This fruit comes (originally) from Hindostan; for the Per- nauseous and strong ; here they are soft; whereas in the sians and Arabians both call them Indian melons.

north, and other parts, they are hard of digestion. Hence Month. Mag. for Sept. 1815, p. 138. they cannot in any place be eaten with less prejudice and

more satisfaction than in Egypt. They eat them roasted ; also made into a soup, which, says Hasselquist, I think

one of the best dishes I ever ate. 986.

In Persia, melons are eaten nine months out of the twelve, and are of an exquisite flavor ; grapes all

Voy. pp. 265, 290. the year round. PIETRO DELLE Valle. -Pinkerton's

992. Coll. vol. ix. p. 35.

- The Egyptians have been bantered for making onions one of their sacred emblems : but the wonder ceases, upon cutting up a common onion transversly or

across, where we find the involucra equal in number to the 987.

Besides their favourite maize, the Ame- greater spheres in our system; reckoning from the sun at the rican Indians plaut also a great quantity of squashes; that centre ; for by that division the Antients represented the is, a species of pompions or melons, which they have always courses of the planetary orbs. (Bp. Horne’s Hutchinson, cultivated, even in the remotest ages. These squashes are p. 126.) --Hence, perhaps, originated the term Æonion (in of the family of those gourds (cucurbita) which ripen early, botany), and the English word onion, from Æon an uge, or and are very delicious, but will not keep.

complete revolution of a planetary orb.
See Kalm's Travels, in Pinkerton's
Coll. part liii. p. 422.


It seems not very natural to understand the

word (John xxi. 9), opsarion (Grk.), as signifying fish. It 988. Mr. KalM saw a water-melon at Go

signifies soine other kind of provision, of the delicious sort, Vernor Clinton's in Sept. 1750, which weighed forty-seven

to be eaten with bread. pounds English; and at a merchant's in town, another of

PARKHURST's Greek Lericon. forty-two pounds weight: These however, were reckoned, he says, the largest ever seen in America. See Pinkerton's Coll. part liii. p. 462.


James and John were fishermen, with Zebedee their father. They never ate either fish or flesh.

-St. James (Minor) observed the laws of the Nazarite from 989. [Matt. xiv. 17.] Pompions are prepared for eating in

his birth ; eating nothing that had had life, or drinking any various ways. The Indians of America boil them whole, or

thing capable of intoxicating. roast them in ashes, and then either eat them, or go to sell

Calmer's Dictionary them, thus prepared in the towns; and they have indeed, says Kalm, a very fine flavor, when roasted. The French and English slice them, he adds, and put the slices before the fire to roast : when they are roasted, they generally put sugar on the palp. See Pinkerton's Coll. part liv. p. 686.


995. [Deut. xiv. 22, 28, 29.] Thou shalt truly tithe al! 990. [Num. xi. 5.] Onions never can be sufficiently re- the increase of thy seed, that the field bringeth forth year commended; they possess more nourishment than perhaps any

by year, and shalt lay it up within thy gates : And the other vegetable. It is a well known fact, that a Highlander, Levite (because he hath no part nor inheritance with thee), with a few raw onions in his pocket, and a crust of bread, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, which or a bit of cake, can work or travel to an almost incredible

are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satis. extent, for two or three days together, without any other fied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work sort of food whatever. The French are aware of this; the

of thine hand which thou doest. soup à l' onion is now universally in use after all violent ex

Tithes were thus ordered originally, we ertions, as the best of all restoratives.

see, for the maintenance of the Poor, as well as Churchmen; Sir John Sinclair's Code of Health, but these “ feeders of the flock,” in the selfish days of Chrisvol. i. p. 393.

tian degeneracy, seizing all the Tithes for their own use, have left the poor to be maintained out of the remaining nine-tenths

of the produce !--Even this is not the worst. “Since the 991.

Whoever has tasted onions in Egypt, grant of tithes in England, which was by our Saxon ancestors, must allow that none can be had beiter in any part of the an immense property has been vested in the Church, in trust world. Here they are sweet, in other countries they are for the benefit of the poor--the revenue from these church


lands, as they are now called, they have also taken to their priest ; before that time men paid them to whom they own use, in violation of a trust the most sacred that can well pleased ; since then, few, if they could be excused, would be imagined. These lands are now (1815) in such a state of care to pay them at all. improvement, that if they were applied for the purpose they

Observations on Popular Antiq.p. 268. were originally designed, there would be no occasion for either Tithes or Poor-rates."


