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muscle which draws the nictitating tary motions of the muscles are those membrane over the eye. Its office is which are performed by organs, seemin the front of the eye; but its body ingly of their own accord, and ceris lodged in the back part of the tainly without any attention of the globe, where it lies safe, and where mind, as the contraction and dilatait incumbers nothing."
tion of the heart, arteries, veins, stoIt is a 'fixed law that the contrac- mach, &c. The mixed motions are tion of a muscle is towards its centre. those which are in fact under the conTherefore the subject for mechanism troul of the will, but which usually on each occasion is
, so to modify the act without our boing conscious that figure and adjust the position of the they do so, as in the muscles of res. muscle as to produce the motion re- piration, the abdominal muscles and quired agreeably to this law. Hence the diaphragm. different muscles have a different con- Motion, as has been observed, is figuration suited to their several of produced by the muscle contracting fices, and to their situation with re- both its ends towards the centre, and spect to the work which they have since one end is fixed, the other must to perform, on which account they be drawn towards the centre of moare found under a multiplicity of forms tion, and with it the bone to which and attitudes. The shape of the organ it is affixed, and thus by the co-opeis susceptible of an incalculable va- ration of several muscles, the whole riety, while the law and line of its body is put into action. This is the contraction remain the same. In this case with all the muscles of voluntary to refer again to the same writer, the motion ; their fibres contract on the muscular system may be said to bear application of the nervous influence, a perfect resemblance to our works of and the whole muscle shortens itself art. An artist takes his materials as on the same principle the other mishe finds them, and employs his skill cles perform involuntary motion. The and ingenuity in turning them to his heart, for instance, contracts from the account, by giving to the parts of his stimulating properties of the blood; machine a form and relation, in which the arteries do the same. these properties may operate to the Motion in animals may be defined production of the effects intended.
to be the contraction of the muscular The muscles, it is said, act in the fibre from the presence of some stimlimbs with what is called a mechani- ulating influence. But whence the cal disadvantage, yet this is conducive muscular fibre derives this contractile to animal convenieucy. Mechanism power and what is its nature bafiles has always in view one of these two all inquiry. Its properties are, how. purposes, either to
a great ever, known), and it is distinguished weight slowly, or a light one rapidly. from those feelings or motions which For the former of these purposes, a result from the nerves. different arrangement of the muscles Irritability, or the contractile force might be better than the present, but of the muscular fibre, is that power for the latter, the present structure is which belongs to muscles of shortenthe true one. it is of much more ing themselves, when in any way ir. consequence to a man to be able to ritated, and is the source of motion carry bis hand to his head with due and animal life. expedition, than it would be to have The nerrous power is that property the power of raising from the ground by which, when a nerve is irritated a heavier load than he can at present by pressure or by puncture, the anilift. The last faculty may occasionally mal feels pain, and the muscles sup be desirable, but the other he wants plied by that nerve are brought into and uses every day and hour.
motion. This power is the cause of On Muscular Motion. Muscular voluntary motion, and relates chiefly motions are of three kinds, viz. vo- to the enjoyments and consciousness luntary, involuntary and wised. The of life. voluntary motions of muscles are such Sensibility, therefore, depends upon as proceed from an immediate exer- the nerves, but motion upon the mistion of the active powers of the will: cles; both are equally admirable and thus the mind directs the arm to be inscrutable, the one conduces to all raised, the knee to be bent, the the enjoyments and all the sufferings of tongue to move, &c. The involun- life, and to the intellectual faculties of
man: the other is the chief support the friends of truth, opposed as they of animal life, and the source of all are by the whole power of Church the bodily powers. “ And here," says and state, and countenanced only by a good writer on the subject, “we the self-devotion which is supplied by cannot help awfully contemplating the energy of virtue. this living power : the genius of man It is even probable that my work, has invented pulleys and levers to ac- which could soon be ready for the celerate motion: it has enabled him press, would leave no small loss to to anticipate all the mechanical helps be sustained by its author. Our body which he has found in the mechanism is small, and the learned in it, who of the human body. But compared alone could be expected to be much to the lowest creature, animated with interested, are still less numerous, and the living principle, the proudest not rich. The orthodox would not works of his hands are but as dead be eager to give countenance to namatter. Ju the most perfect machines ked truth, no new power is acquired; if there is I wish to inquire, through the Reany acquisition of force, there is a pository, if the author might depend proportionate loss of time; but in on sufficient support to shelter him muscular contraction, which is the from running any risk. He would immediate source of power in animals, cheerfully offer his labour on the al. there is a real increase of power with- tar of the God of truth. The price out any loss of time.”
