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Paris, Sept. 15---After three days turned--fatigued and contented. Neof repose and social enjoyment with ver were people entertained, or proour friends at we find ourselves vided with occupation, at so cheap a again in this vast city. It is an ob- rate as the Parisians. This 1 had ofien ject too great for the study of the pass- heard; and the hundred thousand ining traveller. However, in the fort- dividuals, who found themselves well night which we allow ourselves, we satisfied with the amusements of this shall see a great deal to amuse, and day, proved it. I was struck with a something, I doubt not, to instruct medallion on the base of an urn of and improve us.
great beauty in a saloon at St. Cloud: I prefer the country character of the figure, apparently the late EmFrance to that of the city. In the peror, restraining a wild horse, which former, the good fruits of the Revo- he has caught by the under jaw, with lution are visible at every step: pre- the inscription “ Vaganti tandem imvious to that era, in the country, the ponitur frænum;" meaning, I suppose, most numerous class, the bulk of the French liberty. Though a symbol of population, all but the nobles and the Napoleon's tyranny, it is the most priests, were wretchedly poor, servile beautiful work of art I ever beheld. and thic vish. This class has assumed As we were taking our refreshment a new character, improved in pro- at a restaurateur's in the village of St. portion to the improvement of its con- Cloud, the Duchess of Angouleme
ion. Servility has vanished with arrived in a state coach with eight their poverty; their thievishness, an horses, and was met, directly oppoeffect of the same cause, has also in site to our window, by an open langreat measure disappeared. But there dau and six, which was to convey is a selfishness and avarice, too pre- her to the palace. She chuyed carvalent in the general character of the riages among an immense crowd, who people; which may be natural to their paid her very little attention. This present state of society, from the vir. moved the choler of a Haming royalist tues of industry and economy in ex- of our company, and led to a political cells. I question is a proport onate discussion, which' afforded me fresh amelioration has taken place among reason to observe how surprisingly the Parisians, a sort of insulated na- little is known, by this party in Paris, tion, who know very little, and seem of the revolution in the French chato care as little, about the rest of racter which has really taken place. France.
They are so dazzled by their own With a restrained press and educa- gandy city, that they think but lightly tion under the direct influence of go- of the twenty-six millions of independ• vernment, I should think very meanly ent inhabitants of France who are not of French political liberty, under any in the Parisian circle. Paris is the form of government: I could not long punctum saliens, the organ of politibreathe in an atmosphere so dense cal feeling; elsewhere political feeland polluted. Not a pamphlet is ex- ing is absorbed in the love of tranhibited by the booksellers except on quillity. The court may seem to be the side of the prevailing politics : no- of the same importance as under the thing of liberal discussion existing, ancien regime; when the peasantry except by contraband. Every para- were a mere number, and the nobility graph in the public journals is model and the church were the French naled and pared down to suit the tem- tion, of which the court was the cenper of the Tuilleries, whatever that tre. The fact, however, is now far temper may be,---to-day: just so, it otherwise: it is the indifference and would be adapted to an opposite tem- not the insignificance of the people per to-morrow.