The origin of Tithes in England was in the year 854, when king Ethelwolph, one of the most weak and bigoted of our Saxon Kings, made this important dona

tion to the Church. The Ecclesiastics, in those days of igno996.

The Church both by the Doctrine of Fathers, and the Canons of Councils constantly maintains ;

rance, however little versed in the Soriptures, had been able

to discover that the Priests under the Jewish Law possessed a First, that the Clergy are not Proprietors, but barely Stew. ards of the Benefices they enjoy; having them for no other

tenth of all the produce of the Land; and forgetting what they eud, but for their own necessary, frugal subsistence, and the obligatory on Christians, they insisted that this donation was

themselves taught, that the moral part only of that law was relief of the poor. Secondly, that a Clergyman using his Benefice for his own

a perpetual property, conferred by heaven on those who offi.

ciated at the Altar. indulgence, or the enriching of his own family, is guilty

HUM. of sacrilege, and is a robber and murderer of the poor.

Thirdly, that if a Clergyman has a reasonable subsistence of his own, and is not in the state of the poor, that then

1000. let his Benefice be what it will, he has no right to use any

Whenever temporal advantages are anpart of it for himself, nor for his kindred, unless they be fit

nexed to any religious profession, they will be sure to call in

all those who have no religion at all : knaves will embrace to be considered amongst the Poor that are to be relieved by

it for the sake of interest, fools will follow them for the sake the Church.

of fashion ; and when once it is in such hands, omnipotence Fourthly, that every Bishop and Clergyman is to live in

itself can never preserve its purity. an humble, lowly, frugal, outward state of life ; seeking for no

Jenin's Works, voh iii. p. 166. honor or dignity in the world, but that which arises from the distinction and lustre of his virtues.

Fifthly, that a Beneficed Clergyman using the goods of the Church for his own indulgence, or raising fortunes for his children, is sacrilegious, and a robber of the poor. Sixthly, that every Clergy man is to die out of the Church

TUE BRAZEN SERPENT. as poor as he entered it. Seventhly, that a Clergyman dying, cannot leave or be

1001. [Num. xxi. 9.] And Moses made a serpent of queath any thing to his children or friends, but barely that which he had independently of the Church.

brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass if a Whatever changes have been made in the nature and

serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of

brass he lived. tenure of the goods and revenues of the Church, or however

The classic reader will here (Num. xxi. 9) they have been variously divided among Ecclesiastics, yet

recollect Esculapius' staff entwisted with a serpent, tho this has remained always unchangeable and undeniable, that a Clergyman was no Proprietor of his Benefice; and

acknowledged emblem of the healing power, accompanied

sometimes with the motto SOTER, Saviour. He will discover that he could only take so much of it to his own use, as

also, by the following extract, the reason of such represenwas necessary for his subsistence, and then the remainder, be

tation; the poisonless serpent having, it seems, a peculiar it what it would, belonged to the Poor. Rev. Wm. Law's Appeal, p. 299.

degree of the healing power in itself. —" Near the village of Sassa, about eight miles from Bracciano, is a little

cave called Grolia del Serpi, or the Grotlo of Serpents, which,

sáys Kircher, is large enough to contain two persons, and is 997. [Num. xviii. 26.] The Levites were to gather in the

perforaled with several fistular apertures, almost like a sieve; tithes from the people, and to allot a tenth part of them to

out of which, at the beginning of the spring, issue a vast the priests. These allowed the high-priest a proportion of it number of snakes of various colors, but not endowed with any suitable to bis dignity, and divided the rest among themselves. particular poisonous quality. In this cave persons afflicted Univer. Hist. vol. x. p. 439. with elephantiasis, leprosy, palsy, gout, &c. are exposed

naked; where a perspiration being raised by the warmth of

the subterraneous steams, and the serpents clinging all round 998. [Num. xviii. 24.] CAMDEN tells us, that in the year thein, licking and sucking the parts affected, they are of our LORD 636, England was divided by Honorius, arch- freed from their vicous bumors, and by continuing this pracbishop of Canterbury, into 2984 parishes. - The Lateran tice for some time, the distemper is entirely removed. It council , compelled every man to pay tithes to his-parish is said that this cave was accidentally discovered by a leper, who was going from Rome to some baths thereabouts, and (to the eye) from visible objects, he supposed that there were being benighted, bappened to creep into it for a lodging. exceptions to this rule; and he took it for granted, that the Finding it very warm, he pulled off his clothes, and being eyes of cats had the power of emitting light. He also weary and sleepy, had the good fortune not to feel the ser- thought that some men might see in the same manner. pents about him till they had wrought his cure. Kircher

