948. [Lev. ii. 16.) With oats torrified it is possible to 9.4.

The SHECHINAH, the Christ of God, compose a cream which shall have the perfume of the having so far established a Covenant of vital communication vanilla.

between Himself and Man, in prescribing the proper food, the St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, sacramental bread, which he should eat; to complete this Covol. ii. p. 460.

venant, directs also what Man should drink, and what he should not drink, in order to become and continue a constant

Receiver of spiritual life froin the only True Fountain of 949. [Exod. xx. 24.] TERTULLIAN observes, that the turf living waters. --In Paradise, when the licentious Nachash altars, constructed without elegance, were in use among the (No. 213.), more subtle than any Beast of the field,” had Romans even in the days of Numa.

discovered and effectually recoinmended to God's people Apolog. c. 25. intoxicating wine, Adam and his wife heard the voice of the

LORD God distinctly saying: “Adam, where art thou ? Hast

thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee, that thou 950. - In Scotland, when the Highlanders hold

shouldest not eat ? —Cursed is the ground for thy sake ; in their Bel-tien, which is a rural sacrifice on the first of May

sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;" Gen. iii. in every village, they cut a square trench on the ground,

1-7. - After the Flood, when Noah had planted a vineyard, leaving the turf in the middle; on that (as an altar) they

the fresh fruit of every species of the vine is allowed him, make a fire of wood, on which they dress a large caudle of

but intoxicating * wine, or other liquor, is a second time eggs, butter, oatmeal and milk. — The rites begin with

forbidden : " Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat spilling some of the caudle on the ground, by way of libation; they end in a feast on the caudle.

for you; but the flesh with the life thereof, which is the

blood thereof, shall ye not eat ;" Gen. ix. 3, 4. —To the See PINKERTON's Voy. and Trav.

Hebrews, as well as Gentiles, this and every kind of blood, part ix. FERMENTED, is a third time prohibited:

“ Whatsoever man

there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that so951. But there is not the least hint in the

journ among you, that eateth any manner of blood : I will

even set my face against that soul that eateth blood, and will Gallic language, customs, or traditions, that alludes to animal sacrifices, even among the Druids. — The very name of

cut him off from among his people;" Lev. xvii 10. — To

Christians, in the fourth and last Covenant, blood "new,” sacrifice in Gallic, is compounded of words which signify the

or fresh drawn from the fruit of the vine,” is expressly enoffering of the cake. BELL's Pantheon, vol. i. pp. 269, 273.

joined sacramentally, by the CHRIST, JESUS, when he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to his disciples, saying,

Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new Cove952. [Exod. xii. 8.] Unleavened bread was salted or naut, which is shed for many for the remission of sins ;" sugared cake. This kind of sweet bread was used, we find,

Matt. xxvi. 27, 28. by Homer's worthies :

p. 49.

Then near the altar of the darting king,


In each of these four Covenants, -the Disposed in rank, their hecatomb they bring;

Christ by offering conveys, and man by eating (spiritually) With water purify their hands, and take

his flesh and blood takes that food, that support, which recThe sacred offering of the salted cake.

tifies our minds and actions here, so as to prepare us for an Pope's Iliad, b. i. l. 584. inheritance hereafter among them that are sanctified ; Acts

xxvi. 18.

See HUTCHINSON's Use of Reason 953. In the Hebrides it appears, that we

Recovered, p. 301. may still learn how and why the antient sacrifices obtained the name, as well as figure, of certain animals. —One of the

956. caverns at Tormore is a hundred and twelve feet long, and

But, in regard to the last covenant in parthirty high, narrowing to the top like a Gothic arch ; towards ticular, among all the expressions used by the Evangelists, the end it branches into two. Within these two recesses, which respecting the Passover celebrated by Jesus, the Christ, penetrate far, are on each side several small holes, opposite to

there is no inention of any lamb carried to the Temple, to each other. In these were placed transverse beams, that held, be slain by the Levites, and then brought to the house and according to the mode of the times, bags formed of the skins roasted, where he and his disciples were assembled ; and of animals, which served as kettles sufficiently strong to roast

is no mention of any food at the supper besides bread the contents.

and wine. See MAJOR (lib. y. p. 215.) who wrote

See No. 734, 440. Dr. Wall's Critical Notes on concerning the Hebrides, in Latin,

Matt. xxvi. 17.
about the year 1518. Also Pinker-
TON's Voy. and Trav. part x.p. 263.

