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sea-worms cut in pieces the bones. These last on the Lotle, and which must have arisen from profound enquiries into southern coasts, and especially at the mouths of rivers, are ju the original state of animal existence. such prodigious quantities, and armed with augers so formi- See No. 250.

Darwin's Temple of Nature, dable, that they are capable of devouring a ship of war in less

Additional Notes ; X. time than it took to build her.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,
vol. i. p. 304.

1488. [Gen. ii. 21, 22.] An extraordinary phenomenon has lately astonished the anatomists of the metropolis. A young man about 16 years of age died lately of a disorder which

baffled all the skill of the faculty. But a day or two before his 1483. (Gen. ii. 19.] Hindostan abounds with animals, both

death (1814), he felt the sensation as if something alive wild and tame : of the former kind are elephauts, rhinoceros,

were within him. The motion was perceptible to the hand lions, tigers, leopards, wolves, jackals, and the like.

of another; when laid on his stomach, more vigorous and Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi. p. 209.

sensible than that of a woman in the last state of pregnancy. On his death he was opened, when a female fatus was found

in the upper ventricle of his belly. It was imperfect, as it 1484.

The inhabitants of Kirman (in Persia) had only one leg, but it had arms, nails, hair, and the sex are lean and slender, with brown or wheat-coloured com- was perceptible. It had clearly been coeval with his own plexions. - They cultivate sugar, and eat bread made of birth, and by the convulsive motions had been alive till millet.

nearly his own extinction. It is in the possession of Mr. EBN. HAUKAL, pp. 142, 143. Carpue, Lecturer in Anatomy in Dean-street, London.

Public Prints.

1485. [20.] It was in India, says Lucian, that philosophy first alighted on the earth.

See Forbes' Oriental Memoirs,

voi. iv. p. 88.

1489.

During the first six months of gestation, the embryon probably sleeps, as it seems to have no use for voluntary power; it then seems to awake, to stretch its limbs, and change its posture in some degree, which is termed quickening. See No. 66.

DARWIN's Temple of Nature,

Canto 1. l. 392.

1486. [19, 20.] Some think that Adam was at first in such a state of freedom or free-will, that he could of himself love God and be wise ; and that such free-will was lost in his posterity. But this is an error; as man is not a life, but the recipient of a life ; and as he who is but a recipient of his life, cannot, from any thing his own, love and be wise, Ada.n therefore, when he wished to be wise and to love from what he supposed to be his own, fell from wisdom and love, and was cast out of Paradise. See No. 220, 224. SWEDENBORG, on Divine Love, n. 117.

1490.

Was not this a dream ? — The cerebellum, as I have learnt, says SWEDENBORG, is in a wakeful state during sleep, when the cerebrum is asleep. Hence the men of the most Antient Church had their dreams.

Love never sleeps.
See No. 161, 162.

Arcanu, nn. 1977, 1983.

1491. [

-23.] The word Heva, which is known to signify the life, signifies also a serpent. (See CLEMENT of Alexandria, Cohortat. ad Gent. p. 11. edit. Oxon.)

Hence the Hivites, Exod. iji. 8.

1487. [

-21, 22.] The Mosaic history of Paradise and of Adam and Eve has been thought by some to be a sacred allegory, designed to teach obedience to divine commands, and to account for the origin of evil, like Jotham's fable of the trees ; Judg. ix. 8. or Nathan's fable of the poor man and his lamb; 2 Sam. xii. 1. or like the parables in the New Testament; as otherwise knowledge could not be said to grow upon one tree, and life upon another, or a serpent to converse; and lastly, that this account originated with the Magi or philosophers of Egypt, with whom Moses was educated, and that this part of the history, where Eve is said to have been made from a ribof Adam might have been a hieroglyphic design of the Egyptian philosophers, shewing their opinion that Mankind was originally of both sexes united, and was afterwards divided into inales and females : an opiuion in later times held by Plato, and I believe by Aris

1492. [24] The antient Hindoos, according to Strabo, differed in nothing from the Africans, but in the straightness and smoothness of their hair, while that of the others was crisp or woolly; a difference proceeding chiefly, if not entirely, froin the respective humidity or dryness of their atmosphere. (Works of Sir W. Jones, vol. i. p. 31.)

