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infinite evil, leaves no room for de- venge, what the law terms malice grees of criminality in human actions. Prepense, which actuate the murderer. It is system which, consistently The persecutor is to be regarded as enough with itself, but in direct de. a dupe to that imposing sophistry fiance of the scripture doctrine of re- which persuades bim that the end tribution, makes something altogether will justify any means, and that he independent of moral rectitude the does God service by destroying his ground of salvation, and which can workmanship. send one man triumphing to glory

Calvin betrayed Servetus to the from the scaffold, and calmly leave magistrates of Geneva, and gloried in another who has endeavoured to ex. having procured his death, for which emplify every Christian virtue (un- an indelible stain attaches to his own less a change not of character, gentle name and memory. Yet he was not, reader, but of views and reliance should I apprehend, the murderer of Serve take place) to be

tus. Else Cranmer was the murderer « whelm'd in stormy gulphs of rolling Divines the murderers, in purpose, of

of Joan Bocher, and the Assembly of fire !! E. COGAN

Paul Best, whom they delivered over

to the Long Parliament, to be cut off SIR, Nov. 12, 1815.

by an ex post facto ordinance, and of NHE communications from your

Biddle for whose destruction they solicited the enactment of a sangui

Socinus too, must, in 657) are highly gratifying. I trust nary statute. there will be frequent occasion to re

that case, be regarded as all but the peat them, and that the land which murderer of Davides.

Allow me to add that we appear afforded Priestley an assylum will be largely recompeñsed by the wide dif- to make too much of Calvin's unacfusion and happy influence of those countable objection to the term Triscriptural principles, which animated nity, He so uniformly describes God the labours of his life, supported his as Three in One that he cannot be semind under great afflictions and sus- riously charged with inconsistency tained him in the expectation of merely because, for whatever reason, death. Give me leave, however, to he disapproved the use of a word so plead with your correspondent for convenient as Trinity to express that mercy, or rather justice to the me

opinion. mory of Calvin, whom, like many on

ANGLUS. this side the mighty water, he represents as a murderer" (p. 658, c. 2) for Mare-Street, Hackney, Nov. 1, 1815.

SIR, having procured the death of Ser

TITH submission to the superior vetus. We too justly describe war as mur

mind of the Bishop of Lincoln, der, yet when the soldier,

I must humbly yet firmly maintain,

that those clergymen of his lordship's Seeking the bubble reputation, Even in the cannon's mouth,

diocese, who have openly avowed

their attachment to the British and cuts down every thing human which Foreign Bible Society, deserve the stands in his way, we forbear to brand thanks, rather than the censure, of as à murderer either a leader or a their diocesan. follower in those bloody adventures. These worthy men subscribe to Thus persecution may be aptly de- the 6th Article of the Established fined murder, yet to the persecutor Church, « Holy scripture containeth we cannot justly impute those mo. all things necessary to salvation ; so tives of sordid interest or cruel re- that whatsoever is not read therein,

or may be proved thereby, is not to * APP TIVES avd.portal Tv Axe Ba- be required of any man, that it should θειαι, και ποταμοί πυρος όμδυ και

be believed as an article of faith ; of

be thought requisite or necessary to Συγος απορρωγες αναπεταννυνται, salvation." και σκοτος εφηπλωται πολυφαντασ- On this article the structure of the τον, και χασματα και μυχοι, κακων British and Foreign Bible Society οριών γεμοντες.

rests; every clergyman, therefore, Plutarch de Superstitione. who promotes this institutip, dis

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covers by his conduct, what he has the contrary, we should almost be ex animo subscribed, that he is a true suspicious, that the temporal prosson of the Church.

perity of Rectors and Vicars was What would any reasonable man deemed more important than the cirthink of the correctness of his judg- culation of that book which is called ment, who should assert, that the the religion of Protestants." general circulation of Magna Charta Pardon my presumption ; but his and the Bill of Rights, through the lordship's scruples remind me of a union of Tories and Whigs, would conscientious old lady who refused to overthrow the British Constitution ? eat some grapes which grew on a vine And as little can be feared from the that was nailed against a Presbytecirculation of that book (on whose rian meeting-house: yet the grapes foundation the Church of England were ripe and nutritious; the sun professes to be built) by the co-ope- deigned to shine upon them, and ration of Churchmen and Dissenters. brought them to perfection; and God