• See Above No, SVG and Note.

-a black

957. [Mark xiv. 12.] In the celebration of the Lord's opened, “for the remission of sins,” between God in CARIST supper in the Greek Church, there is a ceremony, called the and every sincere penitent, who devoutlymeets his Reslaying of the Holy Lamb. The priest, in consecrating DEEMER at the sacrificial or sacramental Table, to receive the bread, takes a loaf, and, cutting it crosswise, says, with thankfulness through the appointed means, the living “ The Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world,” and true Bread which cometh down from heaven. The Sheis slain for the life and salvation of the world.

CHINAH, on all such occasions, was ever divinely present, PANTOLOGIA, Art. Greek Church. and did actually partake, it seems, of the Covenant Sacrifice;

either consuming what was offered by his Glory, or socially

eating and drinking of it, during a temporary incarnation, 958. [Leo. i. 6.] Now, as to the nature of such blood as was as Man with Man. -Thus“ the Lord had respect to Abel used at the Last Supper by Jesus, the Christ; Achilles and his offering ; but to Cain and his offering, He had not Tatius, after telling us (lib. ii.) that the Tyrians claim Bac- respect;" Gen. iv. 4, 5. —“And Noah builded an altar to the chus, the inventor of wine, for their countryman, adds a Lord; and took of every clean beast, and of every fowl, and tradition of theirs, that Bacchus having been hospitably en- offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the LORD smelled tertained by a Tyrian shepherd, drank to him in wine, which a sweet savor : and the LORD said in his heart, I will not after the shepherd had quaffed he asked, Whence did you get again curse the ground any more for man's sake; -veither this sweet blood ? To which Bacchus replied, This is the will I again smite any more every living thing, as I have blood of grapes.

done;" Gen. viii. 20, 21. —"And the LORD appeared to AbraComp. Leo. ix. 9. Ecclus. xxxix. 26. & L. 15. PARKHURST. ham in the plains of Mainre : -and, lo, three Men stood by

him. —And he said, my Lord, I if now I have found favor

in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, froin thy servant. 959.

At the Cape in Africa, nothing can exceed -I will fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort yo your hearts. the plenty and variety of the grapes ; one of the most deli- after that


shall pass on. —And Abraham hastened into the cious, says FORBES, produces the Tent- (or Tabernacle-) tent to Sarah, and said, make ready quickly three measures of wine,

grape, with a rich crimson juice like blood ; fine meal, knead it, and make cakes on the hearth. And which, he adds, may have caused it to be selected (originally) Abraham ran to the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, for the sacramental wine.

and gave it to a young man ; and he hasted to dress it. : Oriental Memoirs, vol. ii. p. 187. And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he bad

dressed, and set it before them : and he stood by their under

the tree; and they did eat ;" Gen. xviii. 148. —Now in 960.

In the second century, there is the fullest reference evidently to this interview, Jesus, the CHRIST who evidence that, whenever the Lord's supper was celebrated, took not on him the nature of Angels but the seed of Abrathe (sacramental) wine was mixed with water; and the ham, says to the Jews : “Your father Abraham rejoiced to bread, divided into small portions, was distributed among the see My day; and he saw it, and was glad;" John viii. 56.communicants.

This “ LORD Jesus, the same night in which he was betraySee No. 316.