of the book would be from three to
five shillings. London, Nov. 9, 1815. How it can be ascertained whether SIR,
I can be so protected, it is not within HE argument in favour of the my power to advise. You and your Greek Article, has been occasionally to judge. Mr. Hunter, bookseller, for four or five years, under my con- St. Paul's Church Yard, may be consideration. It is exceedingly vaunted, sulted, and is the proper person to cspecially since Dr. Middleton has. whom any plan may be proposed, by bestowed upon it so much labour, and such as can engage for its execution. supported it by a ponderous volume. For myself, I frankly confess, that I His purpose has been answered, and can contribute to our great cause no he is rewarded by an Indian bish- more than my Jabour, of which I oprick.
have always given much without hope I am prepared to shew that the ar- of reward. It is now left to the friends gument is totally unfounded, and that of pure Christianity to decide whether all the learning called to its aid by they will leave the boasted argument Middleton, Wordsworth, &c. is al. from the Greek Article to maintain its together wasted. This attempt falls triumph onopposed. Nothing has yet abortive like all former ones in the been done with effect against it. Let same cause, and comes in proof of shame fall on me, if after professing the rottenness of the cause itself which to demonstrate its nullity, I fail in the it is meant to support ; except so far attempt. as it has elevated to riches and ho
CHARLES LLOYD. nours its abortive supporters. As far as such a subject is capable of demon
Glasgow, Nov 7, 1815. stration, I can demonstrate that the SIR, new doctrine of the Greek Article fails THE indulgent notice, which has to prove the Divinity or Deity of Christ.
termi Unitarian by several writers in My recompense will, of course, be your valuable Repository, induces me very different from that of those who to send you a few lines for the purhave profited so largely by maintain- pose of explaining more fully my sening the other side of the question. No- timents upon the application of the thing can be expected on the road name Socinian to those Christians, which I pursue but the pleasure de- who assert the simple humanity of rived from the defence of truth ; and Christ. it is an astonishing phenomenon in By the expressions, employed in the history of man that such a com- my former letter, I intended, in the plete triumph has been obtained by first place, to intimate my doubts
whether it is desirable that Christians venient method of denoting the senof this description should be distin: liments of those Christians, who mainguished from the rest of their Unita- tain that our Saviour was a human rian brethren by any name at all. I being in his original nature. imagined that a term, opposing them Hoping that the ample discussion to the believers in our Saviour's pre- of this important subject in your Reexistence, might tend to divide into pository may prevent any further distwo sects those, who worship the pute
' upon the title of all believers in same God, the benevolent and mer- the supremacy of the Father to be ciful Father of mankind; who avow called Unitariars, until the name Unithe same principles respecting the tarian itself, shall be lost and absorbed use of the understanding in the in- in that of Christian, vestigation of sacred truth; who en
I remain, Sir, tertain similar views concerning the
Yours respectfully, duties and prospects of the followers
JAMES YATES. of Jesús; and who ought to be for ever united in cordial endeavours to SIR, provoke one another to love and to TR. ASPLAND may be assured good works. In the second place, 1 I have no feeling towards him intended to say, that if any distinct but that of respect ; and as to his reappellation were requisite, the com- flections against me, I pass them with mon and well-known term Socinian a smile of forgiveness. Perbaps he did not appear to me so objectionable may one day find that I have no reas it has been sometimes represented ; luctance to affix my name to the senand I knew of no other word in the timents I have recently written for English language, which would be your Repository. generally understood, and which I have been unfortunate in my ex. therefore I could have substituted in pressions, or Mr. A. has been unforits place. But as the body of Chris- tunate in his apprehension of their tians in question evidently disapprove meaning. I should have been chargeof being called Socinians, and as some able with making a “strange comof them have proposed to call them- plaint” indeed, if I had complained of selves Humanitarians, I would decide the term Unitarian being used at all, at once in favour of the latter choice. by him or any other persons to whom It is true that persons prone to cavil it belongs. On the contrary, I have may object