If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye


if I tell you of heavenly things.

John ü. 12.



Science and Religion.


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an unerring parity of reason between them through all its own conceptions and notions, together with all its regular judgments, and positions, and deductions concerning them; without glancing at the real nature or true properties of what must be allowed entirely unknown, otherwise than by this semblance and analogy. Thus all vature within our direct view, becomes a large and spacious field of divine as well as of human knowledge, abundantly sufficient for all the purposes of religion in this life : And they who are not content with this kind and degree of it, must in effect renounce all religion as well natural as revealed.

Bp. BROWNE's Analogy, p. 205.

1363. (Gen. i. 1.] In reading this sacred Book, you cannot proceed immediately “to any direct perception, or simple apprehension, or (internal) consciousness, or purely spiritual ideas of things divine and supernatural.” Look for them in things natural and human. Observe here below, “how our little system is an epitome of the universe, and man a remote image, and picture in miniature, of the Divine Being himself. -- How it is by looking into this world, and more particularly into ourselves, that we can have any conception at all of things divine and supernatural ; which are there alone to be discerned, and that by reflection only aud similitude : but as truly and clearly, as the substance of a human face is by a clear and lively resemblance of it in a glass. — How the knowledge by that image only, is true, and real, and useful; though a mau had no power to turn about (Reo. i. 12.) and view the substance itself: And so likewise, how our knowledge of sun, moon and stars, appearing to us in the water only, would be thus far and sufficiently well grounded; though our eyes were naturally so prone and fixed to this little globe of ours, that we could not look upward for the least direct and immediate view of them. How this is a sure and solid foundation of all the ne knowledge we have ; and how therefore it is here the mind begins to exert the noblest and most exalted of all its operations, in substituting its conceptions of things natural and human, for representing the correspondent, but undiscerned, substance and reality of things divine and supernatural : And in carrying on


It is a pious labor, says St. Jerom, but it is likewise a dangerous presumption, that he who should be judged by every one, should take upon him to be every one's judge, to change the language of the Antients, and bring back the world, already grown old, to the first lessons of children. For what person is there, whether ignorant or knowing, that, taking this Book and finding it to differ from that which he had previously learnt, will not instantly cry out, “The author is gailty of forgery and sacrilege, in hay. ing dared to add to the Sacred Writings, or to change and correct them.' (Pref. in Evan. ad Damas.)-The Hebrews call the Bible, MIKRA, - what is to be read.

See Essay for a New Translation, p. 36.

Mr. Psalmanczar wrote the account of the Jews, in the first volume of the Universal History. (Dr. A: CLARKE.) Yes, but he wrote also, the History of the Celtes, and Scythians, of the Greeks at the early periods, the antient Spaniards, Gauls, and Germaus.



CHRIST (who, in every degree of the Divine Glory, is the express or refracted Image of the Father's Person) as to his appearance in the first of the seven Spirits of God, is called the Beginning of the creation of God. Rev. iii. 14.

Rudiment : Eth (Hebr.) is left untranslated in the common English Bible, and in all the Antient Versious, except the Syriac, where it is rendered esse, an essential principle, or first rudiment. It would be highly absurd to suppose this important word to be here a mere particle, as the only appropriate particle ka, which could be wanted, immediately follows as prefix to the qualified term shamim, heavens ; which with the prefix ha in hashamim signifies these (visible) heavens, or the skies.

Verse 2.- Empty and void] as a mere rudimental sketch, unfilled


with minerals, and unadorned with either vegetable or animal production.

See No. 25.