See Mosheim's Eccles. Hist. ed, took bread : and when he had given thanks, he brake it, vol. i. p. 210.

and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you : this do iu remembrance of me. After the same manner

also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup 961. [Acts vi. 1.] The prayers of the first Christians is the New Covenant in my blood : this do ye, as oft as ye were followed by oblations of bread, wine, and other things: drink it, in remembrance of me;" 1 Cor. xi. 23—25. — Thus and hence both the ministers of the church, and the poor “ God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself, not derived their subsistence. Every Christian, who was in an imputing their trespasses unto them :-be ye reconciled to opulent condition, and indeed every one according to his God;" 2 Cor. v. 19, 20. circumstances, brought gifts, and offered them, as it were, See No. 183. to the Lord. Of the bread and wine presented in these offerings, such a quantity was separated from the rest as was

+ The word SNECHINAI, from its root Shachan to dwell, bas been invariably

used by the Jews to signify that Symbol of the Divine Presence, in which required in the administration of the Lord's Supper; this was

God to a certain degree and in an especial manner might be said to dwell, consecrated by certain prayers pronounced by the bishop

as the soul of a man dwells in his body; "the said Shechinah or Visible alone, in which the people assented by saying Amen. The Symbol being”, says Dr. Wells, “not only corporeal or consisting of parti. Holy Supper was distributed by the deacons ; and this sacred cles of matter, as otherwise it could no more have been seen by the eyes of institution was followed by sober repasts, which, from the

men than God Himself; but also being as it were the Body, within which was

the special Divine Presence Itself.--- See in his Bible, vol, iv. Discourse v. excellent end they were designed to promote, were called agapæ, or feasts of charity.

Ibid. vol. i. p. 128. The Angel of the Divine Presence, the Holy Spirit of God, bad frequently

spoken to men; but there is not one account, in all the Hebrew Scriptures, that ever either a created agent or angel, or a spirit of a dead man, had

spoken in the name of God to any human being. 962. [John vi.53.] In the Four great Covenants displayed in

See Hutcuisson's Religion of Satan, p. 53. -the Bible, a spiritual communication has been successively

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3. That year became sanctified, or devoted so sacredly to THE SABBATICAL AND JUBILEE YEARS.

the public good, that no one could claim any exclusive right

to the blessings of it; Lev. xxv. 6. [Lev. xxv. 8, 9.] And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of 4. The increase of this year was enjoyed in common with years unto thee, seven times seven years; and the space of their masters, by the slaves and labouring poor, denominated the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and (as in Jonah iii. 7, 8) the beasts and cattle of the land ; nine years. Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the

Leo. xxv. 7. jubilee to sound, on the tenth day of the seventh month ; 5. Neither vineyard nor oliveyard, during this year, was to in the day of ATONEMENT shall ye make the trumpet sound be pruned; Lev. xxv. 4. Exod. xxiii. 10. throughout all your land.

6. Israelites, or proselytes of justice, alone were then re

leased from their debts: strangers and proselytes of the gate, 963. [Lev. xxv. 4.] The Israelites entered the Land of who worshipped in the court of the Gentiles, were not so Promise in the 1450th year before Christ, and kept their first exonerated; Deut. xv. 3. Jubilee (in agreement with a Judgment then passing above) 7. At the Feast of Tabernacles, this year, the law of Moses the 7th year following : consequently the Jubilee year has was to be read in the hearing of all Israel; Deut. xxxi. ever since fallen on the seventh year subsequent to every 10—13.

} fiftieth and hundredth year, before and after Christ. — In these 8. Every seventh year, all Hebrew slaves were to be disSabbatic and Jubilee years justice was executed throughout charged from bondage, Exod. xxi. 2; Deut. xv. 12. the Land, in regard to the personal liberties, privileges, and According to Rambam, the Jews began this their Scheproperty of every individual, in coincidence with the spiritual mittah, or year of intermission from the labors of the earth, Judgments periodically passing on the deceased, as may be thirty days before the first of the seventh Moon, Tiryri. seen by attending to the successive times in which the Judg

Rev. RICHARD CLARKE. ments took place that are described by the Prophets, by our Lord in the Gospels, and by John in the Revelation. See Isai. xiii. 9–14. Dan. vij. 9, 10. Ezek. xxxij. 7. Joelii. 1. 966.