Is it not a subject rather of con- also will bless his own word, whether gratulation than grief, that Christians circulated by a Dissenter or a Churchcan unite in the common fajth, and man, a dissenter from the Church of thus bless the world with that reve- Rome, or a dissenter from the Church lation which both Churchmen and of England. Disssenters believe to be of divine in- I would ask what parallel can posspiration ?

sibly be formed between a society Were these Bibles accompanied by built on the 6th Article of the Church commentaries inimical to the Church, of England, and a conspiracy against then there might be just cause of com- the Church; between Dissenters displaint; but surely the holy scriptures, tributing Bibles, and rebels distribuin merely passing through the hands of ting arms ? This parallel appears to a Dissenter, collect no pestiferous ma- me as apposite as the citation from terials to poison those who may un- Rom. xvi. 7, against those who cause happily thus receive a Bible. If the divisions: “ Šalute Andronicus and man who gives the Bible have “ any Junia, my kinsmen and my fellowcreed, or no creed," this does not prisoners, who are of note among the affect him to whom is given “ words apostles, who also were in Christ bewhereby he and his house may before me." saved."

However, it is certain that his lordSome dissenters are lay-rectors, and ship can be supported by precedents, others are in the habit of bestowing and from an infallible church too, benefices on clergymen ; yet consci- who were decided enemies against entious men are curates to the one, the heretics and schismatics of the and men eminently devoted to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the national establishment are indebted to fathers and founders of the present the munificence of the other ; and his Established Church. The selection lordship knows one living, at least, in of a few passages from those periods bis diocese, the presentation of which of ecclesiastical history, may not be was from the hands of a Dissenter. inadmissible. “ About four and twen

Some of the Dissenting yeomanry ty years (1408) after Dr. Wiclifs in the diocese of Lincoln would be death, it was decreed by Archbishop much gratified, if his lordship could Arundel, in a constitution published carry this system of exclusion into in a convocation of the clergy of his another department of the Church. province assembled at Oxford, ' that They say, “ if we are not to assist the no one should thereafter translate any Church in the circulation of the Bible, text of holy scripture into English by why not refuse our help altogether. way of a book, a little book, a tract, Our Rectors and Vicars make no scru- and that no book, &c. of this kind ple to take their tythes; nor are they should be read that was composed under any apprehension, that, by a lately, in the time of John Wiclif, regular and constant payment, we or since his death.'" shall ruin the establishment. The The celebrated Erasmus also ingold goes pure and sterliug into the forms us, that when he published his coffers of the clergymen, uncontami. Greek Testament, it met with great nared by the heretics and schismatics clamour and opposition. “One Colwlao pay it, and if we did not know lege in the University of Cambridge absolutely forbid the use of it. They hys churche fro these feudes for they object to us the feigned authority of fryghten peryiously.” synods, and magnify the great peril Lewis in lis History of the Transof the Christian faith, and the danger lations of the Bible, says, “ By one of the Church.

great Bishop of England is, I suppose, It is a subject deeply to be regret- meant John Bokynhar, at that time ted, that, in past times, the ministers Bishop of Lincoln, in wlose dioof religion have been the greatest ene- cese Dr. Wiclif was promoted, and mies to the universal distribution of by whom it seems he was summoned the scriptures; while Royal Dukes and prosecuted fer his translating the hare formerly, as well as in ihe pre. scriptures into English.” sent day, advocated the principle up- If these are dangerous principles, on which the Britisia and foreign as the editor of the London Paper Bible Society invariably acts. So of- affirms, why not state them, and say fensive, it seems, was this translation in which rule of the Society they exof the Bible to those who were for ist. To such a charge I would reply, taking away the key of knowledge, in the words of Dr. Collyer, who, in and means of better information, es, repelling the insinuation that the pecially in matters of religion and members of the British and Foreign eternal salvation, that a bill was Bible Society had entered into a conbrought into the House of Lords, spiracy against the Establishment and 1390, 13th Rich. II. for the suppress- State,“ conspiracy, at the head of ing it. On which the Duke of Lan- wnich," said be, “ I find their Royal caster, the king's uncle, said to this Highnesses the Dukes of York, of effect: “ We will not be the dregs of Kent, of Cumberland, of Sussex, and all, seeing other nations have the law of Cambridge-a conspiracy in which of God, which is the law of our faith I see combined the Right Reverend written in their own language. At Prelates of Norwich, of St. David's, the same time declaring, in a very and many others--a conspiracy in solemn manner, that he would main- which I see the Liberator of Africa tain our having this law in our tongue and the Pacificator of America--a conagainst those, whoever they should spiracy in which the opposition and be, who first brought in the bill. the ministry are agreed conspiraThe Duke was seconded by others, cy never to be overthrown by that who said, “ if the gospel, by its being mode of attack which is employed translated into English, was the oc- against the Institution.” casion of men's running into error, I am, Sir, Yours, &c. they might know that there were

CRITO. more heretics to be found among the Latins than aniong the people of any Natural Theology.