Ibid. p. 125. visited the grotto himself, found it warm, and heard a hissing noise in the holes ; and though he did not see the serpents, it not being the season of their creeping out, he saw several 1005. [Num. xxii. 20—35.) All that is written, fron of their exuviæ in the grotto, and abundance of them hanging the 20th to the 35th verse of the 22d chapter of Numbers, on a neighbouring clm. (SMITH's Wonders of Nature and is to be understood as an admonitory lessou given to Balaam in Art.)-(Were onions, which are still more famous for their me- vision by night. dicinal property of extracting virulent or poisonous qualities, considered sacred in Egypt on that very account?) As to the brazen serpent erected by Moses, where did it stand ? Was it 1006. [Num. xxiv. 3. The man whose eyes are shut, has placed immediately under the appearance of the Divine Glory in | said] It is a well attested fact, that a young ecclesiastic, who the pillar of the cloud ? And did it act thus as an intermediate was a somnambulist, could, in his sleep, write, and even correct conductor of healing virtue from that Glory ? See Wisdom bis sermons by interlineation. His eyes, at such times, were xvi. 4.-12. -As the antient Talismans were figures of the observed to be shut : so that he could not see naturally, heavenly signs, constellations, or planets, engraven on stone what he were then writing. or metal, and supposed to have the power of drawing

See Adair's Essay on Diet and down the influence of their respective celestial bodies; some

Regimen, p. 75.
Rabbins allusively maintain, that this brazen serpent was a
talism bringing down a divine virtue from Jehovah.
SMITH's Wonders of Nature and Art, 1007.

A very ingenious and elegant young vol. ii. p. 68.

lady, with light eyes and hair, about the age of seventeen, in other respects well, was often seized with this very wonderful malady of reverie, Num. xxiv. 3, 4. It always

began suddenly, and was at first manifest by the look of her 1002.

It is known by experience that copper eyes and countenance, which seemed to express attention. (which produces sulphur), as well as iron, has the property Then she conversed aloud with imaginary persons with her of attracting thunder, which is necessary to the purification eyes open, aud could not for about an hour be brought to of the air in the heats of Summer. Amidst the noise of attend to the stimulus of exterual objects by any kind of thunder, because surrounded with the electric Auid, light, violence, which it was proper to use. — These conversatious God promulgated his law to his chosen people from Mount were quite consistent, and we could understand, says DARWIN, Sinai.

what she supposed her imaginary companions to answer, by Seo St. PIERRE's Studies of Nature, the continuation of her part of the discourse. Sometimes she vol. i. pp. 107, 203.

was angry, at other times shewed much wit and vivacity, but was most frequently inclined to melaucholy. —Yet it is evident, she was not sensible, all this time, of seeing or hearing any person about her. And when the paroxysm was over, she could never recollect a single idea of what had passed


Zoonomia, ool. i. sect. xix. 3.

1003. [Num. xxiv. 4.] It was the opinion of Pythagoras that vision is caused by particles continually flying from the surface of bodies, and entering the pupil of the eye ; but Empedocles and Plato, as also Heliodorus Larisscus, supposed that the cause of vision is something emitted from the eye, in which respect, says Heliodorus, it resembles the sun; visual rays and solar rays being reflected in the same manner. (PRIESTLEY's Hist. of Vision, pp. 1, 15.) The former is natural vision; the latter spiritual.

1008. (1 Sam. iii. 1.] By open visions are meant visions, or sights, of those things which really exist in the other life, and which are nothing else but real things, which may be seen by the eyes of the spirit, not by the eyes of the body; and which appear to a man when his interior sight is opened by the Lord, that is, by the sight of his spirit, into which also he comes, when being separated from the body he passes into the other life : for man is spirit clothed with body, Such were the visions of the prophets. Rev. xxii. 8.

SWEDENBORG'« Arcana, n. 1970.


When Descartes says that, in general, vision is performed by intromission, or by light proceeding



been dissolved, chemically speaking, in water. It was stamped and ground, or, as the Arabic and Syriac versions have it, filed into a fine dust, and thrown into the river of which the children of Israel used to drink : part of the gold would remain, notwithstanding its greater specific gravity, suspended for a time (as happens in the washing of copper and lead ores) and might be swallowed in drinking the water; the rest would sink to the bottom, or be carried away by the flux of the stream.