According to Michaelis, this law (Deut. iii, 1, 15. Matt. xxiv. 29, 30, 40. Mark xiii. 30. 1 Peter xv. 1–3) enjoins that in the seventh or sabbatical year, no iv. 5—7. Rev. vi. 12. xx. 12. Such a general Judgment, debtors should be dunned, or debts sued for, because theu which Paul declares to take place equally on the quick and the the Israelite derived no income from his land. And JosEPHUS dead, Swedenborg says he saw, duly accomplished in the Spi- may be understood in nearly the same sense, when he says, ritual World in the year of our Lord 1757. — It is a remarkable [Antiq. b. iii. ch. xii. $ 3.]—The

fiftieth year is among the coincidence, that the mariner's needle which in this latitude Ilebrews called the year of jubilee ; and then debtors (as pointed truly to the north in the year 1657 aud has been to personal apprehension, or compulsatory payment] become inclining to the north ward ever since, at the averaged rate of free from their debts. —But how great would be the injusabout 10 per annum, has reached the utmost extent of its tice, and the misery, occasioned by a septenuial extinction variation, has been stationary, and is now receding. From of debts ! Under such a law, none would be so foolish as to this fact, if the observation be correct, it seems that about lend ; so that those who stood in need of loans, would only 25 degrees is the extent of its variation westward ; that it be in a worse predicament, through the mistaken clemency of will, in about 150 years, again point truly to the north, and the legislator. probably for the next 150 years will incline to the east : tak- Matt. vi. 12.

SMITH's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 359. ing up a period of 600 years in making a revolution.

Luke xvi. 1-9.

Article 158.


The aurora borealis, it seems, travels 967. [2 Sam. xi. 1.] What made the chief ornament of the round the globe in nearly the same period, and is, probably, spring, and immediately preceded the harvests, was the dethe cause of those wonderful meteors, those signs of the cision of law-suits, or the meeting of the judges. The priests, times, which appear in different countries when they are re- during the year, appeared but seldom in pnblic, exeept at the spectively judged, and which in particular, according to Jo. times of religious affairs. But they went out in the spring, SEPHUS, were seen in the heavens previously to the destruc- that is, in February, and met to judge the differences of prition of Jerusalem.

vate persons,-that these might afterwards freely go about their respective works. Those judges being entertained at the pub

lic charge in their labyrinth, had no manner of ambition, nor 965. [Lev. xxv. 3, 4.] The peculiar circumstances and any interest or intimacy, and judged the people with the privileges of the Sabbatical year, consisted in the eight follow- utmost integrity and justice. (HEROD. Eulerp. n. 46.) – ing particulars.

After the decision of the law-suits of private persons, and 1. The land enjoyed a sabbath of rest from all tillage ; while the people were busy about cutting down and thrashing Lev. xxy. 2—7.

the corn, the judges continued to hold their sessions, and to 2. As creditors in that year relinquished all claim of past provide by general regulations for all the exigences of the state. debts, it obtained the name of the LORD's release ; Deut. Zech. i. 8.

ABBE Pluche, Hist, of the Ileav. Iy. 2.

Rev. vi. 2.

vol. i. p. 231.

signification even of the inost familiar and best known terms, till after the lapse of many years.

See Smith's Michaelis, vol. ii. p. 284.

And Judges, chap. xi.

963. [Lev. xxvi. 15, 34.] The Sabbatical and Jubilee judgments, ordained in the twenty-fifth chapter of Leviticus, ceased to be observed from the time the Israelites chose themselves a king.-" From Saul to the Babylonish captivity are numbered about 490 years, during which period, there were 70 sabbaths of years; for 7, multiplied by 70, make 490. Now the Babylonish captivity lasted 70 years, and during that time, the land of Israel rested. Therefore the land rested just as many years, in the Babylonish captivity, as it should have rested sabbaths, if the Jews had observed the law relative to the sabbaths of the land.



From the mode of expression, "when either man or woman,” it appears that this kind of vow had been in use before Moses' time, and was not now first instituted ; which is another proof of an opinion we have frequently advanced, that. the greater part of the laws of Moses had been in use from the earliest ages, and were now only reduced to a regular and written digest.

