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at Aranjuez, on the 25th of Sep- tence was subjoined: “ If you

do tember. The president per interim this, may God help you. If not, was the .venerable count Florida may he punish you, as having Blanca. Among the members we sworn in vain by his holy name. find two other distinguished names, The subscriber said, Amen. viz. Don Francisco Palafox, one of After a solemn Te Deum, the the deputies from Arragon, and deputies walked between two lines Don Melchior de Jovellanos, one of troops, to the royal palace, a of the two from Asturias. After hall of which was consecrated to hearing mass, which was cele. their sessions. An immense mulbrated by the primate of Lao- titude of all ranks and descriptions dicea, also archbishop, and one of persons, that had assembled to of the members of the junta for Se see this ceremony, giving way to ville, the following oath, admi. the most ardent enthusiasm, made nistered on the holy Evangelists, the air resound with the cry of was taken by all the deputies- Viva Fernando Septimo. You swear by God, and all the On the opening of the gates of holy. Evangelists, and by Jesus the palace, that had been so long Christ crucified, whose sacred shut, the sad solitude of the magimage is before you, that in the nificent mansion of their kings, and exercise of the supreme and sove the recollection of the epoch at reign central junta, you will de- which, and of the reasons for fend and promote the conservation which the gates had been shut, and advancement of our holy, Ca. drew tears from every eye, and tholic, Apostolical, and Roman re an universal cry of vengeance ligion; that you will be faithful to against the authors of so profound our august sovereign Ferdinand calamities and such pungent sorVII, and that you will maintain his rows. rights, and his sovereignty. That The oath taken by the supreme you will concur in the support of junta, a kind of Spanish Bill of our rights and privileges, our laws Rights, they repeated, or re-echoed and customs, and above all those, in a proclamation to the Spanish concerning the succession of the nation; in which, after a variety of. reigning family, according to the most judicious observations, they order established by the laws afore. say, « Let us be constant, and we said. In short, that you will give shall gather the fruits of victory : your vote for every measure calcu- the laws of religion satisfied; our lated for the general good, the monarch either restored or avengprosperity of the kingdom, and the ed; the fundamental laws of the amelioration of its customs. That monarchy restored, and consecrat. you will observe secrecy in all cases ed in a manner' solemn and con

proper. That you sonant with civil liberty; the foun. will protect the laws against all ma tains of public prosperity pouring levolence, and prosecute their ene- benefits spontaneously and without mies, even at the expense of your obstruction ; our relations with our life, your personal safety, and your colonies drawn more closely, befortune.”

come more fraternal, and conse. The formula of assent was, I quently more useful : in fine, acswear this.The following sen- tivity, industry, talents, and virtues

stimulated

where secrecy is

in

stimulated and rewarded: to such pression of the expenses of the ros: a degree of sp'escor and for al househoid, the enormos sur tone, we shal rase our country, if which had been anaca'ls detoured we orrelves correspond with the by the insatiab'erarice and profsse magn.i6cent circumsiances that sur. douations of the favourite, and the round us. These are the views, conf:cation of the estates of those and this is the plan which the junta un orthy Spaniar's w bo had sided proposed to itset from the first mo- and fled wh the usurper from ment of its installation. Its moeide Madrid. These resources suficed bers, charged with an authority so for their frst operations without great, and rendering themselves re- any new taxes on the people. The sponsible by entertaining and en. first efforts of the junta were dicouraging bopes so fiattering, are rected to the setting in motion nevertheless fully aware of the dif. all

the troops

Andalu. ficulties they have to conquer in sia, Grenada, and Estramadura, order to realize them, the enormi, as well as the new lesies; to the ty of the weight that hangs over transportation of Dupont's army, them, and the dangers to which agreeably to treaty and to the they are exposed. But they will furnishicg of the English army, think their fatigues, and the de. that had vanquished Junot, with votion of their persons to the service the means of marching from Porof their country well paid, if they tugal to join the Spaniards. In succeed in inspiring Spaniards with the midst of these cares, they sent that confidence without which the envoys to demand succours from public good cannot be secured, Britain. The forces of the paand, which the country dares to triots, including now the army of affirm, it merits, from the recti. Romana, and the Spanish regi. tude of its principles and the pu- ments that bad been confined in rity of its intentions.