- The Chinese and Hindoos were originally the same people, but having been separated near four thousand years, have retained few strony features of their antient consanguinity. Matt. xix, 8.

Ibid, p. 108.

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1496.

When men grew, promethesteroi (Grk.), (which is the signification of PROMETHEUS), more cunning, more apt to contride, they departed from their primitive tomperance, and lost their serenity. Then the use of fire was discovered, which was the source of all mechanical arts.

Couke's Hesiod, Works and Days,

b. 1. vol. 69.

1505. [7.] In warm countries the ground is shaded with creeping vegetables and trees in form of a parasol; some of which, such as the (double fruited) cocoatree of the Sechelles or Mahe islands in the 50th degree of south latitude, and the talipot of Ceylon, have leaves from twelve to fifteen feet long, and from seven to eight feet broad. One of these cocoa-leaves is to be seen in the Royal Cabinet of Natural History, Paris. The Maldivia Islands are the native places of the cocoa-tree, as the Sechelles are of the double cocoa-nuts.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. pp. 252, 265, 375, 438.

1497.

Subtle] arum (Hebr.), in its primary acceptation, signifies naked (or simple), and is so rendered in the last verse of the preceding Chapter.

Univer. Hist. vol, iv.p. 117.

1498.

The Phænician word, Nahhash (in Hebrew Nachash), a serpent, is from a verb in the same langaage signifying — to see.

Le CLERC.

1506.

In Hindostan there are trees, of a kind unknown to Europeans, that bear leaves as broad as bucklers.

The soil also produces in great plenty, carrots, potatoes, onions, and garlic.

Modern Univer. Hist. vol. vi:

pp. 208, 209.

1499.

Nachashti (Hebr.), I have observed, Gen. xxx. 27. xliv. 5, 15. Hence nachash, an observer; an aruspex ; a diviner by serpents.

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1509.

The leaf of the talipot of Ceylon being naiurally round and capable of covering from fifteen to tweniy persons, the soldiers employ it as a covering to their tents. When dried, it is at once stroug and pliant, so that you may fold and unfold it like a fan. Rolled together, it is not thicker than a man's arm and extremely light. How providentially does this exist in a country alternately burut up by the sun, and inundated by the rains, for six mouths of the year.

See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

1513. (Gen. iii. 8.] Iu India the fig tree of the Baniaus throws from the extremity of its branches a multitude of shoots, which, dropping to the ground take root, and form around the principal trunk a great onmber of covered arcades or palaces of verdure, whose slade is impervious to rain and the rays of the sun. Compare Gen. iii. 24. Amos i. 5. See No. 212.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iv. p. 439.

p. 438.

1509. (Gen. iii. 7.] The leaves of the Banana-tree, which readily grows in Egypt, are two ells long, and two feet broad. Its stalk rises very high, and in a year becomes there six inches or more in diaineter. From the middle of its leaves rises a branch divided into sevcral knobs, out of each of which issue ten or twelve of the fruit, as long as a middle-sized cucumber, and which contains a rich, smooth, nourishing, cool and sweet-tasted pulp. Of all these grapes, collected on a single branch, is formed a cluster or mass of 150 or 200 of the fruit — This plant, without any cost, nourishes for several mouths together thousands of the inhabitants, and has always been the resource of Egypt, Ethiopia and India.

See Abbe Pluche's Hist. of the

Heav. vol. i. p. 43.

1514.

In Pirke Eliezer (cap. 14.) the Jewish Doctors assert, that God had descended vine times, and that the tenth time he shall descend in the age to come, i, e. in the time of the Messiah. The first time was in the garden of Eden : the second, at the confusion of tongues : the third, at the destruction of Sodom : the fourth, at his talking with Moses on Mount Horeb: the fifth, at his appearance on Sinai : the sixth and seventh, when he spoke to Moses in the hollow of the rock : the eighth and ninth, in the tabernacle: the tenth will be, they say, when he shall appear in the times of the Messiah.

See Judgment of the Jewish Church,

p. 282.