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In the first Chapter of Genesis, we have an account of the first Creation, prodąced out of the Infinite Human; in which all things are good. In the Second Chapter, after man was created, we have another account of plants, trees, animals &c., of a middle nature; produced out of the combined spirit of Infinite and finite man. The Tree of Life was of the first creation ; the tree of knowledge was of the second : of course, the former represented what was purely of God; the latter, what was of God and man, when spiritually joined. - In the second creation, God infused a right spirit into man's inverted soul; and in the third, shewed man's proper nature, by creating it specifically into unclean, savage, and abominable creatures. From the spirit, so infused, arose Paradise : from man's inverted nature, Hades went up as a misty darkness. The former was to be the immediate receptacle of good souls; the latter, of evil ones. The First SHECHINAH, having effected this double work of redemption and salvation, as he stood manifested on our earth, proceeds by an emanation from Himself, to elevate a portion of the good spirit of Paradise to be a heaven in the angelic sun ; and to cast down of the evil spirit of Hades to be a hell for the final reception of wicked souls, beneath the earth and the natural sun, in the lower hemisphere of the solar system. - As the spirit of water, Oxygen and Hydrogen, can enter and assume water from its natural state, constituting thereby vital atmospheric air; so the INFINITE HUMAN Spirit, the Divine Love and Wisdom, penetrated and raised around our earth a glorified spirit from man ; which being thus vivified, the males of the human race were to receive it back inmediately from the Lord; and the females, mediately, through the men. But, to obtain this accoinmodated spirit of life, sacramentally received by eating the fruit and drinking the juice of the Palm, the tree of lives, the first-born men, the priests of the Church, were to conjoin themselves in affectiou and thought primarily with the Lord ; whilst the chief-w

-women and their congregations, in thought and affection, were to be subordinately conjoined with all that was good and true from the Lord in their preachers and husbands. It was thus in the First Church, that the man, Adam, by the inhaled breath of lives, becaine a living soul; aud that the interior of Eve, his wife, was actually, though spiritually, taken out of man. Man being in this way only a receiver, hai indeed through Paradise, and through Hades, the ker:0:c'e':? Of good and evil; but was not to be acknowledged, or ca tirought of in sacred worship, as the source (f either. Anong the ve::lijes however, whose sacramental trée, it seems, vas te dine ; human teachers and rulers were set up in lie Church es Gods, knowing good and evil from thez.schos, independently of any superior source. By adoptingilis idea, and its concomitant rituals, the Adamic Church fell into that idolatrous worship of man, which has continued ever since, to be more or less, the direct counterpart of all true religion.


The word bara (Hebr.) is never used but for the simple creation or production of matter iu atoms. The atoms of the heavens were created, and in the same act coucreted into small grains called spirit, o. 2. (HUTCHINSON's Principia, part ii. p. 5.) — All the atoms of matter were created at first.

Ibid. p. 174. Verse 2.] The word tehom, as it appears by usage, expresses the condition of the primitive matter of our terraqueous globe, as being then in atoms or small grains, loose and apparently fluid. (Ibid. part ii. p. 118.) -HUTCHINSON represents what he calls the spirit as coming in at the pores of the solar orb in dark rays, and going out as light in the bright rays. The Hebrew word, he says, which is mostly used for light, and still sounds Aer, is used for what is just issuing from the fire, and is still acting in inilation of fire. This ser, he argues, divided into atoms at the sun's centre, is called fire ; further dispersed, he supposes it is flame; further removed, if not in. terrupted by the way, nor too far dispersed, he calls it light, and also, if it pervade opaque bodies and be not too far dispersed, heat. (Ibid. pp. 392, 393.) – How is this ? and why?

Spirie, From Ainus and Esdras (as quoted in the margin of the text) it appears this spirit (the wind or air) was created, and its place is described as upon and around the earth.

Ibid. p. 12. Verse 3.] This light is afterwards described to be on the surface of the waters (or watery atmospheres). (Ibid.) – By expunsion the inotion of fire and light, at the orb of the suu, moves the light in all the way hither, and that here, instantaneously.

Ibid. p. 223. Verse 4.] Darkness was the first descriptive name of (the opaque) airs. (Ibid. p 7.) — Then light will be the circumambieut solar fluid above and around those airs; a distinct, but visible fluid when put in motion by the active rays of the sun. The airs without mnotion are


In the beginning ] Bereshith (Hebr.) denotes the primary sphere of God Himself, in which He conglomerated the radical essence of every heavenly body, and particularly that of our earth. — In this sense Jesus, the

called darkness ; in one degree of motion, called spirit; in a further, called light ; in another, called expansion : as expansion caused compression, that caused separation, that caused the solidity of the earth and the clearness of the water. (Ibid. p. 30.) — God did not create things perfect at once, but in atoms, to shew that it was His Spirit, and not the spirit of the world, which produced motion, &c.; that light is not the issue of the sun, but the sun the issue of light; that the origin of all bodies was from impalpable dust; that His Wisdom and Power infused into an invisible thin fluid a power to act, before there were two atoms of solids together ; and to sort, form, unite and keep them together, place and keep them in proper situations, &c. : and thereby (to shew) His continued dominion and operation on matter, which conld not bave appeared so plainly, if He had made and only revealed that He had created all things perfect, or in the state they were in when formed.