hulks of ships by Junot, were divida The supreme central junta was ed into three, and disposed in such acknowledged by the council of a manner as to form together, toa Castille, and all the other consti. wards the end of October, one grand tuted authorities in the kingdom. army. The eastern wing was comThe jur.ta, amongst its first acts, manded by general Joseph Palafox; appointed a new council of war, the north-western, by general Blake; consisting of five members, the pre. the centre, by general Castanos.sident of which was general Cas. The number under general Blake tanos. The other four members was computed at 55,000: that unwere Don Thomas Morla, the mar- der general Castanos, at 65,000; quis de Castelar, the marquis del and that under the orders of genePilacia, and Don Antonio Buerro. ral Palafox, at 20,000. General In prosecution of their designs it Castands was commander in chief. was necessary, in the first place, to Besides these there was a small ar. attend to the grand spring of go my in Estramadura, and another in vernment, the finances. Great Catalonia. The positions of the savings were made from the sup. French army remained, with some

variation,

See the whole of this proclamation. State Papers, 344.

Variation, on the whole pretty by which the first military commuch the same as in August; its mander in the present, and one of right towards the ocean, its left on the greatest of any age, at the Arragon, its front on the Ebro. head of a numerous well equipIt was strengthened from time to ed, and veteran army, accustomed time by reinforcements from France.' to conquer, and of which the difThe design of the Spaniards was, ferent divisions were also under the with the right and left wings of orders of the ablest generals,-it their grand army to turn the wings would be idle in the present peof the French army, whilst Casta. riod of striking events follownos should make a vigorous attack, ing each other in rapid succession, and break through their centre. to detail the steps by which such

Buonaparté having ordered a a commander, with such an army, levy of 160,000 conscripts, set through the boldness of his tactics, troops in motion for Spain, and, the combination of his movements, provided for all that might be de- and the rapidity of his marches, manded by the contingencies of defeated armies scarcely yet orgawar, set out from Paris for Spain nized, chiefly composed of new lewithout waiting for an answer to the vies without being properly equipOverture for a negotiation with the ped, without regular supplies of British government, in like manner provisions, and extended over too as he had bastened to meet the large a space of ground without Prussians, leaving lord Lauderdale sufficiently strengthening the line of to dispute with his ministers about their communication. Agreeably the basis of a negotiation in the to the general plan of operations autumn of 1806. With his usual above stated, general Castanos celerity, having set out from Ram- crossed the Ebro at the three points bouillet, October 30th he arrived at with only a shew of resistance, and Bayonne on the 3rd of November, he was suffered to push forward and on the 5th, accompanied by a detachments, and take possession reinforcement of 12,000 men, he of Lerin, Viana, Capporoso, and joined his brother Joseph at Vittoria. Other French posts on the left bank

In time of peace Buonaparté has of the Ebro. "The French did not proper persons employed to fur- oppose his onward course towards nish him with the most correct to. Pampeluna, any farther than was pographical maps of different tèr- necessary to conceal their own plan ritories, on a great scale : by which of operations. Marshal Moncey, means, being made acquainted by the duke of Cornegliano, was dihis generals with the relative po- rected with the left wing of the sitions of the opposite armies, he French army to advance along the is enabled to give general direc- banks of the Alagon and the Ebro, tions, even at a great distance.- and instead of opposing the pasThe campaign bad been opened sage, by presenting a weak front, according to his directions, a few to decoy general Castanos across days before his arrival.

the Ebro. The stratagem having It would not serve any purpose succeeded completely, Marshal either of amusement or instruction Ney, the duke of Elchingen, with to enter into a detail of the means his division, passing the line of the

Ebro,

Ebro,anddashing forward withgreat_sition, by a stratagem similar to celerity in separatecolumns,tookthe that which had drawn general CasSpanish posts at Logrono and Co- tanos to the left bank of the Ebro, Jahora, threw the whole country to advance to Burgos, of which he into alarm and confusion, and cut took possession without resistance. off the communication between Here the French fellon him with suthe armies respectively under the perior numbers and routed his army command of general Blake and after a gallant resistance for twelve general Castanos.

