shortest day of winter. This phenomenon marks the climate of sixteen hours: it is still that of Tartary.

The Antients had a generical name to express every kind of revolution. Now, we find among the Tartars a period of a hundred and eighty years, which they call Vau (a day). A hundred and forty-four times a hundred and eighty years, make exactly twenty-five thousand nine hundred and twenty years. This is the true revolution of the fixed stars, as deduced from the most accurate of our modern observations.

The pilgrimages which the Indians make to the Pagoda of the Grand Lama, and into Siberia, seem to be a homage which the piety of the Indians still renders to the couvtry whence they had their origin.

Antient Hist. of Asia, by M. Bailly,

vol. i. pp. 204 210, 213 — 214.

1542. (Gen. iii. 23, 24.] The Tartars, twelve hundred years before Jesus Christ, peopled the islands of the easteru ocean. Kempfer observes, that the Japanese and the Tartars have the same warlike genius, the same intrepidity of mind, and contempt of death; and he thinks, that if we would define a Japanese properly we ought to name him a civilized and well-bred Tartar. Does not the veneration of the Indians and Chinese for certain mountains of Tartary, give a strong indication of their first abode ? This is not all: Meudes Pinto relates, from a Chinese chronicle, the history of a princess called Nanca, who laid the foundation of the city of Naukin, to which she gave her name. This princess came with her three sons six hundred and thirty-nine years after the Deluge, from a country situated under the 62d degree of northern latitude.

In China, they turn their face towards the north pole, to make libations in honor of the dead. When we consider the veneration of this people for the memory of their ancestors, we conceive but one natural interpretation of this usage ; I mean, that the Chinese turn themselves towards that quarter of the globe where is the place of their nativity, and where their forefathers are at rest.

Since Fohi, Diemschid, the Chaldeans, and the Brahmins, were strangers to the different countries where they settled, we have so ne probability for believing, that they emigrated from the same country, and that that country is Scythia.

Linnæus remarks, that several of our plants and vegetables, unknown in antient times, grow spontaneously in Siberia, and were not cultivated in Europe before the invasion of the Goths, who, no doubt, imported them along with their architecture. M. Linnæus adds, that, according to M. Heinzelman, wheat and barley grow naturally in Russian Tartary, and that the inhabitants of Siberia make bread of rye which is found in a state of nature, and without being

1543. (Gen. iii. 24.] Astronomers have remarked, by the direction of the spots which move on the disc of Jupiter, that the axis of this planet is perpendicular to the ecliptic; and that this globe makes its revolution in ten hours : They have then a uniform season, or perpetual spring, their days always equal, five hours of night, and five of day.

Nat. Delin. vol. iy. p. 242.


A flaming sword] The words so rendered are in the original the flame of culting, or division, or a dividing flame ; for the word that here signifies a sword, signifies also division; and, in Matt. x. 34, and Luke xiii. 51, is trauslated both ways. (Univer. Hist. vol. i. p. 130.) – This appearance of a divided sword over the tree of life, probably, was like that of a cloven tongue orer the head of every believer during the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost.

In the world of spirits, the different kinds of love and their affections are represented by flames, and this with inexpressible variation. See No. 184.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 3222.


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To that hour, the real couutry of corn was unknowu. This plant, so precious to the life of man, is not a production of our climates. It is, then, natural in Tartary, in the same manner as pepper is in the Moluccas, or coffee in Arabia. But it will then follow, of course, tbat it was introduced by the northern tribes: the almost universal use of wheat and bread, is a clear indication that it descended froin that people to the rest of mankind. If the use of it does not obtain in India and China, it is because those nations have found a species of food of equal excellence; I mean rice, which is a pative of the same climate, and which affords them different crops with little culture.

This population of the north is proved by sufficient documents, by the frequent irruptions, by the numerous - armies, which desolated and conquered all the countries of Egypt.

During the Paradisaical siate, the North Pole was in the East. When the North Pole was deflected, Adam the Tartar, was turned out of Paradise, and went northward to cultivate the corn plant, in countries where it was indigenous.

Zoroaster, describing the country, the situation of rivers, mountains, the regulation of time, the succession of the seasons says, that the lougest day of summer is double the


On the 6th of Oct. 1763 (as on many different days) at 5 o'clock afternoon, a kind of mock-sun appeared of equal altitude with the real sun, about 224,2 southerly from him. A little above the mock-sun, the sky was clear, but the phenomenon was in the midst of clouds that were not very dense. The diameter of this phenomenon was nearly like that of the real sun, and a remarkable red stream of light pointed from it, as at all other times towards the real san, which shined clearly at the same time.

