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ness and sincerity. He called things tionate in his temper and amiable in by their right names, and his detes- his manners; exemplary and useful tation of every thing in the nature of through a life prolonged beyond the a job, made him the terror of delin- ordinary period; eminent by his piety quents. His death will be a universal and virtue as a Christian, and by his source of sorrow to the country; and qualifications and services as a minow that courtiers are released from nister; he will be most tenderly rehis castigation, even they will do gretted in a very wide circle of rela. justice to his talents and integrity. lives and friends ;-while his labours
in various departments of Theology Died, on Sunday, July 23d, at Bir- and General Literature, will carry mingham, Joshua Toulmiu, D. D. down his name to posterity with the one of the pastors of the congregation reputation which it has obtained asseinbling at the New Meeting House among his judicious and candid conin that town. Uncommonly affec- temporaries. MONTHLY RETROSPECT OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS;
THE thrones of the Bourbons are conquerors should in this manner
sovereigns at Paris, Naples and Ma- some inconveniences being felt by the drid; and their conduct in their inhabitants; and the Prussians, exdifferent seats of government will asperated by former recollections, form very curious pages in future were not likely to be kept entirely history. Paris presents a very sin- free from availing themselves of the gular picture. It has been taken a usual privileges of war. But Paris second time, and the confederate ar- felt more, perhaps, for the apprehendmies, the supporters of the monarch ed injury to some of its works of art, on the throne, are in possession of than from the burning of a few pathe capital. In this situation the laces and villages at a distance: and monarch issues his mandates to his the Emperor of Russia arrived in subjects as in time of profound peace, time to save the bridge of Jena, which and he has appointed a day for the Blucher had made preparations to assembling of the legislature, to act destroy. The hardy veteran did not in concert with him for the govern- recollect, that if the bridge recalled ment of the country. The events the memory of the day in which the preceding this change are unexam- kingdom of his master was overpled in history, and will scarcely be thrown, the preservation of it with believed by posterity.
a memorial of its having been in The battle of Waterloo was most possession of the Prussians, would decisive. The ruin of the army un. have redounded more to their national der Buonaparte was complete, and glory. Paris had many similar mothe conquerors followed up their numents of the heroism of its great victory with such rapidity, that Paris military chief, but their names have fell into their hands without a blow. been changed, and thus the fury of A military convention was made be- the conquerors has been averted. tween the generals of the Prussians With the return of the Bourbon, and English and those of the army the white flag was restored; but the of the French, at Paris, by which the tri-coloured waves in many parts of latter agreed to withdraw with their France, which feels at present the troops to the south of the Loire; and horrors of domestic war and forcign Paris was given up to the conquerors, invasion. On all sides from the on the idea, that the inhabitants were Netherlands and the Rhine troops not to be injured, and public property are pouring into this ill-fated country, was left to future arrangements. whose day of retribution is come; The king followed them quickly, and and the pride of the great nation is was lodged in his palace, and the humbled to the dust. A feeble resovereigns of Russia and Prussia soon sistance has been made in some places after arrived in his capital.
to the march of the Russians and It could not be expected that the Austrians, which ended' in so much
greater disasters to the inhabitants : naturally directed to the fate of the but it is some cause of triumph, that great character who has for so long the march of the English was con- a time convulsed all Europe. Soon ducted with the greatest regularity, after his arrival at Paris it was anand more reliance is placed on their nounced, that he had abdicated the protection than that of any other imperial dignity, and a feeble attempt fag. The towns that held out are was made to preserve it to his son. daily submitting to the Bourbon, and He soon ceased to be visible. Varithe army, weakened by continual ous rumours were spread on the place desertions, is expected soon to follow of his retreat, and the most prevalent the same course. It remains to be one was, that he had taken shipping seen what will be the result of the with several of his generals for Amenew treaty.