which now gives cousequence to the Sunday, Sept. 18 ---Being a day of politicians of the Tuilleries. Should föte at St. Cloud I joined all Paris in that indifference be rouzed, the charm toiling through the heat and dust to will be broken. visit the favourite abode of Buona- Sept. 19.---There was a magnifiparte. Here we walked through a cence about Buonaparte which carfew rooms and saw a few fountains. ries you away in defiance of your soThe young men and maidens diverted ber judgment. To-day I gained a sight themselves with blind man's buts, and of the astonishing colossal elephant, many other gaines; and we all re- which was to have been elevated on
the scite of the Bastille; from which arrangement of property, and such a a grand street was projected to the fermentation will be excited in the front of the Louvre, through the republican inass, as will shake Paris, whole length of the city. The canal and “ discover its foundations." of Ourque, a grand work of his for With regard to the late Emperor, the supply of Paris with water, was there seems to be no cement by which to have formed a fountain through a party can be united for him. Many, the proboscis of the elephant. It is no doubt, have lost situations of profit said that he invited the artists to fur- which they held under his governnish him with designs for a monu- ment. The host of otficers of revenue, ment, to be erected on this spot, and and of all the departments of state having received them, he proposed who have been displaced ; these nahis own of the elephant, which was turally regret the power which noncharacteristic of its author, but will rished them; but they are now mere probably never be completed. Where. individuals, who, with their places, ever you turu is some majestic mo- have lost much of their influence. The nument of his taste. In fact, the army too may regret him; but it hac grandeur of Paris was his creation, suffered so deeply by his latter madand you now see workmen busy in ness, that I really believe, highly as all parts, scratching out his name they respect him in character of Geand defacing his eagles. This is very neral, they do not wish for exactly pitiful. The Bourbons, in their at- such a leader. Beside, a large part of tempts to disgrace Napoleon by pul- the army is now re-settled in good ling down his statues and obliterating pay and quarters under the present the ensigns of his power, are directing government; and there is little prostheir attack against his least vulnera- pect of Napoleon's being in a situation ble part, and inviting a comparison to stand forward as a rallying point greatly to their own disadvantage. for the discontented among the reHe executed many great works of mainder. A good lesson this for the lasting utility, and many of amazing present king. The fermentation of splendour. Under his auspices the twenty-five years has purged off that internal government of the country mystical affection called loyalty, (so was wise and effectual: property was serviceable to kings and governments, sacred, and crimes were rare, because that they have classed it among the they could not be committed with cardinal virtues of a good citizen,) impunity. It was through the mad- and they will value their government ness of his external policy that his like other things, according to its tyranny had become intolerable; for usefulness. Their experience has this he drained the best blood of his given them more to fear than to hope people, and sacrificed the commerce from their rulers: reverse it, and they and manufactures of France; and to need not fear a competitor, though render the nation subservient to bis backed by all the potentates of Euambition he laboured to enslave it. rope. Let his successors pursue an opposite In speaking of parties I had forgotcourse: let them study peace, encou- ten the brood of priests which is rage commerce, and cherish liberty; hatching in all quarters. They are then they will have no rival in Buo- objects of derision and disgust wherenaparte. I think there is not in France ever they appear. Their contracted any political party in his interest. shoulders, inclined heads, and hands
If we view France at large, apart dangling from their weak wrists, tofrom the busy politicians of the me- gether with their immense hats and tropolis, nine-tenths of the people will long camblet gowns, give them he republicans when put to the test. sncaking demeanour, which contrasts To the republic, they owe all they most unfavourably with the erect gait possess of property and independence; and manly air of all other descriptions but their only present prayer is for of people. It is a miserable thing that repose and security. Let the restored a class of men, born like their fellows, monarch look to this. There is a “ Vultu erecto conspicere cælum," strong party in favour of tranquillity; should be so debased by bigotry or but very little love for royalty out of hypocrisy. Religion, that most sub. the immediate circle of the court. lime relation, which connects man Touch, or only threaten, the present with his Maker, must ennoble the
character; yet, strange to tell, these domestics, male, or female, enter you cringing attitudes have been a suc- chamber ou all occasions. cessful mean of operating on the ima- Their long meals, and countless ginations of the ignorant a belief of dishes. their sanctity. I am happy in the
The lean mutton of 6 lb, per quarconviction that no pretensions of this, ter; and the leanness of the meat in or any other sort, will reconcile the general. people of France to the restoration of Cards and billiards all day long, for tithes or ecclesiastical domination. want of better employment.
The paucity and extreme barrenThere are some particulars in the
ness of journals, from a restrained
press. habits and customs of the French in
The immense standing army, and common life, which an Englishman the increasing number of priests. would hardly tolerate after three ap
The two last items are somewhat prenticeships. For instance, The habit of spitting up and down
out of catalogue ; but they deserve
a place somewhere. their houses and churches, not con
There are also a few circumstances fined to the gentlemen. The abominable custom of cheap- English.
and habits in which they excel the ening every article in dealing. Their Voitures, waggon-diligences,
Their drinking no healths, and their
temperance in general. and their carriages in general; with
Neatness in their linen, of every deall their harness and trappings.
scription. Their prodigious saddles, and bri
Their great propriety of manners, dies, and boots. The Cabinets d'aisance; and, in ranks, but most remarkable in the
and general politeness; including all some places, the utter want of them.
lowest. The streets, without flag causeways The stench of their populous towns, condition of their unmutilated horses,
The good treatment and excellent particularly in the South, for want of of every sort. a cleanly police. The frequent discharge from the health of the women.
The activity and consequent good windows. The sabots, or wooden shoes.