Ibid. p. 45. (Verse 6.] The Archbishop of York in the margin of his Translation of the PENTATEUCH, printed in 1574, opposite the word expansion, writes Heb. a stretching forth or sending out.)

Verse 20.] The atoms of the matter, which creatures are made of, are neither atoms of the heavens, nor of the earth, nor of the water. — No atom, as being a solid unit, can ever augment or diminislı, much less be dispossessed of its space or extension.

Ibid. pp. 3, 120.

On the 12th of October, the real breadth of the tail was nearly 16 millions of miles.



124. The real length of its tail, as seen Oct. 15th, must have been upwards of 100 millions of miles.

Ibid. That the apparent tail of a comet is its off-side atmosphere illuminated at its edges by the solar rays that pass externally of the nucleus, may be considered as established by observation, “two brilliant streams having been actually seen at the borders of the tail in the same diverging situation during a motion of the comet through more than 130 degrees.”

Ibid. p. 136. From the complete resemblance of many comets to a number of nebulæ I have seen, says Herschel, I think it not unlikely that the matter they contain is originally nebulous. See No. 7, 16, 22, 47.

Ibid. p. 142,

1371. (Gen. i. 1.] The New Comet (another incipient earth) passed Aldebaran in Taurus about the 15th of January, 1812 ; and was then advancing northward, nearly at the rate of a degree per day. (- This, and the great comet of 1811, I suppose to be the tuo spots which Herschel observed to break away from the Sun in 1807. — W. C.) Again, on the 20th of July at Marseilles, and on the first of August at Paris, another new comet was observed between the feet of the Griffin and the lead of the Lynx : it was not perceptible without the aid of glasses.

Public Prints.


God has created a precise number of simple matters, or of elements essentially differeut among themselves, and invariably the same, to assist the increase of organized bodies, and the allay of the mixed ones: By the diversity of these elemeuts, he varies the scene of the universe. But he prevents the destruction of that universe by the very iminutability of the nature and ournber of these elements. He sets bounds thus to the alterations which appear in them; so that the world is for ever changed, and yet the same for ever. See No. 1, &c. ABBE PLUCHE, Hist. of the Heao,

vol. ii. p. 87.


Each coinet, or gaseous earth, revolves, I conceive, in a very eliptical orbit between the spiritual and the natural sun in the solar systein, before it has density and gravity enough to begin its course around the natural sun as a planet.

1373. [Gen. i. 2.] The solar spots are now (March, 1815) become conspicuous on each side of the sun, as it presents itself alternately in about thirteen days and a half.

CAPEL LOFFT, Month. Mag. for April,

1815, p. 197.

p. 121.

1370. [Gen. i. 2.] When the comet of 1811 was about 114 millions of miles from the earth, its solid or planetary body was found to be nearly 428 iniles in diameter

HERSCHEL, Phil. Trans. for 1812,

part i. p. 118, Oct. 6th, the real diameter of its head was found to be about 127 thousand miles.

Ibid. At the same time the apparent extent of its whole atmosphere was more than 507 thousand miles in diameter, but its real extent, of which we can have no observation, must far exceed the above calculated dimensious.

Ibid. p. 122. By computation, the bright envelope of the cometic atmosphere must, in real diameter, have exceeded 643 thousand miles.

Ibid. p. 123.

1374. [Gen. i. 1.] It is the opinion of some learned men (See JENKIN's Reasonableness, and STILLINGFLEETS' Orig. Sacra.) that writing was an art coeval with mankind, and the invention of Adam hiinself. Josephus indeed informs us, that it was in use before the Fiood; and from thence some have conjectured, that the History of the Creation, and the rest of the book of Genesis, were (for the substance of them) delivered down to Moses in verse (which was the most antient way of writing) and that, from thein, he compiled his Book.