rica. By many the belief was enOn the entrance of the sovereign tertained that he remained in France; into Paris, the chambers of the legis- but all doubts were removed by news lature then sitting were shut up, but of his surrender to the admiral on the many of its members assembled at station off Rochfort. What will be another place, and there subscribed his fate it is impossible to conjecture. a protest dictated by the state of af- Thus is overthrown a dynasty which fairs. They also left a plan of a con- a few years ago seemed firmly fixed, stitution : but, as it will be considered and with it, it is to be hoped, will to have been the work of persons be destroyed, that military system illegally assembled, no attention will under which Europe has so long be paid to it. The sovereign restored groaned. The calamities of the last to their places all who had been in twenty-six years cannot but produce power on the day of his quitting some lasting and salutary lessons both Paris, and the interregnum of three for governors and governed. months will produce little or no con- The fate of France remains to be sequences as to the civil government determined. It depends on the allied of the country. Every thing will sovereigns, who have now so many depend on the new legislature, and troops in the kingdom as must render there is every reason to believe, that farther resistance unavailable. They the sovereign will unite with it in have great demands, and it cannot be cordial endeavours to place the go- expected, that they should return vernment of the country upon a solid without some compensation for their foundation. It appears evidently im- labours. The keeping of so many possible to restore the monarchy to troops will of itself be sufficiently the situation in which it was under burdensome, and France will now the three former sovereigns, and the learn what it is to bear those contriking must consent to the limitations butions which it before was accusof a representative government. It tomed to lay on so many other counwill be recollected, that the Bourbons tries. But besides, it may be consihad destroyed the old constitution of dered, that France by her great power France. The states-general were not has been enabled to excite this confuallowed to assemble after the reign sion in Europe, and it may now be adof Henry the Fourth, but despotism viseable to reduce her within 'her anciwas not established till the latter end ent limits. These were extended in the of the reign of Louis the Fifteenth, reign of Louis the XIV., a despot who gained the memorable victory of a character very much resembling over his parliaments. The disorder that of Buonaparte; possessing all in the finances, produced by the Ame- the ambition of the latter, and with rican war in the reign of his succes- it a degree of intolerant bigotry, sor, brought forward the ancient which spent itself in most abominable claims of the people, which termi- cruelties on his own subjects. In his nated so fatally in the death of that time the French gained possession of ill-fated, but well-intentioned, mon- Alsace, Lorraine, Artois and Frenchi arch, and the consequent disasters Flanders, and the united sovereigus must have taught king and people may think, that France will be sufthe value of true liberty. It must be ficiently powerful when these addilong before they can experience its tions have been lopped off, and anblessings.
nexed to other territories. The great In this wonderful state of things nation will then be reduced to its the curiosity of the public has been true limit--to those regions where
the French is the native language; the less happy: and it will be seen and they who, when they had the whether its various states can settle power, used ad libitum the right of their differences by fair arbitration, annexation, cannot justly complain if instead of the vulgar and beastly apa similar power is exercised on the peal to force. The experiment is a side of deprivation. The treaty of noble one, and every well-wisher to Paris will now excite all the atten- peace must wish its success. One tion of the public, and it will be the main point in the new code of Gerfault of the united sovereigns, if many is, that religious opinions shall France is for some time at least ca- not be a cause for deprivation of civil pable of disturbing the peace of Eu- rights. Every prince will be allowed rope.
to employ his subjects of every denoNow perhaps is an opportunity wination of religion: but it is not to given for examining the nature for that to be expected that England will almilitary system under which Europe low for a long time this right to its has so long groaned. A nation kept sovereign. Probably, when Spain under by the bayonet cannot be said has set the example, this country
to possess a legitimate government, will be its tardy follower, and, in the , which is a union of people under laws mean time, the United Kingdom will which it is the general interest to present to the world the strange sight obey. Louis the XIV. introduced of a sect retaining its power, though large standing armies, and from that two thirds of the population should time Europe has presented the ap- be of a different opinion. pearance of a frightful barrack. Men Poland also, though united with did not live in a state of peace but of Russia, is held under a peculiar tentruce : for the great policy of nations ure. It is a separate kingdom and was to be prepared for war, that state to be governed by its own laws, and which is a disgrace to rational beings. a principal feature of its new constiIt is now high time to act upon bet. tution is freedom of religion. It has ter principles, and if such should be the advantage also of being under a adopted, the calamities of the last sovereign of a different religion from quarter of a century will not have that of a very great majority of his been fruitless. May it be recollected, new subjects, and the different sects at last, that all the nations engaged of those extensive regions, not receivin the late struggles profess to be ing any particular countenance from disciples of our Saviour, and pray the throne, will be prevented from daily for the coming of bis kingdoni. oppressing each other. The people But his kingdom is a kingdom of also will not be in so bad a state as is peace, and he is emphatically called generally imagined. The liberty, of the Prince of Peace. May the sove- which the nobles of Poland made so reigns of the earth learu at last to much their boast, was confined to imbibe his principles, and to make their cast; the people were under peace internal and external the end numberless despots.