The superior condition of the la
bouring class; and, as a set-off against The ceremony at meeting and part
some political grievances, exemption ing---a little overdone.
from tithes, poor-rates; and, in coinThe perfect abruptness with which
parison, from taxes.
Sir, Higham Hill, Feb 1, 1815. are very much at your service.
OOKING the other day into the “ Interminable misery is the natustruck with the following passagein the this is by no means a self-evident Review of Dr. Williams's Essay on the truth, I am at liberty to call it Equity of the Divine Government in question. I then deny that there and the Sovereignty of Divine Grace. are any data from which this conclu“ Interminable misery is the natural sion can be drawn. It has, however, and spontaneous effect of sin, unless been said that sin is an infinite evil, God should interfere by a sovereign because it is committed against an inact to cut off the entail; which he finite Being, and therefore deserves a is in no respect whatever bound to punishment infinite in duration. To do If in any instance he do so in- this I reply, that it is at least as reaterfere, he acts as a munificent sove- sonable to measure the evil of sin by reign : if he decline so to interfere, he the attributes of the being who comacts in equity, he does no wrong to mits it as by those of the being against any."
whom it is committed. I will thereOn this paragraph I immediately forc venture to confront this axiom wrote the following observations, with another. Sin is not an infinite which if you conceive them to be evil, because it is committed by a worth inserting in your Repository, finite being, and therefore does not deserve interminable punishment. But When I had read the paragraph on leaving these axioms to their fate, I which I have been animadverting, I proceed to observe that as sin, ac- thought the Dr. had proceeded far cording to the Calvinistic hypothesis, enough, but the Reviewer wishes that is the necessary result of a nature to- he had proceeded still farther, and tally corrupt, with which corrupt via- stated “ the scriptural doctrine of the ture, we certainly did not endow our. punishment of sin as vot merely ne
selves, it does not deserve intermina- gative, but as including also positive · ble misery; and were interminable infliction on the score of retributive
misery to follow it, it must be by an justice.” The reviewer, it seems, is arbitrary appointment, the injustice not satisfied with interminable miseand cruelty of which would be com- ry as the consequence of sin. What mensurate to the suffering inflicted. farther his imagination has destined Nor would the wretch who should be for mankind I am not able to divine doomed to sustain this eternity of woe, nor anxious to be informed. But that be disposed to think his sentence a retributive justice should demand the whit more equitable, when reminded, infliction alluded to is a paradox which that he “ sinned in Adam and fell with the human intellect must ever despair him in his first transgression.” But we of being able to solve. Strange ihat are told that“ if God in any instance re- system should so blind the under. mit the punishment he acts as a munifi- standing of men in other respects incent Sovereign ; if he decline so to telligent that the very terms which interpose he acts in equity, he does they employ to express their dogmas no wrong to any." No wrong? Does should carry their refutation with he sustain no wrong who is brought them! It is certainly as impolitic to into existence with a nature radically name justice in this matter as it is depraved, and then made eternally wise not to to say too much of the atmiserable for being such? It may not tribute of goodness. What must be be out of place to state here, that ac- the definition of justice by which it cording to Dr. Williams's system, as can be shewn to be just, that a crearepresented by the reviewer, all the ture, who, born with a corrupt nature divine dispensations are the results of must inevitably fall into sin, should be two great moral faculties in the Su- rendered eternally miserable by the preme Governor, equity and sure- Being who made him what he is; or reignty. With what propriety sove. by what definition of justice can it be reignty can be represented as a moral proved, that God would have been faculty I am altogether unable to com- unjust either to us or to himself, had prehend. Goodness I can understand, the infinite satisfaction of Jesus Christ and unless my memory fails me, the been accepted in behalf of all manAssembly's Catechismi taught me when kind? I know it has been said that a child that God possesses this attri- the torments of the damned are to be bute in an infinite degree. Premising an eternal monument of the immacuthat I mean no reflection either on the late holiness of the Divine Nature. understanding or the sincerity of Dr. This is changing the ground, but not Williams, I must be permitted to re- to my mind, changing it for the betmark, that infinite goodness will be ter. The Deity is thus represented as wisely kept out of sight by those who giving birth to a race of impure becontend that the greater part of man- ings, that their eternal sufferings may kind will suffer eternally for that be a demonstration of his purity. And which they could not help, and over a matchless demonstration it undoubtwhich they possess no controul. For edly is. Who would have thought it might unfortunately be asked, How that infinite holiness should not be discomes it to pass that equity should so tinguishable in its operation from intriumph over benerolence, how comes finite malevolence, or that the moral it to pass that a Being who is acknow- perfection of God should be the grand ledged to be infinitely good should source of misery to his creatures! treat the majority of his human off- If I have committed an error in spring as he would do were he infi- wandering from verbal criticism to nitely malevolent, and doom them to controversial theology, I will endeaas much misery as the grand enemy vour to make some amends by returnof the human race is supposed to wish ing to my proper department. I am them?
