He became an archer] Opposite the great stair- case of the palace at Persepolis, there is a spacious tomb cut and hollowed into the rock 72 feet broad and 130 high ; in which there appears an altar with fire burning on it, and a reverend person holding a bow in his hand, kneeling on a kind of ascent, over against it as if at his devotions: in the air, as it were, there is a figure of the same person whom we see praying below, as if he were ascending into the heavens. In another tomb also, not far from this, there is an altar with fire, and a prince or highpriest praying before it. See No. 450, 882,

See Sir John CHARDIN, Voy. 539, 430.

vol. ii. p. 171.

1699. [-6.] Abraham, on this occasion, carried his fire, probably, in the pith of a species of cane called by the Antients Ferula : the old name of which, says TOURNEFORT (iv his voyage to the Levant) is preserved by the modern Greeks, who call it Nartheca from Narther. This cane has a stalk five feet in height, and three inches thick. Every ten inches it has a knot, that is branchy, and covered with a hard bark. The hollow of the stalk is full of white marrow; which, when dry, takes fire like a mateh. This fire continues a long while, and consumes the marrow by slow degrees, without doing any damage to the bark ; for which reason this plant is used for carrying fire from one place to another. -Hesiod, speaking of the fire which Prometheus stole from heaven, says, he brought it (nartheki) in the ferula. This fable, adds Tournefort, arises doubtless from the circumstance of Prometheus discovering the use of steel in striking fire from the flint: And Prometheus most probably made use of the marrow of the ferula, and justructed men how to preserve fire in the stalk of this plant. (See Cooke's Hesiod, Works and Days, b. i. 0.76.) - Ignem e silice Pyrodes, eundem adservare in ferula Prometheus.

PLINY, lib. vii. sect. 57. Fire may be carried a long time in green hiccory wood, which, when once lighted, will burn slowly without any blaze till the whole be consumed.

WELD's Trav. in N. America,

vol. i. p. 226.

1697. [Gen. xxii. 2. Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and offer him there with a burnt-offering. (Rom. xv. 16. See Num. viii. 11, 13, 21.) — Is it possible to suppose, that the supreme Being, who knows what is in man, would require Abraham to give a proof of his faith and obedience, by murdering his only son, and this in direct opposition to his own conmands ? Religion, humanity, and common sense say, No.

Isaac was now at least twenty-five, some say thirty years old; and if his whole body was to be consumed, or burut to ashes, it would have required more wood than could have


Swedish naturalists have produced, by the mere rubbing together of two plates of iron, a degree of heat which makes water boil, without causing any discernible wear of the metal.

St. Pierre's Harmonies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 445.

1701. [7.] A fire may be easily kindled, without steel or fint, by the friction of two pieces of idy- and laurelwood.

St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature.

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