« VorigeDoorgaan »
friend (John Alsop] observed to and called to see her husband ; she me, that he very often had his fears being from home.” on her account, and sometimes imparted them to her.d About the time
Monumental Inscriptions. she applied for her certificate to visit
VER the , by ber introduction to the cities of Europe; and it was some time before of East Dereham, Norfolk. he could determine to sign her certi
In Memory ficate ; but the fear of appearing sin
Of William Cowper, Esq. gular, outweighed his better feelings, Born in Hertfordshire, 1731. and be accordingly signed it. Not
Buried in that Church, 1800. withstanding the very fallacious sen- Ye, who with warmth the public triumpla timents she bad propagated, I felt
feel charity and good-will towards her, Of talents, dignified by sacred zeal,
Here, to devotion's bard devoutly just,
Pay your fond tribute due to Cowper's account so much deference was paid, was, England, exulting in his spotless fame,
dust! sbe informs me, the late John Townsend, Ranks with her dearest sons his fav’rite of London, who was then traveling in America as a minister, with the concurrence and approbation of the Society in Great Sense, fancy, wit suffice not all to raise Britain. He was my wife's maternal grand
So clear a title to affection's praise : father, by whose MS. Journal it appears
His bighest honours to the heart belong ; that be “ lodged at John Alsop's," at Hud.
His virtues formed the magic of his song. son-"11 Mo. [Nov.) 30, 1786,” after attending 6 a large evening meeting at
No. IV. that place. This visit was paid very near that time, and “ long after she (first] ap
On John Tweddell, born 1st June, peared as a minister,” which was even
1769, died 25th July, 1799, who lies before the settlement of Hudson.
buried in the Temple of Theseus, at d Hannah Barnard cannot pretend to Athens, a translation from the Greek. say how often John Alsop“ had his fears Sleep'st thou among the dead ? then hast on her account,
bat she informs me he thou cull'd never “ imparted them to her.”
In vain fair learning's flowers, the muse • However “ forcibly" John Alsop “felt in vain her danger, about the time she applied Smild on thy youth-Yet but thy mortal for her certificate to visit Eugland in mould 1797) and that it would be increased by Ilides this dark tomb; thy soul the heav'ns her introduction to the cities of Europe,' coutain.-Hannah Barnard assures me, that he expressed in the Committee some months before it was granted, “his unity with her i A curious way truly to manifest his concern in the fullest manner !" And charity and good-will towards Hannah yet after a lapse of eight years, from the Barnard ! I would now publicly submit it date of this certificate, “ 10 Mo.26, 1797," to the Editor of Sutcliff's Travels, whewhich testifies the “ near sympathy and ther it be ot palpably unjust to exhibit concurrence" of above sixty members of ber therein under initials that cannot well Hudson Monthly Meeting with her said be mistaken, as the propagator of “ very concern, and that her ministry is sound fallacious sentiments,
without saying and edifying, attended with a comfortable what they are, and thereby enabling the evidence of her call thereunto,” John Al reader to judge for himself of their moral sop is represented as declaring in the tendency? After perusing such a reprecharacter of "a worthy elder,” that "it seniation, how must any intelligent and was some time before he could determine candid reader be surprised to find that it to sign her certificate.” But that "the fear principally relates to her avowing an unof appearing singular outweighed his bet- shaken persuasion, that in every age of ter feelings, and he accordingly signed the world, it was the invariable will of
What a striking picture of insin- God, that all lis rational offspring, should cerity is this, combined as it is with a ri- act justly towards each other, love mercy, diculous pretension to superior spiritual and walk humibly with their God, in strict discernment ! In cominon justice to the obedience to his positive precepts ! For other Elders of Hudson Meeting the nu- this was in substance the offence which merous readers of these travels should incurred the censure and disownment of know by whom it was set ap.
To us who now our friendship to record commodated with a great number of O’er thee pale friend! the tears of mem’ry bones, curiously and firmly united, shed,
which with the muscles, answer to Sweet solace 'tis, that here thy bones are all the motions of the legs and thighs,
stor’d, That dust Athenian strews a Briton's head. keep the body upright, by readily
and at the same time are intended to
assisting against every vacillation, and Natural Theology. "No. X. keeping the live of direction and the Of the Pasture of the Human Body: centre of gravity in their proper place. the Muscles.