not aware that the following passages
of Heliodorus have been vet produced concise appellation to distinguish then in illustration of the well-known text from busy traders and idle gentlemen. in the epistle to the Philippians, I have taken rather a circuitous εκ αρπαγμoν ήγησατο το είναι ισα course to make some inquiries sugGEW. Heliodor. Æthiop. Ed. ('or. gested by the following title-page of p. 274, η δη Κυβελη, την ξυντυχιαν
small volume now before me. αρπαγμα. ποιήσαμενη. p. 321,
“A perfect Abridgment of the Ele
ven Books of Reports of the Reveαρπαγμα το ρηθεν εποιησατο η Αρ- Yend and Learned Knight sir Edward caur. p. 290, vecs grw xai załos zou Cook, sometimes Chief Justice of the ακμαιος, γυκαικα ομοιαν και προσθε. Upper Bench, Originally written in τηκυίαν απευθειται, και εκ αρπαγμα French, by Sir John Davis, Someεδε έρμαιον ηγείται το πραγμα. On times Attorney-General in Ireland. this last passage the learned editor af- Done into English.” London, 1651, ter observing hat some manuscripts,
You will observe that this Abridginstead of rapeitat read TOLEITAI, pro- monwealth. Can any of your readers,
ment was published during the Comceeds as follows. EvdEXETA PEVTC1 learned in the law, inform me whe“Ηλιοδωρον, εν αλλος ειποντα Αρπαγ ther legal dignitaries were then first μα ποιείσθαι, ενταυθα, η ποικίλαι denominated reverend, or if they still Canapevoy TO TYS OU JETEWS, ņ, ó claim the title? In that case the prexat faràoy Ebxos, ELS T7V X8051996 sent remote successor of Sir Edward κην ιδεαν το λόγο λεληθοτως υπο- Cook should be described not only ÇEDJUEVOV EITTELY, ‘Aguayua vyebongal, as the noble and learned, but also, or κατα το (Φιλιππησ’ Β,) ág- rather imprimis, παγμoν ήγησατο το ειναι ισα θεω.
Lord Ellenborough, while the Chief
Justice of Chester, the present At-
torney-General may, without our in-
also stiled reverend,
Jan. 31, 1315.
SINCE I communicated to you the
Notes on the Life of Priestley, a bendary they are simply Reverend. friend has reminded me of a circumThe dean is Very Reverend, the bi- stance which ought to have been menshop Right Reverend, and, to finish tioned, in connexion with the name of the climax, the archbishop is Most Hartley, as shewing that Priestley had Reverend and His Gruce.
been his correspondent. This appears There is another description of by the following passage in the “LetChristian ministers who, I trust, ge- ters to a Philosophical Unbeliever.” nerally regard it as their highest dis- Pt. I. p. 71. tinction, to have been appointed by “ As the pains and mortifications their brethren to preside in their as- of our infant state are the natural semblies, and to promote their reli- means of lessening the pains and morgious improvement. Yet such also tifications of advanced life; so I made allow themselves to be styled Reve- it appear to the satisfaction of Dr. rend, thus copying, not very con- Hartley, in the short correspondence sistently, their Presbyterian ancestors, I had with him, that his theory furwho indeed were champions of Reli- nishes pretty fair presumptions, that gious Liberty, according to their the pains of this life may suffice for partial historians, Calamy, Neal and the whole of our future existence ; Palmer, but were only priests writ we having now resources enow for large according to Milton, who spake a perpetual increase in happiness, what he knew and testified what he without any assistance from the senhad seen.
Of this latter description sation of future pain," of Christian ministers there is, how- This correspondence must have ever, I am persuaded, a large and been early in the life of Priestley, increasing number who would chear- probably while he resided at Needfully disencumber themselves of the ham Market, as Hartley died in title Reverend, could they find another 1757.