Watson's Chem. vol. i. p. 12.

1009. (Deut. iv. 24.) The LORD thy God is a suming fire. —Take a small stick of deal, or other wood, the size of a goose quill, and hold it horizontally and steadily in the flame of a candle above the wick, without touching it, but in the body of the flame. The wood will first be inflamed, and burn beyond the edge of the fiame of the candie, perhaps a quarter of an inch. When the flame of the wood goes out, it will leave a red coal at the end of the stick, part of which will be in the flame of the candle, and part out in the air. In a minute or two you will perceive the coal in the air diminish gradually, so as to form a neck; while the part in the flame continues of its first size, and at length the neck being quite consumed it drops off; and by rolling it between your fingers when extinguished, you will find it still a solid coal. See No. 776. Dr. FRANKLIN's Philosoph. and Miscel

laneous Papers, p. 74.

1013. [Deut, ix. 21.] Sulphur, combined with an alkali (into what was called liver of sulphur) unites with gold very readily. Nay, so intimate is their union, that the gold, by means thereof, becomes soluble in water; and (so dissolved and combined) will pass through the pores of brown paper without suffering any decomposition.

MACQUER's Chem. chap. vii. sect. 1.


1010. (Exod. xxiv. 17.] The effects of the burning phosphorus (See Exod. xxxiv. 30), which is a chemical preparation made of sand and urine, are very surprising.-A piece of it rubbed between two papers takes fire instautaneously, but if a person be not careful in the management of it, he is in danger of burning his fingers; and it penetrates deeper into the flesh than common fire. M. Cassini happening to press a piece in a cloth between his fingers, the cloth took fire ; he endeavoured to extinguish it with his foot; but his shoe caught the flame, and he was forced to put it out with a brassruler, which shot forth rays in the dark for two months after.

Smith's Wonders of Nature and Art,

vol. ii. p. 30, Note.

1014. [Deut. xxx. 19.] I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing : therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live.

To change the mind, inclinations, or affections, of a free agent by infinite power, or force, to make him love another, he did not, or does not love, after a fair trial, is almost a contradiction in terms. And if it were possible that a free agent, who preferred any thing to the enjoyment of the vision &c. of the Elahim, could be in heaven, it would endeavour to desert, to enjoy the thing it had preferred, and if it could not desert, it would even there be miserable.

HUTCHINSON's Data in Christianity, p. 20.

1011. [Exod. xxxiv. 30.] All phosphorus is not devouring fire. There is found in the neighbourhood of Bologna, a gray, glossy, ponderous stone, about the size of a large walnut, which being properly prepared and calcined makes a species of phosphorus that, though it resembles a burning coal, never emits any heat.

Ibid. p. 29.


Every one would pursue his own interest, if he knew what it was; and, in fact, every one does pursue it, but the generality totally mistake it. No inan would choose riches before happiness, power before quiet, or fame before safety, if he knew the true value of each : no man would prefer the transitory and worthless enjoyment of this world to the permaneut and sublime felicity of a better, if he had a clear prospect of them both ; but we see the former through a mist, which always magnifies, and the latter appears to be at so great a distance, that we scarce see it at all; and therefore it makes little impression on our senses, and has as little influence on our conduct.

JENYNS' Works, vol. iv. p. 276.


1012. [Exod. xxxii. 20.] And Moses took the calf which they had made, and burnt it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and strawed it upon the water, and made the children of Israel drink of it.

Stahl and other chemists have shewn that it is possible to make gold potable, but we have no reason to conclude that Moses either used the process of Stahl, or any other chemical means for effecting the purpose intended; there not being the least intimation given of the gold having

1016. [Deut. xxx. 14.) It was not nature, as is commonly believed, which first pointed out God to Man; but it is a sense of the Deity in Man, which first indicated to him the order of nature. The Savages are religious, long before they are Naturalists.

St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, vol. ii. p. 96.

1017. [Deut. xxx. 19.] During influx, there is a perpe- When benighted in dreary solitude, travellers in India were tual endeavour to do evil from the hells on one part, and a thus certain, within a moderate distance, to find one of these perpetual endeavour to do good from the LORD on the other. buildings appropriated for their accommodation, and were By these endeavours, opposite to each other, every man is often supplied with the necessaries of life gratis. kept constantly in equilibrium, free to turn himself in what

Ibid. vol. iii. p. 122. direction he pleases. —The endeavour or conatus from hell, is no other than the perversion into evil of the good proceeding from the Lord.