Phil. Trans. vol. xii. p. 39. 1547. [Gen. iii. 24.) Sometimes the sun has risen or set with a luminous teil projecting from him, of the same breadth with his diameter, and perpendicular to the horizon. As M. Feuillee was walking on the banks of the river La Plata, he saw the sun rising over the river with a luminous tail projecting downwards, which continued till he was 6 degrees high.

See PRIESTLEY on Vision, p. 617.

1552. [Gen. iy. 2. Abel was a keeper of sheep] The Egyptian sheep were so wonderfully productive that they had young, and were shorn, twice a year.

DIODORUS. Bib. Research. vol. ji. p. 145. In England, the worth of the Wool annually shorn is considerably upwards of two millions, and when wrought produces an ainount of nearly seven millions sterling; facts which exhibit the importance of the cultivation of that animal, which is the source of all this opulence, in a point of view particularly striking. - The Tibetian sheep yield wool of admirable length and fineness, and are said to produce the material from which are fabricated the Indian shawls, which are sometimes sold in this country for between thirty and fifty pounds.

NICHOLSON's Encyclopedia.


We might produce the same account of the creation and the fall, expressed by symbols very nearly similar, from the Puranas themselves, and even from the Veda, which appears to stand next in antiquity to the five books of Moses : He writes his own naine Musah.

Works of Sir W. JONES, vol. i.

pp. 133, 134.

1553. [3.] At the end of days, HUTCHINSON seems to think, was the time afterwards established by Moses for offering the Pasehal lamb.

See his Introduc. to Moses's
Sine Principio, pp. ccxxii

ccxxxvii. and ccxl.

1549. [Gen.iv. 1. I have gotten a man from the Lord.] Thus unto Christ, God gave children, Heb. ii. 13. And they are a congregation of first-born, whose names are wrillen in heaven, Heb. xii. 23; being of God's own will begotten by the word of truth, that they should be a kind of first-fruits of his creatures, Jas i. 18; to whom he also gises the first-fruits of bis Spirit, Rom. viii. 23. These wait on and follow the Lamb, being first-fruits to God and the Lamb, Rev. xiv. 4, And Christ (say they) hath made us kings and priests to God and his Father, that we may serve him day and night in his temple, Rev. 1.6.- vii. 15.



Cain brought of the fruit of the ground] Numa taught the Romans to offer fruils to the gods, and to make supplications before them, bringing salt (or sugared) cakes and parched corn ; as grain in this state was deemed most wholesome. Plin. Nat. Hist.lib. xviii. c. 2.

See No. 952, and See Dr. A. CLARKE, on Lev. ii. 1. 1 Esdras i. 19.

1555. [4.] There is now no doubt, says HUTCHINSON, that sacrifice was instituted as soon as Cain was at age to offer; and as Abel's firstling appears to be the Paschal Lamb, which was the first sacrifice in course, the end of days may denote the time of the Passover at the vernal equinox, fixed by Moses for the fourteenth day of the month Abib. See this point argued in Hutchinson's Use of Reason Recovered, &c. from p. 305 to the end.

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1551. [-1-16.] The Adam and Eve of sacred writ, some (amongst whom I think is Dr. WARBURTON) have supposed to have been allegorical or hieroglyphic persons of Egyptian origin. — According to this opinion Adam and Eve were the names of two hieroglyphic figures representing the early state of mankind; Abel was the name of a hieroglyphic figure representing the age of pasturage, and Cain the name of another hieroglyphic symbol representing the age of agriculture, at which time the uses of iron were discovered. And as the people who cultivated the rth and built houses would increase in numbers much faster by their greater productions of food, they would readily conquer or destroy the people who were sustained by pasturage, which was typified by Cain slaying Abel.

Darwin's B. G. Art. Portland Vase.


Grotius and Le Clerc, have thought the words which we render, The firstlings of his flock, may signify only what was the best and finest ; and that this may

relate only to the wool, which, as is well known, was offered in later times to the gods : and what we translate fat thereof, may mean only their milk. It is certain that the LXX often translate the Hebrew word for fat, by a Greek werd, which signifies milk. The word is also used for first ripe fruit, or for hasty fruit before the summer.

Isai. xxviii. 4. Hosea ix. 10. Essay on the Sacrifices,

p. 164.


Had respect] Shoah (Hebr.) is translated by THEODITIAN, enepurisen (Grk.), he set on fire ; that is, fire from heaven descended on Abel's sacrifice and consumed it: this, we learn, was the token of God's approbation in other instances. See similar facts among the Heathens, adduced in Boyle's Dic!. Hist. Art. Egnatia. this patriarch Jubal, Masius derives jobel the musical instrument admitted to bave given name to the Jubilee year. (See Dr. GREGORY, de Eris et Epochis, p. 137.) - The inventor of music is here, after the manner of the Hebrews, called the father of musicians.