With respect to the foot it may be a description which naturally should be concave at bottom, to enafollows the skeleton or prop-work of ble us to stand firm, and that the the machine, we may take a general nerves and blood-vessels might be free but transient vicw of the posture of from compression when we stand or the human body, which is uniques- walk : hence the long flexors of the tionably the most commodious possi- tocs cross one another at the bottom ble for a rational creature, for one of the foot, in the form of a cross, who was to have dominion over the to incline the lesser toes towards the other parts of the animal creation, great one, and the greater one toand for one who was to investigate wards the lesser. The short flexofs the works of nature, and practise the are chiefly concerned in drawing the arts. Without this erect posture be toes towards the heel.
There are could not have readily turned himself other tendons which draw the outto every business, and on every oc- sides of the foot towards each other : casion. His hand could not have been there is also one which runs round in so great a readiness to execute the the outer ankle, and obliquely forcommands of the will and active pow. wards crosses the bottom of the foot, ers: by means of this structure his and at once helps to extend the tareyes are admirably situated to observe sus, to confine the foot, and to direct things above, below, and all round the power of the other extensors tohim; he has a hemisphere of the hea- wards the ball of the great toe. vens and au ample horizon on the As the bones are amirably adapted earth.
to prop, so all the parts of the body As this erect state is the most com- are incomparably placed to poise it. plete posture for him, so if we survey Not one side too heavy for the other, the provision made for it, we find all but all in nice equipoise. done with manifest design, the utmost “ To all this," says Mr. Derham, art and skill being employed in it. we may add the wonderful concurThe ligaments and fastenings to the rence and ministry, of the prodigious internal parts are completely adapted number and variety of muscles, placed to the upright posture of the animal, throughout the body for this service, by which they are kept in a proper that they should so readily answer to position, and prevented falling too every posture, and comply with every low. Moreover, let us observe the motion without any previous thought, curious fabric of the bones, those pil- so that it is worthy of admiration that lars of the body. How artificially are in so great a variety of motions, as they made, how curiously placed from running, leaping, and dancing, the We crown of the head to the sole of laws of nature with respect to equithe foot. The vertebrp of the neck libration, should always be observed; and back are made short, and level and when neglected, or wilfully transexactly to join, and firmly braced gressed, that the body must necessawith muscles and tendons for the easy rily fall." incurvations of the body; but also Of the Muscles. We now come to for greater strength to support the speak of those organs which more body's own weight, together with the bones, and put the whole frame cther additional weights and burdens in motion. These are called muscles, which it may have occasion to bear. and constitute all that part of the hu. The thigh-boues and legs, as we have man body known by the name of seen, are long and strong, and every flesh. way admirably adapted for the mo- Each large muscle consists of two Nions of the body. The feet are ac- distinct portions, called the belly, which is the only active part, and its long slender tendons, where a dethin, cordy, fibrous and shining ex- crease of size is necessary and beautremities or tendons : the only pur- tiful, as at the small of the leg, while poses of the last are to fix the muscles others swell out in symmetrical proto the moveable part in a concen. portion. trated form, in consequence of which In describing the muscles of differa greater power is permitted to act, ent parts of the body we shall be very as manual labour is assisted by ropes, brief, yet the description cannot conespecially in moving very heavy bo sistently be wholly omitted. Dr. Keil dies, hence they are principally em
has reckoned in the human body 446 ployed in implanting muscles upon muscles which may be dissected and bones, and are not discoverable in described by anatomists, and be himthe heart, stomach and intestines. self hath assigned an use to every one
Muscles, no doubt, are the organs of the number. Galen, who wrote of motion in all animals, although we long before Keil, says, there are ten cannot always detect their peculiar things to be attended to in each parstructure in some of the minuter or- ticular muscle, viz. its figure—maggans, and still less in the smaller ani- nitude-fulcrum--point of action mals. The whole fleshy portion of collocation with respect to its two the human body consists of muscles, ends--the upper and lower surface that is of distinct fleshy bundles, the position of the whole muscle-and whose parts, though apparently in the introduction into it of nerves, arcontact, are still separate, sliding over teries and veins. How are things, each other, in their alternate con- including so many adjustments as tractions and elongations, and having these several circumstances require, both ends fixed into the parts which to be made; or when made, how they are intended to move.