No. XI. other language."

Of the Muscles.-DIuscular Motion.

THE our first reformer, on the suspicions of the Roman Catholic Clergy, rela- which cover the breast--those which tive to the circulation of the scrip- constitute the fore-part, and sides of tures in our own tongue. “ Herefore the abdomen, and the great muscles on gret byshop of Englelond, as men that are spread over the back. These sayen, is yuel payed, that Godde's last are numerous and large: they law is written in englisch to lewede arise from the whole length of the men, and he persneth a prest for he spine : and als), some portions from wryteth this englyscle, and sompneth the back part of the skull; and from hym, that hyt is harde to himn to these different parts, they spread over route. O men that be of Christe's and cover the back of the truk, and halfe, helpe ye now agynes antechrist. proceed onward to be inserted, some For the perylouse tyme is comen that into the base of the arm, others into Crist and Poule tolden byfore. But the spine, at a distance from their .. on coumfort it is of Knyghtes that origin, and the remainder into the they saveren muche the gospel and ribs and back-part of the skull. They bave wylle to rede in Englysche the accordingly not only cover and progospel of Criste's lyf. Crist helpe tect the whole back-part of the body,

4 Y

out saying before you the opinion of THvides principally into those

VOL. X.

but serve to pull the head backwards, extend the hand, and bring it backmove the arms, assist in respiration ward:s, arise from the lower end of by acting on the ribs, and to give us the arm bone, and are inserted into an erect posture by extending the the back of the hand just beyond the spine.

wrist: all these muscles, before they The cavity of the abdomen is com- reach the wrist, become slender tenpleieri by a few broad and thin mus. dons. cles, which constitute as it were Besides these there are four short walls for covering in and containing muscles which extend obliquely across the viscera. These also assist respi- from one bone of the fore-arm to the ration by helping to expel the air other, and roll the radius upon the from the lungs, and they contribute ulua, carrying the wrist round in cirto the movement of the body. The cles, hence we are enabled to turn ribs are raised, and the cavity of the the palm of the hand either upwards chest enlarged, during inspiration, by or downwards. eleven double rows of small muscles The fingers are principally moved on each side. They grow out from by two flexors and one extensor. the lower edge of one rib, are inserted The former arise from the upper part into the upper rim of the next. Of of the fore-arm near the bend, and the muscles within the body, the prin- running down towards the wrist, cipal one is called the diaphragm, send off four round tendons to each, which is a broad thin muscle, occu- which passing over the palm of the pying , partly a horizontal position, hand, are inserted into the several when the body is erect; but inclin- bones of the fingers : one set of tening downwards towards the back, and dons pass through slits in the other dividing the trunk of the body into set, which assist in binding them two great cavities, the thorax and down when the fingers are bent. The abdomen. It is the principal agent extensor muscle arises above the elin respiration. The other muscles bow, passes down the fore-arm, and within the body arise from the sides is divided into four round tendons, of the lower end of the back-bone, which may be felt on the back of the and from the inner surface of the hand, and which are inserted into pelvis, and passing down to be in- all the bones of the four fingers for serted into the thigh-bone, a little extending them. The motions of the below its head, they help to turn the fingers and those of the thumb are toes outward, and also to bend the performed by muscles situated chiefly thigh : when the limb is fixed they in the hand. assist in bending the body.