Rev. WM. DODD.

969. [Exod. xxxiv. 24.) Michaelis argues from the known customs of the Arabs, that, except among the Canaanites, a truce from all hostilities was most sacredly kept in those days, at least among the nations related to the Israelites, on every sabbath, and during the three great annual festivals.

See SMITH's Michaelis, vol. i. pp. 343–346.

973. [Num. vi. 3.] The Indians drink no wine ; and their clothing (like that of the Jewish priests) consists of white colton stuffs manufactured in their own country.

BARTOLOMEO, by Johnston, p. 11.

974. [Num. vi. 18.] Among the Greeks, it was the cus970. Accordingly, no foreign nation ever came to

tom for such as had arrived at mau's estate (like Isaac), to destroy the Jews at any of their solemn festivals, from the days

go to Delphi to offer the first-fruits of their hair to Apollo. – of Moses till that awful passover when Titus encompassed Jeru

On this occasion the fore-part of the head was shaved.

See No. 512. salem, destroyed 1,100,000 of the besieged, and took 97,000

See PLUTARCH's Lives, vol. i. p. 50. captives, in cousequence of their then apostacy from God, and from obedience to him.

975. See JOSEPHUS' Wars, b. v. ch. iii. § 1.

The Nazarite shall shave or poll the head, b. vi. ch. ix. § 3. vol. vi. Notes.

for his separation. This was the real act of circumcision among the Jews. See Acts xxi. 21–26.–Also Jer. ix. 26. xxv. 23. xlix. 32.-In the same way they circumcised their trees, by lopping them in the fourth year. See Lev. xix. 23, 24. -When a person becomes a Mahometan, at this day his

head is shaven. (Dr. A. CLARKE.) -In Japan, the priests THE NAZARITE.

have their heads shaved. —The Chinese wear their hair very

long, never cutting it, and tying it together at the top of the 971. [Num. vi. 2—3.] When either man or woman shall head; whilst the Japanese shave the crown of the head quite separate themselves to vow a vow of a Nazarite, to sepa- bare till a little above the ears, tying the remainder of the rate themselves unto the LORD; he shall separate himself hair around the neek with a strip of white paper. -With from wine and strong drink.

some villagers in Persia, as with all Mahometans, the hair That vows of Nazaritism were not an of the head is shorn and covered with a small turban or one of original institution by Moses, but of more antient, and pro

their little pointed caps. bably of Egyptian, origin: and that, in his laws, he only See No. 468, &c. CARON. -Pinkerton's Coll. part XXI. gives certain injunctions concerning them, partly to establish

pp. 629, 638. vol. ix. p. 115. the ceremonies and laws of such vows, and partly to prevent people from making them to, or letting their hair grow in honor of, any other than the True God, -is manifest from 976. [Num. vi. 9.) In Tibet the religious persons, called the following circumstance: This ordinance was given in the Lamas, have the tonsure, like Romish monks, and offer to second year after the departure from Egypt; but in an earlier GOD corn, barley, dough, and water, in very neat little law concerning the sabbatical year, which was made in the vessels ; which offerings are eaten by them as a holy thing first year, Moses adopts a figurative expression from Naza- (or as cousecrated sacramental bread). (PINKERTON, part ritism, calling the vines, which in that year were not to be xxix. p. 548.) —After that the Nazarite may drink the wine pruned, Nazarites, Lev. xxv. 5. The thing itself must, in the sacrifices; to the partaking of which he is now adtherefore, have been already in use, and that for a long mitted, as a member of the congregation, or as a qualified period (see it attempted by Abraham, Gen. xxii); because communicant. Num. vi. 20. such figurative expressions, particularly in agriculture, gardening, and rural economy, do not succeed to the proper


which probably is the lotos that was worshipped by the Egyptians.

Trav. in Egypt.--Pinkerton's Coll.

part lxi. p. 333. 977. [Num. xi. 5.] We remember the fish which we did cat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and

982. the leeks, and the onions, and the garlick.