1020. SWEDENBORG's Arcana, n. 6477.

Among the Indians of North America, there is in every village a vacant dwelling called the stran.

gers' house. Hither the traveller is led by two old men, 1018. [Deut. xxx. 20. The LORD is thy life, and the

who procure him victuals and skins to repose on, exacting length of thy days.] This is true not only as to Man's pre

nothing for the entertaiument. (Dr. FRANKLIN.)-On this sent and eternal existence, but even as to his temporary du

account, tithes were taken for strangers, as well as for the ration in the womb. Heat of Climate has a sensible effect on

Levites, the fatherless, and widows. the expansion of all plants and the gestation of all animals, the Human Race excepted. Thus, in the Antilles, the hatching of a hen's egg, and the bursting of an orange-seed,

1021. require only twenty-three days. Pliny observes that in Italy

In some of the inns or chaturains of hens hatch in nineteen days in Summer, and in twenty-five in

Mysore, provisions are sold; in others, they are distributed Winter. But, in every country, white women and negresses

gratis, at least to Brahmins or other religious mendicants, as go with child nine months, as in Europe. This demonstrates

is the case in the choultaries of Bengal. that Man is not subjected to physical influx, as the inferior

Within forty or fifty miles of Madras such useful buildings animals.

are very common, and have been erected and endowed by See St. Pierre's Studies of Nature,

the rich native merchants of that flourishing city. vol. i. p. 299.

In these caravansarai on the road the traveller is received gratis, and may remain as long as he pleases. In the cities

le pays a trifle; but, unlike those on the road which are RAHAB THE HOSTESS.

open, the rooms of the latter have locks on the doors, for the

maintenance of which the charge is made. They are, bow. 1019. (Joshua ii. 1.] And the spies went to Jericho and ever, entirely destitute of furuiture. came into a harlot's house, named Rahab, and lodged there.

BUCHANAN, in Pinkerton, part xxiii.
Most of the Eastern cities, says FORBES,

-vol. viii. p. 775.--vol. ix. p. 39.
contain one caravansary at least, for the reception of strau-
gers ; smaller places, called choultries, are erected by chari-
table persons, or munificent princes, in forests, plains, and
deserts, for the accommodation of travellers. Near them


At even, the spies retired to a certain Inn, is generally a well, and a cistern for the cattle ; a Brahmin kept by Rahab, that was near to the wall, whither they or Fakeer often resides there to furnish the pilgrim with food, went to eat their supper (and lodge for the night). (JOSEPH. and the few necessaries he may stand in need of. —Beautifully Antiq. b. v. ch. i. $ 2.) –The taverns in India are beautiful does Sir William Jones describe such an act of beneficence in

edifices, raised by charitable contributions, and not anfrean Arabian female:

quently by the benevolence of some wealthy individual, for To cheer with sweet repast the fainting guest,

the use of travellers; as hospitality, so rare ainong us To lull the weary on the couch of rest;

Europeans, forms, among the Orientals, a point of religion, To warm the traveller, numb'd with winter's cold,

and is one of the chief virtues by which they are distinThe young to cherish, to support the old ;

guished from all other nations. - In those Iuns travellers sleep The sad to comfort, and the weak protect,

on mats, which are wove generally of palın -leaves. —People The poor to shelter, and the lost direct;

pay nothing, for the good entertainment which they there These are Selima's cares, her glorious task,

Can heaven a nobler give, or mortals ask?

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, pp. 68, 69, 287.
When chill'd with fear, the trembling pilgrim roves
Through pathless deserts, and through tangled groves,
Where mantling darkness spreads her dragon wing,
And birds of death their fatal dirges sing ;

1023. (Joshua vi. 22.) I still call this woman Rahab, an While vapors pale, a dreadful glimmering cast,

inn-keeper, not a harlot; the whole history both in our And thrilling horror howls in every blast;

copies, and especially in Josephus, implying no more. She cheers his gloom with streams of bursting light

Wniston's Joseph. Antiq. b.v. By day a son, a beaming moon by night!

ch. i. § 2. Note. Oriental Memoirs, vol. i.p. 250.

p. 579.

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