In speaking of the openings in one Muscles of the superior extremities : set of tendons to admit others to pass these are usually divided into those through them, Dr. Paley asks, “What that are situated on the shoulder-blade contrivance can be more mechanical,

on the arm--the fore-arm, and on a slit in one tendon to let another pass the land. Those situated on the through it? This structure is found in shoulder-blade are inserted into the the tendons which move the toes and bone of the arm to effect its move. fingers. The long tendon, as it is ments. There are seven of these.

called, in the foot, which bends the The fore-arm is moved by four first joint of the toe, passes through muscles, which arise from the upper the short tendon which bends the separt of the arm bone, and, passing cond joint, which course allows to the over the elbow joint, are inserted sincw more liberty, and a more coninto the upper ends of the two bones modious action, than it would other. of the fore-arm.

wise have been capable of exerting. The hand is moved at the wrist by There is nothing, I believe, in a silk six muscles, of these three arise from or cotton mill, in the belts, or straps, the upper part of the fore-arm, and

or ropes, by which motion is commudescending along its whole length nicated from one part of the machine are continued over the wrist, and are to another, that is more artificial, O inserted into the hand close to this more evidently so, than this perfora joint; they bend the hand, and are tion.” consequently called its flexors. Three

It may be farther observed, that others called extensors, because they there is always an exact relation be tween the joint and the muscles which soon after unite into the great fleshy move it. That is, whatever kind of bellies, which, swelling out, form motion the joint, by its construction, the calf of the ley, but decreasing is capable of performing, that motion where the leg begins to grow small, the annexed muscles, by their position, they cach give off a broad thin tenare capable of producing. If there don which uniting form the tendo be, for instance, at the elbow, a hinge Achillis, to be inserted into the exjoint, capable of motion only in the tremity of the heel. These, which same plane, the leaders as they are are very powerful muscles, extend called, that is, the muscular tendons, the foot by bringing it backwards, are placed in directions parallel to the and are principally engaged in runbone, so as, by the contraction or re- ning, walking, leaping, &c. laxation of the muscles to which they Of the four flexors, the two first. belong, to produce that motion and arise from the upper part of the tibin, no other.

or principal bone of the leg, and coriThe celerity and precision of mus- tinuing fleshy about half way down cular motion may be well observed in that limb, send off two round tenthe execution of many species of in- dons, which pass under the inner strumental music, in which the changes ankle, and are inserted into the bones produced by the hand of the musician of the foot. The other two flexors are exceedingly rapid, are exactly arise from the upper part of the fibumeasured, even when most minute, la or smaller bone of the leg, and and display, on the part of the muscles, send off two round tendons, which an obedience of action, alike wonder- passing under the ankle, are inserted ful for its quickness and its correctness. into the bones of the foot. The same may be noticed in the hand The toes have likewise their extenof a person while in the act of writing: sors and flexors, but on these we we may consider the number of mus- need not cnlarge. We have seen that cles which are brought to bear on the the muscles or flesh cover and spread pen, and how the joint and adjusted over the whole frame of bones, conoperation of several tendons is con- necting and securing its different dicerned in every stroke, yet that 500 visions and parts ; and not only prosuch strokes may be drawn in a minute. ducing all its movements, but also Scarcely a single letter can be turned giving to it fulness, shape and beauty. without several of these tendinous con- We have seen likewise that the actractions, yet how currently does the tion of the muscles is frequently want. work proceed; and when we look at ed where their situation would be init, how faithful have the muscles been convenient, in which case the body of to their duty, how true to the order the muscle is placed in some commowhich habit has inculcated. For while dious position at a distance, and made the hand-writing is the same, an ex- to communicate with the point of acactitude of order is preserved, whether tion by slender strings or tendons. 2 person write well or ill. These in- “ If the muscle,” says Dr. Paley, stances of music and writing shew not “ which move the fingers, had been only the quickness and precision of placed in the palm or back of the muscular action, but its docility. hand, they would have swelled that

Of the muscles of the inferior ex. part to an awkward and clumsy tremities, those which move the thigh thickness. The beauty, the proporarise from the pelvis, or the lower tions of the part would have been depart of the trunk, descend over the stroyed. They are therefore disposed bip joint and are inserted into the in the arm, even up to the elbow, and thigh-bone below its articulating head. act by long tendons strapped down The leg is moved by eleveu muscles at the wrist, and passing under the which arise partly from the pelvis, ligament to the fingers, and to the and partly from the upper end of the joints of the fingers, which they sethigh-bone, and which passing over verally move. In like manner, the the knee-joint are inserted into the muscles which move the toes, and bones of the leg. The foot is moved many of the joints of the foot, are by three extensors and four flexors. gracefully disposed in the calf of the The extensors, at least two of them, leg, instead of forming an mweildly arise from the lower end of the thigh- tumefaction in the foot itself. The bone, near the bend of the knee, and observation may be repeated of the

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