could they have been combined withMuscles are of different shapes and out intelligence ? sizes, according to the degree of force Muscles of the Head. The forehead required of them, and the form of the is wrinkled and drawn upwards, and part on which they are situated: likewise the eye-brows, by a broad those on the body are usually flat and thin muscle which rises at the backbroad, while the muscles of the ex- part of the skull, and covering the tremities are of a long, round figure head, runs down the forehead to be with tendinous ends. Each muscle inserted into the skin of the eye-brows. performs its action by contracting The eye-brows are drawn to each both ends towards the centre, when other and the skin of the forehead one of these ends is a fixed point, the pulled down and made to wrinkle, as other to which the bone is united is in frowning, by a pair of small musin every movement necessarily drawn cles, which rise from the root of the towards it, and thus by the co-ope- nose, and are inserted into the inside ration of many muscles, the motion of the eye-brows. of the limb, and even of the whole The ear is moved by eleven muscles, body is effected : the instant any mo- three move the whole : five give mo tion is accomplished, the muscles, tion to particular parts, while the which performed it, relax, and allow other three are interual to move their ends to elongate to their former the small bones situated within the position.
It may be noticed here, that the The eyelids are closed by one mus. end of the muscle, which forms its cle and opened by another. The eyemore fixed point, is called its origin; balls, that is the eyes themselves, are while the other end which is fastened carried through all their motions by to the bone to be moved is termed its six smail muscles to each. They insertion :-moreover, that the shape arise from the bottom of the socket and turn of the part depend chiefly and are inserted into the outer coat upon the size and proportions of the of each eve-ball at different points. muscles which are situated thereon. Four of these move the eye upwards Thus the shape of the human body and downwards, to the right and to in different persons being extremely the left, while the others give oblique different depends altogether upon the directions to the eyes, at the same magnitude of the muscular parts. time protruding them: they all act Hence also many of them taper into in quick succession, and enable the
ball of the eye to describe a complete tion of these muscles on the mouth, circle.
that emotions of the mind are expresIn speaking of the muscles of the sed, and the predominance of partieyes, Dr. Paley exclaims, “ how ma- cular feelings in characters is indelibly ny things must go right for us to be stamped. The distortion of the feaan hour at ease ! How many more tures produced by palsy, is owing to to be vigorous and active! Yet vigour the inaction of the muscles on one and activity are in a vast plurality of side, while those on the other coninstances preserved in human bodies, tracting with their usual force, the notwithstanding that they depend up- mouth and other parts are drawn on on so great a number of instruments one side. of motion, and notwithstanding that The lower jaw has four pair of the defect or disorder of a very small muscles for pulling it upwards, as in instrument, of a single pair, for in- nauducation or eating. Of these two stance, out of 446 muscles which are pair act powerfully in pulling ibe jaw employed, may be attended with upwards, and may be felt swelling grievous inconvenience.” “ Hence," out in the flat part of the temple, and says the author of an old, but, in its upon the back part of the cheek. The day, excellent work, “ with much other two pair enable the jaw to move compassion, as well as astonishment from side to side, the more effectually at the goodness of our Creator have I to grind the food. The lower jaw is considered the sad state of a certain pulled downwards by muscles which gentleman who, as to the rest, was exieud between it and the bone of in good health, but only wanted the the tongue, and which serve also to use of the two little muscles, that raise the throat upwards in the act serve to lift up the eye-lids, and so deglutition. had almost lost the use of his sight, The muscular motion of the jaw is being obliged, so long as this defcet mentioned by Dr. Paley 'as very cuJasted, to lift bis eye-lids up with his rious and complicated. The problem hand. In general, bow little do those is to pull the lower jaw down. The who enjoy the perfect use of their or- obvious method should seem to be to gans,
know the magnitude of the place a straight muscle from the chin blessing, the variety of their obliga- to the breast, the contraction of which tion. They perceive a result without would open the mouth, and produce thinking of the multitude of concur- the motion required at once. rences which go to form it."
the form of the neck forbids a muscle On this same subject Mr. Home, being laid in such a position, therein the Philosophical Transactions for fore some other method must be 1800, part i., has observed, that the looked for, and the mechanism is as most important and the most delicate follows: A muscle rises on the side actions are performed in the body by of the face above the insertion of the the smallest muscles ; such, among lower jaw and comes down, being in others, are the muscles in the iris of its progrees changed into a rouud the ejc and the drum of the car. tendon. Now the tendon while it These are but microscopie hairs, and pursues a direction descending tomust be magnified by glasses to be wards the jaw, must by its contracvisible ; yet they are real and effec- tion pull the jaw up instead of doun : live muscles, and not only such, but to odviate this difficulty, the descendamong the grandest and most precious ing tendon, when it is low enough, of our faculties: the sight and the is passed through a loop, or ring or hearing depeud on their health and pulley, and then made to ascend, and action.