hours, and almost annihilated it. In a series of actions from the The count, with the small remains 31st of October, the army under of his army, fled to Lerma, and general Blake was driven from post from thence to Aranda. to post; from Durango to Guenas ; The French, having routed and from Guenas to Valmaseda; from dispersed the armies of the north · Valmaseda to Espinosa. In a of Spain, and of Estramadura, strong position there, the Gallician next fell on the central army unarmy made a stand, in order to der Castanos; and an engagement save its magazines and artillery, in ensued

ensued at Tudela, 230 November, vain. After a brave resistance, con

which fixed the fate of the camtinued for two days, they were paign. It is thus described clearly obliged to retreat with precipitation. intelligibly, and, we doubt not in During the conflict at Espinosa, a the least, faithfully, in the eleventh detachment was sent against the bulletin of the grand French army. last retreat of the Gallicians, Ray. “ On the 22nd of November, at the nosa. At break of day, ilth of break of day, the French army beNovember, they were suddenly at- gan its march. It took its directacked on both their right, left, and tion to Calahorra, where on the centre. They were forced to con- evening before, were the head sult their safety by flight; throwing quarters of Castanos. Finding that away their arms and colours, and town evacuated, it marched on abandoning their artillery. Gene- Alfaro, from whence the enemy ral Blake, with the remains of his had also retreated. On the 23d, at broken army, took refuge in Astu- break of day, the general of divirias. What remained of the corps sion, Lefevre, at the head of the of the marquis of Romana, that cavalry and supported by the divihad formed part of the Gallician sion of general Morlat, forming army, fled first to St. Andero, and the advanced guard, met with the afterwards Asturias. The enemy: He immediately gave inSpaniards were pursued closely by formation to the duke of Montemarshal Soult, duke of Dalmatia, bello, who found the army of the the van of whose army entered St. enemy in seven divisions, consisting Andero on the 16th. The bishop of 45,000 men, under arms, with of St. Andero took refuge in an its right before Tudela, and its left English frigate.

occupying a league and an half, a In the mean time the Estrama- disposition altogether faulty. The duran army, under the command Arragonese were on the right, the of the count Belvedere, a young troops of Valencia and New Castille man was permitted without oppo- in the centre, and the three divi

of

to

arms.

sions of Andalusia, which general which had been cut off fled in disCastanos commanded more especi- order to Tarragona and Agreda.

. ally, formed the left. Forty pieces Five thousand Spaniards, all troops of cannon covered the enemy's of the line, were taken prisoners in line.

the pursuit. No quarter was given “ At nine in the morning the co to any of the peasants found in lumns of the French army began This army of 45,000 men to display themselves with that or has been thus beaten and defeated, der, regularity, and coolness, which without our baving had more than characterise veteran troops. Situa 6,000 men engaged. The battle of tions were chosen for establishing Burgos had smitten the centre of batteries, with sixty pieces of can the enemy, and the battle of Espinon; but the impetuosity of the nosa, the right; the battle of Tu. French troops, and the inquietude dela has struck the left. Victory of the enemy, did not allow time has thus struck as with a thunderfor this. The Spaniards were als bolt, and dispersed the whole ready vanquished by the order and league of the enemy." movements of the French army. The By the battle of Tudela the road duke of Montebello caused the was laid open to Madrid. On the centre to be pierced by the divi- 291h of November, a division of sion of general Maurice Matthews. the French army, under the comThe general of division, Lefevre, mand of general Victor, duke of with his cavalry, immediately pas- Belluno, arrived at the pass of the sed on the trot through this open- Sierra Morena, called Puerto. It ing, and by a quarter wheel to the was defended by 13,000 men of left, enveloped the enemy. The the Spanish army of reserve, under moment when half the enemy's line the orders of general San Juan. found itself thus turned and de- The Puerto, or parrow neck of feated, was that in which general Le land forming the pass, was interGrange attacked the village of Cas- sected by a trench, fortified with cante, where the line of Castanos sixteen pieces of cannon.

While a was placed, which did not exhibit a part of the French advanced to the better countenance than the right, Puerto by the road, with six pieces but abandoned the field of battle, of artillery, other columns gained leaving behind it its artillery, and the heights on the left. A discharge a great number of prisoners. The of musketry and cannon was maincavalry pursued the remains of the tained for some little time on both enemy's army to Mallen, in the di- sides. A charge made by general rection of Saragossa, and to Tarra. Montbrun, at the head of the Pogona, in the direction of Agreda. lish light horse, decided the contest. Seven standards, thirty pieces of The Spaniards fled, leaving behind cannon, twelve colonels, three hun. them their artillery and standards ; dred officers, were taken. Four and, as the French Bulletin states, thousand Spaniards were left dead their muskets, but this, from subon the field of battle, or driven sequent events, appears not to have into the Ebro. While a part of the been truth. fugitives retired to Saragossa, the Advanced parties of the French left wing of the Spanish army cavalry appeared on the 1st of De

cember,

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