to this appellation as they not written a word tending to put the have objected to the generic name, term “ under proscription." It is a Unitarian. They may charge us anew very proper term, if used in a proper with folly, injustice, and presump- manner; and so is the word Trinitation in appropriating to ourselves a rian. But veither of them, in my designation, which belongs to us no opinion, ought to be selected as the more than to them, as if forsooth we distinguishing appellation of any parwere the only men in the world who ticular class of Unitarians or Trinitabelieve in the humanity of Christ. rians. This opinion I shall endeavour We know, however, that they, who to establish. would urge this objection, might ob- Mr. Aspland says of the term under ject to any name whatsoever, and consideration, “I use it as I do the that the meaning of words does not terms Christian and Protestant, and depend so much upon their etymology am the better pleased with it, beas upon the established practice of cause like those terms it expresses a those who employ them. After con- principle on which I am in a state of sidering therefore the candid and ju- agreement with a respectable portion dicious observations of your respected of my fellow-creatures." Very well. correspondents, I beg leave to retract Here we exactly coincide, although my recommendation of the term So- Mr. A. most unaccountably says this cinian, and to state that, although I " displeases” me. I am perfectly had rather perhaps avoid the use of pleased with this representation, and any term subordinate to Unitarian, it is precisely in this way that I would yet I have no objection to adopt the use the term myself, as expressing a name Humanitarian, not as the de. principle on which several classes of signation of a separate sect opposed Christians are agreed. But is it not to the Arians, but as a brief and con- a curious way of describing any pare
ticular sect, to employ for that pur- ple, apply it by way of distinction to pose a word which expresses, not the their Fund? And does not that fund peculiarities of such sect, but its actively aid the propagation of opin“ agreement" with ethers ? One ions which are peculiarly and exclumight suppose that Mr. A. is himself sively their own? Opinions in which convinced of its impropriety, seeing other Unitarians, such for instance as he declares that he uses it as he does Chandler and Price and Towgood and certain other terms which are never Worthington never could concur? And appropriated to any particular party, are not their chapels also, intended but applied alike to all parties who and used for the purpose of supportagree in the general principles they ing an interpretation of the Christian import.
scheme decidedly opposed to the faith It remains then to be seen whether of these celebrated Unitarians ? It Mr. A. is quite correct in this decla. is true, Unitarianism lies at the founration, or whether the language he dation of their system. But so it now uses is consistent with his gene- might have been said of Joanna, beral practice. Ifit be not, his language fore mentioned, (supposing her to have is to be imputed merely to inadver adopted the term Christian as the distence or mistake. But he will allow tinguishing appellation of her party) that mistakes ought to be corrected that Christianity lay at the foundation Is it then at all common with that of her system. To this she added gentleman or any other persons, to many fancies peculiarly her own, not use the terms Christian and Protes- included in Christianity; and in like tant in the same manner as he and manner they add many opinions pehis party use the term Unitarian ? As culiarly their own, not included in specimens of that manner, I before cited Unitarianism. She might be called a the expressions “ Unitarian Fund" Christian, and they may be called and “ Unitarian Chapel.” These are Unitarians, but not by way of discases in point.
Mr. A. has conve tinction. These are not the distincniently passed the former in silence : tive appellations of the respective parand although the latter was brought ties, because, as Mr. Aspland will adforward in a “story," and met by mit, they express nothing but what him with the declaration that “ story the parties hold in agreement with telling is not argument,” yet I beg others. leave to say that the story related did, Flere then are two things which I in my judgment, contain a complete am unable to reconcile ; first, Mr. argument, and one that bore directly Aspland's professing to use the term on the point under discussion. Nor in question as he does the term Chris. would twenty stories, such as Mr. A. tian and Protestant, which are never says he could tell, in any degree in- selected by any particular party of validate it, because they do not strictly Christians or Protestants as their disapply to that point.