N. B. These sacrifices were gifts; there was neither death, Nor burning

See No. 234, 239, 934, 233.

Hyderabad, and Aurangabad derive their name from their founder or conqueror.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ij. p. 339.

1564. [Gen, iv. 19.] The conjugiel influence is not at all given between one man and a plurality of wives.

See No, 445, 530. SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 10,756.

1558. [Gen. iv. 13.] Is my sin too great to be forgiven ?

SHUCKFORD's Connexion, vol. i. p. 6. - Verse 14.] And must it be, that any one who finds me may slay me ??

Cain appears deeply apprehensive of suffering death by the avenger of blood. But the Lord, who afterwards provided cities of refuge for the man-slayer, gives verdict and enacts punishment in his favor; a strong presumption that Cain became a true penitent, fled to God for refuge, and obtained mercy and protection.

Sec No. 239,- 244.

1565. [-20.] Under Jabel, men covered themselves slightly with a single skin of some beast or other, and sheltered themselves from the scorching heats of the sun under tenis made of skins sewed together. — Time and experience taught men how to spin sheep's wool and goat's hair, and to procure themselves clothes smoother and more easily washed.

See Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the Heav,

vol. i. p. 154.

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1576. [Gen. v. 1.) To prevent all false reasoning, be it here remarked, that the sacred pen-men never made use of numerical letters; always expressing numbers in words at length, See No. 169, 218.

Univer. Hist. vol. iii. p. 415.

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1572. [-23.) When Hannibal passed through Gaul to cross the Alps, in the treaty then made with him, it was agreed that, if a Gaul offered any injury to a Carthaginian, he should be tried before “the Court (or Jury) of the Gaulish Women.(See Plut. de mulier. Polyæn. strat. 1. vii. Or Univer. Hist. vol. xviii. p. 42, note.) That every decision on life and death might be according to mercy, in those days the men pleaded like Lamech, and the women gave sentence. - Noah was Lamech's son. See Isai. ü. 12. Josh. viii. 35.

1577. [-3.] The Egyptians in calculating their year, reckoned only 365 days, omitting the odd quarter, which in four year's time, made a whole day; and neglecting to intercalate that day at the four years' end, and to reckon 366, instead of 365, their civil year on this account began one day too soon, and by retrogradation differed a whole day from the calculation of the natural year. It of course differed two days at eight years' end, and three years after twelve. The beginning of the sacred year went successively thus through every one of the days of the natural year in the space of 365 times four years; which make 1460 years, the reputed age of one of their kings.

The antient kings of Egypt are nothing more than the names of the stars (Seth, for instance, is the dog-star); and the pretended duration of their lives, is only a supputation of the time necessary to bring again a star to that point of the heavens from which it had begun its course. See No. 252, 258, 247, 251. Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the

Heav. vol. i. pp. 182, 183.


A Hindoo jury, agreeably to antient custom, consists of five persons, chosen from among the elders ; two by the plaintiff

, two by the defendant, and the fifth by the administrator of justice.

Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

vol. ii. p. 359.


In Egypt, one naine of the dog-star was Seth ; from whose heliacal rise the most antient and wise of the Egyptian astronomers dated the commencement of their year. (JABLONSKI, ii. 51.) — Josephus took Seth the son of Adam, for Seth or Sesostris, king of Egypt, who erected in the land of Siriad two pillars, the one of brick, the other of stone, for the express purpose of recording astronomical observations. See No. 170, 370, 15, 249, 300. See Antiq. b. i. ch. ii. g 3.

1574. [- 25.] The children of the Mandingoes are not always named after their relations; but frequently in Consequence of some remarkable occurrence.

Thus, says Mungo Park, my landlord at Kamalia was called Karfa, a word signifying to replace; because he was born shortly after the death of one of his brothers. Among the negroes, every individual, beside his own proper name, has likewise a kontong or surname, to denote the family or clan to which he belongs. Every negro plumes himself on the importance or the antiquity of his clan, and is much flattered when he is addressed by his kontong.

Trav. in Africa, p. 269.

1579. [5] The Chinese usually reckon to a deceased emperor that year in which he dies.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. v. p. 2.


At Jeddeh, which is two days' journey from Mecca, is the place where Eve is said to be interred

which resembles a flower-bed, measures 197 paces. On the middle of the grave, a small dome is erected, and the ends are enclosed with woodeu pales.