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1519 (Gen. iii. 15.] ANTHONY COLLINS, in two curious Works composed on the subject, presumes to demonstrate that none of the prophecies of the Old Testament can be literally applied to Jesus Christ. Jews also have laboured to prove the same thing, particularly in their Liber Nizzachon Vetus, and Munimen Fidei, as published in the Tela Ignea Satanæ by Wagenseil, in 4to, al Altorf, 1681.

See No. 311.

162:3. [Gen. iii. 17.] There is not perhaps an infectious morass on the Globe, except in places where men have injudiciously destroyed the plants whose roots absorbed the humidity of the earth, and whose foliage repelled that of the heavens.

Ibid. p. 343.

1524.

When similar portions of contaminated air were exposed by Mr. Brande to the operation of the vine, mint, the pea, and water-cresses, all in a healthy state of vegetation ; by the vine and mint the air was fouud purified, unaltered by the pea, and rendered less pure by the

cresses.

1520.

HALLER, in his excellent Treatise on the chicken, proves, by facts so convincing that it is impossible to withhold our assent, that the fætus belongs to the female, in particular, that the tadpoles of frogs, toads, and newts, pre-existed fecondation ; that they existed in the egg produced by the mother, before it was moistened by the semen of the male. He also discovered, that, in the egg, of the torpedo, a fætus exists previous to fecundation. See No. 227. See his Dissertation on Animals and

Vegetables, — And Lettera Sopra
Diverse Produsione Marine.

See Tilloch's Philosoph. Mag. for

March 1816, p. 226.

1525. [18.] The thorny Rest Harrow, which occasions so much trouble to the husbandmen in Scania, grows in large quantities all over Egypt, and in the hordering countries of Asia. HASSELQUIST thinks this is the pernicious weed denoted by Thorns in the Sacred Scriptures.

Trav. to the East, p. 92.

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1526.

In some parts of Persia, weeds and thorns grow as high as the waist of a man, so thickly entangled, that one cannot, without considerable difficuliy, be extricated from them.

EBN. HAUKAL, p. 100.

1527. -- Nothing is more common in coppice-woods than to see a young oak start out of a tuft of brambles, which enamels the earth all around with its clusters of prickly flowers; or a young pine arise out of a yellow brake of mariue-rushes. Thus, the thorny plants are the original cradles of the forests; and the scourge of the agricultore of Man is made the bulwark of that of nature.

St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature,

vol. ii. p. 371.

in the year.

1522.

The most unwholesome regions of the Earth are in Asia, on the banks of the Ganges from which proceed every year putrid fevers : that in 1771 cost Bengal the lives of more than a million of men. These plagues are caused principally by the rice-plantations, which are artificial morasses transformed after the crop is reaped, by the rotting of the roots and stalks left on the ground, into infectious puddles exhaling pestilential vapors. From the same cause, in Africa the air of Madagascar is corrupted daring six months

It is also from the antient miry canals of Egypt, that the leprosy and the pestilence there are perpetually issuing forth. Similar diseases, putrid and bilious fevers, with land-scurvy, annually issue from the canals of Holland. The bad air of Rome in Summer proceeds likewise from its antient aqueducts. The purple fever, the dysentery, , &c. so epidemic in the country after the heats of Summer, proceed generally from the puddles of the peasantry, in which leaves and the refuse of plants are permitted to putrefy. Many also of our city-distempers issue from our cemeteries and lay stalls. In short, there would not probably have been a single mwholesome spot on the Earth, if men had not put their hands to it; as all uninhabited islands have been ever found exceedingly healthfui.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. i.

P.

315.

1528,

We are told by Diodorus Siculus (Bibl. Histor. lib. 1. sect. 8) that the most antient Grecians, and some other nations, “ranged over the fields and woods in search of food, as the beasts did, eating any wild herb that they could find, and such fruits as the trees produced of their own accord.”

1529. 18, 19.] Is not the plain meaning of these words, that man is now condemned to eat only bread and the herb of the field, till the day of bis death ? - He is not allowed to eat of the Vine, till after the food; and then under particular restrictions. See Ch. ix. 3, 4. - The diet of the Parisians cousists chiefly of bread and herbs. See No. 226, 231.

Dr. LISTER.

1537. [Gen. iii. 22.] Though instead of the interrogative point, the Hebrews make use of the interrogative he ; yet the sense of the words, and a certain supposed modulation, do oftentimes make an interrogation where that he is wanting.