tinctive appellation. Secondly, his But what is there objectionable in habitually and publicly concurring the use of the before cited expressions in the prevailing custom of his party and other similar modes of appropri. of selecting this term whereby to disating the term Unitarian? Why, Sir, tinguish themselves, their institutions, it reminds one of Joanna Southcott's their chapels, their writings, &c. alinscription on her chapel “ The House though it confessedly expresses a of God." In this there is au insinua. principle on which they are in a state tion, not expressed but implied. And of agreement with a respectable porso there would if she had raised a tion of their fellow-creatures !". public fund for the purposes of her If, Sir, this manner of using the party, and called it The Christian term be justifiable, a similar use of Fund-or The Protestant Fund. the opposite term Trinilarian must be Would it have been correct, or seemly, equally so. Let us therefore try the thus to appropriate a general name to question on this ground. Suppoze an object intended for particular pur any one party of Trinitarians, the poses ? -Now is it not precisely in this Wesleyan Methodists for instance, manner that the term Unitarian is were to select it in the same way : commonly appropriated by a parti- we should then hear perpetually of gular class? Do they not, for exam- the Trinitarian conference, the Tri
nitarian preachers, chapels, &c. But does not so distinguish them, because, · would this manner of applying the as Mr. A. says, it is what they hold term be at all consistent with accu- in " agreement" with others, as they racy or modesty? And yet if it were do their common Christianity and objected to, the Wesleyan would be their Protestantism. Do these latter taught by Mr. Aspland to reply, “If terms describe their peculiar and disother Trinitarians wish to distinguish tinguishing faith? Certainly not, themselves from me, they are wel- because these words express only ge conie to set up what distinction they neral points on which they ayree with please; only let that distinction mark others. The term Unitarian, accordtheir opinions and not tuine”!-Up- ing to Mr. A, himself, is like them in on the same princip'e might they style this respect, and therefore, has no al. themselves Protestants only, and dis- Jusion to that which distinguishes tinguish their chapels or institutions, them from all other Christians. by the term Protestant, saying, “We Mr. Aspland calls upon me to exare the better pleased with the term plaiu the following expression, which because it expresses a principle on he pronounces a “startling" one, which we are in a state of agreement “ The difference between those called with a respectable portion of our fel: Socinians and Socinus, is far less than low-creatures !" To this, the proper that which subsists between them and sufficient reply would be, as it and most other Unitarians." Really, is to Mr. Aspland, that this very Sir, I thought I had only expressed “ agreement" is the reason why the an obvious fact upon which there term which expresses it ought not to could not be two opinions. I cannot be selected as your appropriate appel- descend into minute explanations of lation, for it is equally appropriate what is so plain. Let the creed of to others.
Socinus be brought up point by point I am surprised that Mr. A. should in comparison with Mr. Aspland's, dissent from my remark that the term and then let the latter be compared Unitarian has no allusion to his pe- in the same way with that of either culiar faith, or that which distinguish- of the four celebrated Unitarians es his party from all other Christians." whom I have already named in this He declares, on the contrary, that it paper, and a child may see the truth “ refers entirely and solely to their of my assertion without being startled. peculiar faith! In the name of com- I therefore said, and I think said tru. mon sense, how can that be their pe- ly, that this fact was sufficient to culiar or distinguishing faith which is overturn the greater part of Mr. As. avowedly“ a principle on which pland's quotation from his “ Plea." they are in a state of agreement with For if it be improper to distinguish a respectable portion of their fellow his sect by the word Socinian on ac. creatures ?" That which distinguishes count of some differences between one sect from others, must be that on them and Socinus, (which is the drift which they differ, not that on which of Mr. A's. argument,) it is still more they agree. When I read the produc. improper to distinguish them by the tions or hear the discourses of Mr.' word 'Unitarian, because the differ Asplaud's sect, I often find them in- ences are still greater between them sisting largely on their peculiarities; and other Unitarians. or those tenets which“ distinguish With the most cordial respect for them from all others." These relate Mr. Aspland's character, whatever to the official character and work of errors or mistakes I may impute to the Son of God; and also to his per- him, 1 beg leave to submit these obson, which they contend is that of servations to his serious consideration mere humanity. If any thing be of and that of your readers. importance to Christianity it must
PASTOR, surely be the official character and work of its Founder, and the vital
Bromley, Nov. 19, 1815. subject of redemption, with other SIR, points connected with it. It is here, WISH to inform your readers, Sir, that I find their “ peculiar faith who probably comprehend most or that which distinguishes them from of those whom such information will all other Christians.” Unitarianism interest, that I entertain the design