having thus changed its line of direcThe nose is affected by several of tion, it is inserted into the inner part the muscles of the face, but one only of the chin ; by this turn at the loop, on each side is proper to it. This the action of the muscle necessarily muscle straightens the vostrils, and draws the jaw down. Thus the mouth corrugates the skin of the nose. is opened by means of this trochlea in
The mouth and lips are moved by a most wonderful manner. nine pair of muscles, which arise Muscles of the Neck. The neck is from the contiguous bones of the face, covered with numerous and compliand are inserted into the lips and an- cated muscles, the uses of which are gles of the mouth. It is from the ac- to bend the head forwards, back
wards and sideways, to open the for dividing the pneumatic part from mouth by pulling the lower jaw the mechanical, and for preventing downwards, and to move the parts one set of actions interfering with anoconcerned in deglutition and speaking. ther. The mouth is a single machine, Hence we see a property of muscles with its parts neither crowded nor which could only be the result of care; confused, each at liberty for the end this is their being almost universally to be attained. so disposed, as not to obstruct or in- There is one case of this double of. terfere with one another's action. Now fice which the mouth could not perwhen we reflect upon the number of form alone, and that of the first necesmuscles, nearly 500, dispersed in the sity, viz., sucking and breathing : a human body, how very contiguous route is therefore opened through the they lie on each other, in layers some- nose, which allows the breath to pass times over one another, crossing one backward and forward, while the lips another, sometimes embedded in one in the act of sucking are shut close another, sometimes perforating one upon the body from which the nutrianother, an arrangement which leaves ment is drawn. The nose would, to each its liberty, and full play, must therefore, have been necessary, alnecessarily have required meditation though it had not been the organ of and counsel.
smelling. The making it the seat of It has been asserted, but without a sense was superadding a new use to reason, that wherever nature attempts a part already wanted; it was taking to work two or more purposes by one a wise advantage of an antecedent instrument, she does both or all im- and a constitutional necessity. See perfectly. Surely this is not true of Paley's Nat. Theol. the tongue considered as an instrument of speech and of taste, or con- Sir, London, Aug. 15, 1815. sidered as au instrument of speech: I cussion in your valuable and highly
AM happy to see that in the disof taste and of deglutition. Do not a vast majority of persons by the in- useful Magazine upon the appropriastrumentality of this one organ talk, tion of the term Unitarian, the deciand taste and swallow extremely sion appears to be on the side of liwell! The constant warmth and mois- berality; but it seems to me that if ture of the tongue, the thinness of there be any meaning in words, the the skin, the papillæ upon its surface term cannot be made to relate in any qualify this little organ for its office of way to a difference of opivion upon tasting, as much as its inextricable the pre-existence or person of Christ, multiplicity of fibres do for the rapid any farther than as he is denied to be movements which are necessary to the Supreme God, which alone en. speech.
titles a man to be called an Unitarian. We may also consider the parts ex- If, Sir, some amongst us wish to be ecuting distinct offices within the ca- more particularly distinguished, I vity of the mouth : teeth for cutting would propose they should call themand grinding-muscles for carrying selves by the name of Humanitarians on the compound motion of the which would sufficiently express lower jaw by which the mill is work- their peculiar opinions on the person ed; fountains of saliva, springing up in of Christ, and it adopted and given different parts of the cavity for the in that spirit of love and meekuess moistening of the foud, while the mas- which should be our object, would tication is going on-glands to feed not lessen that liberality and goodthese fountains-muscularcontractions will which now so happily prevail to guide the aliment to the stomach, amongst the professors of rational and for carrying it along the passage. Christianity, though not all agreeing The business of respiration and speech upon some points of minor importance. is also carried on within the same ca
I was concerned to see in your vity, from which a pssage is opened last number, p. 500) that a writer, to the lungs for the admission of the who is capable of better things, should air only-muscles for modulating that have condescended to use a word air in its passage, with a variety, a adopted by some from the Americans compass and precision, of which no (lengthy) whilst he might have exmusical instrument is capable : and pressed himself with at least as much, Jastly, we have a specific contriyance or more, effect from the stores of our