Boyle, on the style of the Holy

Scriptures, p. 66.

1530. [Gen. iii. 19.] The bread of the lower class of people in the East is commonly made of dourra.

Bowyer's Views in Egypt.

1531.

Man could uot bave existed on the Earth, had he been under the necessity of deriving his first nutriment from the corn-plant; which, of all vegetable productions, demands the most culture, machinery, and handling. Before it is cast into the ground, ploughs, harrows and manure must be used. When it begins to grow, it must be weeded; when come to maturity, the sickle must be employed to cut it down; fails, fanners, bags, barns to thresh it out, to winnow it and to store it up; mills to reduce it to flour, to bolt it and to sift it; bakehouses where it must be kneaded, leavened, baked and converted into bread. As God appointed this for man's principal labor, ought we not to conform, and employ ourselves in husbandry rather than in fabricating the vain and useless ornaments of dress, in which human vanity and depravily are presumptuously arrayed at present. Gen. xli. 57.

St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, See No. 76.

vol.iii.p. 653. — vol. iv. p. 433.

1538.

And take also of the tree of life] The fermented juice of the palm-tree being more powerfully intoxicating than that of the vine. — The cocoa-nut tree grows in a stately column, from thirty to fifty feet in height, crowned by a verdant capital of waving branches, covered with long spiral leaves; under this foliage, bunches of blossoms, clusters of green fruit, and others arrived at maturity, appear in mingled beauty. Many of the trees are not permitted to bear fruit; but the embryo bud, from which the blossoms and nuts would spring, is tied up to preveut its expansion ; and a small incision being then made at the end, there oozes in gentle drops a cool pleasant liquor, called Toddy ; - the palm-wine of the poets. This, when first drawn, is cooling and salutary : but when fermented and distilled, produces an intoxicating spirit.

See FORBES' Orientdi Memoirs,

pol. i. pp. 22, — 24.

1532.

Bodily labor soothes to rest the solici. tudes of the mind, fixes natural restlessness, and promotes among ihe people health, humanity, religion and happiness.

Ibid. vol. iii. p. 176.

1539. [-23.] Go, degraded creature, animal destitute of clothing, intelligence without light. Go, and provide for thy wants. It will not be in thy power to enlighten thy blinded reason, but by directing it continually toward Heaven; nor to sustain thy miserable life, without the assistance of beings like thyself. — Behold, then, thy indispensable obligations of loving God above all things, and thy neighbour as thyself. See No. 98.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

vol. iii. p. 56.

1533. [ 20.) And Adam called his wife's name LIFE, because she was the mother of all living. Chavau (Hebr.) and Zoe (Grk.), both signify life.

See No. 1491.

1534. [-21.] Posidio, in Arabia, laco vir & nxor per genus constituti, præsunt, pelliti ambo, e palmulis victitantes. (See Curtius de liortis, p. 89: cited by Hulchinsón, in his Introduc. to Moses's Sine Principio, p. ccxlvii.)

LUCRETIUS allows Paradise, tabernacles of boughs, coverings of skins, and every thing he could gather out of tradition or Scripture, without owning the author.

Ibid. p. ccxlviii.

1540.

The vast and opulent empire of China, which contains fifteen provinces, and is sometimes styled Great Tartury, is bounded on the north by the famous Chinese wall; on the east, by the Chinese ocean ; on the south, by the Indian sea ; and on the west, by a vast sandy desert, and a long ridge of inaccessible mountains, which divide it from western Tartary, as the great wall does from northern Tartary.

Modern Univer, Hist. vol. viii.

b. xiii. c. 1.

1535.

Different Castes were clothed in different animal-skius, and named accordingly, Serpents, Goats, Sheep, beasts or bulls, Cows, &c.

See No. 198.

1536. - 22.] Instead of is become, the Hebrew, the Samaritan Text, the Samaritan Version, the Syriac, and the Septuagint, have what answers to was, in the preterite tease.

1541. The antient religion of the Chinese appears to have been greatly similar to that of the antient Patriarchs. They neither deified their monarchs and great men, nor introduced any such impious and unnatural ritos into their worship as were practised by other nations.

Ibid. p. 100.

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