Gladwin's K hojeh Abdulkurreem,

The grave,

1580. [Gen. vi. 4. Giants] Nephalim (Ilebr.), gigantes

[ (Grk.), the fallen, the earth-born. These Aniediluvians who perished, immersed the doctrinals of faith in their filthy lusts, and thereby conceived direful persuasions, from which they were unwilling to recede, however instructed by others, and whatever proof were given them of the falsity of such persuasions. There are men al this day of the same twofold genius, or temper : such cannot, without much difficulty, be regenerated.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 736.

p. 159.

1581. (Gen. vi. 4.] Iu old time, when the proud giants perished (in Egypt), the hope of the world (Noah) governed by thy hand, escaped in a weak (wicker) vessel, and left to all ages a seed of generation.

Wisdom of Solomon, xiv. 6.

1586. [Gen. vi. 5. The wickedness] The idolatry. The first kings of Egypt (during what has been called the Scythian dynasty) were all made gods.

See DIODORUS, lib. i.


The sons of God came in to the daughters of men] This is the first account we have of adoption.

1587. [-8.] Those who were called Noah, were the first of the Antient Church ; which was the Church after the flood. (SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 1125.) - But as Noah, ‘a preacher of righteousness', lived before the flood as well as after it, the Second Revelation which God gave of Himself, was in the First Church Adam, which perished at the flood.

1583. [5.] The humor of converting heroes into giants, is natural to the half-civilized ideas of antient nations : nor is it totally undescriptive of the persons.

Archæologia, vol. vii. p. 171.


With the men of the Most-anticnt Church the things of the will were united with the things of the understanding, as is also the case with the celestial angels.

SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 875. The Antediluvians who perished, were called Nephalim.

Ibid. n. 736.

1588. [- 13. The land is filled with violence] Egypt was not easily accessible by land, and had no good havens by sea. It had on the west the dry desert of Lybia ; and on the south Siene that divided it from Ethiopia, as well as the cataracts of the Nile that could not be sailed over; and on the east the Red Sea, extended as far as Coptus; aad it was fortified ou the north by the land that reached to Syria, together with that called the Egyptian Sea, having no bavens in it for ships. And thus was antient Egypt, as it were, walled round on every side. See No. 261,

Joseph. Wars, b. ii. ch. x.

v. V.


1589. [-14. Gopher-wood] In truth, says Dr. Geddes, the particular species of trees, herbs, stones, metais, aud animals, mentioned in the Hebrew writingsare now little known. The ship or ark of Noah however, in my apprehension, he adds, was a large coffer formed of twigs like basket-work, and covered over with bitumen, both within and without, to keep out the water. Its vimineous wood, he thinks, must have been the osier.

See his Critical Remarks,

pp. 67, 68.


Among the Antients, the science of Correspondencies was understood, which also was the science of Representations, and the peculiar science of their wise men, cultivated particularly in Egypt : whence they had their Hieroglyphics. In consequence of this science, they knew what was signified by all kinds of animals ; also by trees of all kinds; and moreover what was signified by mountains, hills, rivers, fountains; as well as by the sun, moon, and stars. As all their divine worship was representative, consisting of mere correspondencies, they celebrated their reli. gious rites on mountains and hills, also in groves and gardens. For the same reason they consecrated fountains, and turned their faces towards the east in their adorations of God. They made for themselves also carved images of horses, oxen, calves, lambs, of birds, fishes, and serpents. These they placed in their houses and other places, in a certain order, according to the spiritual things of their Church, to which they corresponded, or which they represented. They did the like in their temples, that they might recal to their memories the holy things which they signified. In process of time, when the science of Correspondencies was lost, then posterity began to worship the images themselves as sacred ; not knowing that their ancestors saw nothing sacred in them, but that only according to correspondencies they represented and thereby signified things sacred. Thence arose the idol. atries, which filled the whole land; as well Asia and its circumjacent islands, as Africa and Europe. (SWEDENBORG, on Divine Providence, n. 255.) — Hince, on the seat of that idolatry, came the overwhelming " flood of Egypt." Amos, ix. 5.

See No. 259, 264.


The Septuagint and Volgate translate gopher by cyprus. The cyprus-tree of the Levant, and of Egypt, is aromatic; and when its leaves are dried and beaten small, they yield a yellow or red powder, with which the Egyptians and Turks die their vails, and the women their hands, and a part of their hair; also the feet, manes, and tails of their horses. This tree rises to the height of the pomegranate, and bears its fruit in great bunches (Cant. i, 14): the Arabians call it Alhenna.

See Essay for a New Translation,

part ii. p. 164. N. B. As this is not the common cypress, the spelling, as above, should be


Dr. Mather conjectures that the Gopher-wood here mentioned, was the Juniperus arbor tetragonophyllos, frequent in the East Indies, &c.

Abr. Phil. Trans. vol. vi. p. 80,

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