The laws of the Egyptians compelling

them to cherish their animals, a certain number of men and When the waters of the Nile bave risen to their extremest height, there appears above the surface an

women are appointed to this office, which is esteemed so hoimmense quantity of the lily species, which the Egyptians nourable, that it descends in succession from father to son. call the lotos : having cut down these, they dry them in the

When these persons travel through the cities, or the country, Kun. The seed of the flower, which resembles that of the

they make known, by certain marks which they exhibit, the poppy, they bake, and make into a kind of bread; they also

particular animals of which they have the care. Ori the eat the root of this plant, which is round, of an agreeable receipt of a piece of silver, the person who keeps the repreflavor, and about the size of an apple. There is a second

sentative beast, feeds it with pieces of fish, which is the con

stant food of such sacred animals.
species of the lotos, which grows in the Nile, and which is
not unlike a rose.

Lev. xi. 2.
The fruit, which grows from the bottom

See Beloe's Herodot. Euterpe, lxv, and

note 113. of the root, is like a wasp's nest (perhaps the honey-comb of Luke xxiv. 42): it is found to contain a number of kernels of the size of an olive-stone, which are very grateful, either fresh or dried.


The queen of cucumbers grows in the fertile of the byblus or papyrus, which is an annual plant, after

earth round Cairo, after the inundation of the Nile, and not taking it from a marshy place, where it grows, they cut off

in any other place in Egypt, nor in any other soil. It ripens the tops, and apply them to various uses : They eat or sell

with water-melons : its flesh (0. 4.) is almost of the same subwhat remains, which is nearly a cubit in length. To make stance, but is not near so cool. The grandees eat it as the this a still greater delicacy, there are many who previously

most pleasant fruit they find, and that from which they have roast it. With a considerable part of this people, (such) fish

the least to apprehend. It is the most excellent of this tribe constitutes the principal article of food; they dry it in the

of any yet known. (HasSELQUIST, p. 258.) -Geddes supqub, and eat it without other preparation.

poses this to be the kind of cucumbers meant in Num. xi. 5. See BELOE's Herod. Euterpe, xcii.

Of the Babylonians there are three tribes,


Squashes, of which Melons and Pompions whose only food is fish. They prepare it thus : having dried it are different species, serve many nations partly as a substiin the sun, they beat it very small in a mortar, and afterwards

tute for bread. Of these there is the round, the crane-neck, sift it through a piece of fine cloth; they then form it into

the small flat, and the large oblong squash. The smaller akes, or bake it as bread.

sorts being boiled, are eaten during the summer as vegetaHerod. Clio, cc. bles ; and are all of a pleasant flavor. The crane-neck,

which greatly excels all the others, is usually hung up for a winter's store, and in this manner can be preserved for several

months. 979. [Luke xxiv. 42.] After the Egyptians have cut their

See CARVER's Trav. in N. America, p. 349. Lotos plants, they dry them in the sun ; then having parched the seed within the Lotos, whose head resembles that of the poppy, they make bread of it, baking it with fire. They sat its root also, which is round and as big as an apple.


The water-melon, thus feelingly recolBeaulies of Nature and art displayed, lected by the murmuring Israelites, is still cultivated on the vol. xii.


banks of the Nile, in the rich clayey earth which subsides
during the inundation, from the beginning of May till the

overflowing of the Nile, i. e. to the end of July or beginning 980. [Num. xi. 3.] The fruit of the Lotos is so delicious, of August; and in the island Delta, especially at Builos, that it soon makes the strangers who eat it forget their native whence the largest and best are brought. This serves the country.

Egyptians for meat, drink, and physic. The FLESH of it St. Pierre's Studies of Nature, is eaten with bread : the juice is collected in a hole made in Arcadia vol. iv. p. 199. the melon, and is a most refreshing, but sometimes danger

ous, drink : and the same juice, mixed with rose-water and a

little sugar, is the only medicine used by the common people in 981.

When I was in Upper Egypt, says burning fevers. This is very comfortable to the patient; for Pococki, they told be there was a large fish called lotos, | it cools and refreshes him. (See HASSELQUIST, p. 355.).

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