SwedeNBORG intimates, that Moses drew the introductory inatter of the eleven first Chapters of Genesis, through Egyptian conduits, from the primeval fountains of Indian literature in Great Tartary.

See his Arcana, n. 66.

1382. [Gen, i. 3.] The copies of the Hebrew Bible kept in rolls in the Jewish synagogues, are to this day, without points : yet the English Bible, generally speaking, is a translation of the Massoretic reading.

Bib. Research. Introduc. p. 88.


As the Egyptians held that the world had been created of God, SIMPLICIUS affirms the Mosaic account of the creation to be wholly borrowed from Egyptian traditions.

See Simplic. in Aristot. Phys.

1. viii. p. 268. Thus ORPHEUS wrote that all things were made by One GODHEAD of three names ; and that these three names manifest one and the same power of that invisible and incomprehensible God, who is the maker of all things, bringing into existence that which was not.

See Suidas, in voce, Orpheus, and Procl. in Tim. l. 2. p. 117.

Also TIMOTAEUS Chronog. apud EUSEB. Chron. Græc. p. 4. and Cedren, p. 57.

1383. [Gen. i. 2. Darkness.] “ A dark Rembrant shade."

MACKENZIE. Place around you at high mid-day, a tent, composed of dense and opaque materials : the temporary darkness which, by shutting yourself up in it, you will procure, may give you an idea of the darkness that now covered the earth, which did not antecedently subsist, but was the consequence of other things.

See Basil. Hexghem. homil. 2. pp. 23, 24.

edit. Paris, 1618.


Elohim is a name not appropriated to God alone, but also to Angels, Ps. Ixxxvi. 8; - to Judges, Exod. xxi. 6. 1 Sam. ii. 20; and even to false Gods, Josh. xxiii. 16.

1384. [Gen. i. 2,5.] SANCONIATHON, the great Phenician philosopher, supposed by some cotemporary with Gideon, gives a correspondent account of the creation.

He says

in the beginning there was Chaos erebodes (Grk.), which in the Phenician tougue, is Chauth Ereb, that is, night or evening darkness. From the conmixture of the Spirit with Chaos, he adds, was produced Mot, which some call ilus (Grk.), that is, matter or watery moisture. Out of this, he shews, was produced the whole seed of the creation, and the generation of the whole.

SHERLEY, on the Origin of

Bodies, &c. p. 113.


The Hebrew language often expresses the superlative degree, by a word of plural termination. (Locke.)

In this sense the term Elohim might be rendored, the SUPREME BEING.


Elohim is a noun singular, or it could not have been connected with a verb singular.

BELLAMY's History of all Religions.


According to Halhed's preface to his Code of Gentoo Laws, pp. 104, 5, there are reckoued among the Bramins seven Dceps : the first is, in length and breadth or in diameter, eight hundred thousand miles nearly; the second, twice as much ; the third, four times as much; the fourth, eight times as much; the fifth, sixteen times as much ; the sixth, thirty-two times as much ; and the seventh sixty-four times as much.


In the Hebrew a Mem prefixed to a substantive of action, expresses an agent, or instrument to perform that action. — When a prophet speaks God's words, inanimale agents are distinguished by being feminine.



M. Bouguer observes from experiment, that sea-water would be perfectly opaque at the thickuess of 679 feet; and that the air of our atmosphere would cease to be transparent, if the light had 518385 toises of it to traverse.

See Priestley on Vision, p. 426.


Vau, in Hebrew, signifies such a conjunction as the sense directs: as, so, therefore, and, that, but, or, when, yet, then, because, now, though, &c.- The Hebrew has few prepositions : its verbs mostly carry in themselves the prepositions that determine the case of the noun.

Ibid. See also Boyle, on the

style of Scripture, p. 64. Verse 2.] The copulative vau is often, very often, a mere expletive, which in a translation is better omitted.


1387. (Gen. i. 2, 31.] M. BEGUELIN says, the color of pure air always appears blue, and always reflects that color on all objects without distinction; yet that it is too faint to be perceived when our eyes are strongly affected by the light of the sun, reflected from other objects around us.


Ibid. p.

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