Their power of their government.
will now be curbed, and the throne This is the age of reform. France will be a protection to the multitude attempted it, but overstepped the against the few. bounds of moderation and fell into In the midst then of all this confu. despotism. It is now likely to settle sion, the dawn of hope appears in the into a representative government. horizon. The Christian, indeed, will She has always been the giver of not fear, though the earth be moved fashious, and even despotic sovereigns and the mountains be cast into the have adopted this from her. Prussia midst of the sea. His heart is fixed; has now a constitution, the basis of and he knoweth in whom his confi. which is the representation of the dence is placed. The worldly polipeople. This is an unexpected mea- tician may lay his plans, but we have sure, but the king has given it his seen how soon the mighty fabric of sanction, and he will soon see esta- vice is destroyed. Let us hail the blished in his kingdom a legislature, prospect of a new era, and continue upon this foundation. Hanover had to pray, that God may inspire the preceded him in this goodly work, minds of princes with true wisdom, and Germany itself is formed into a that they may make his laws the rule confederation, in which every state of their conduct, and by undeviating has its proportioned number of repre- submission to our Saviour be an exsentatives. This large country must ample to their subjects and lead them remain weak, but not ou that account the way to happiness.
THE NEW UNITARIAN ACADEMY,
To the General Meeting holden the 17th of May, 1815.
Tue Committee of the Unitarian Academy have the satisfaction of reporting to this Annual Meeting of Governors and Subscribers tre progressive state of their Institution, in consequence of additions to the number of Students since the last Vacation, and of arrangements to carry into further effect the original design of preparing young men, of promising talents and deportment, to promote the Unitarian cause by a popular exercise of the Christian Ministry.
During the present Session, the theological Tutor has been enabled to pursue, with undivided attention, the instruction of the Students in the various and highly important objects of his department, Mr. Broadbent having accepted the office of Classical Tutor which he has executed with great assiduity and to the evi. dent improvement of his Pupils. Mr. Joyce, at the same time, has contioued his valuable Lectures in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, branches of science on which his well-known attaioments and occupations have peculiarly fitted him to become a successful instructor. The Committee cannot here omit to no. tice the opportunity afforded them of commencing a library, for the use of the Students, by a Loan of Books, just received from the Trustees of the late Academical Institution at Exeter. They promise themselves that a source of improvement so important to Students, will not be overlooked by the Friends of the Aca. demy, but rather frequently augmented by their benefactions.
During the present Session, five Students have been educated. Of these, Mr. Cooper, the senior, at the ensuing Vacation will complete the third year, to which, on his application, his course of study was extended by the Committee, agrecably to the Rules of the Institution. Mr. Cooper offers, on quitting the Academy, to accompany Mr. Wright into Cornwall. He is also willing to attend that indefatigable and successful promoter of the Unitarian Cause into Ireland, during the next year, should the projected Mission be effected.
The second Student, Mr. Goodier, proposes to continue in the Academy, the expense of his education being now defrayed, in
part, by remaining funds of the former College at Hackney, and partly by Donations procured through the friendly attentions of the Rev. T. Belsham. The other three Students have entered the Academy since the last aonual meeting.
The Committee having appointed a Sub-Committee to examine the proficiency of the Students, have the satisfaction of reporting to this Meeting that their progress in the various branches of study, according to their standing in the Academy, was found to be highly encouraging, and such as must afford a gratifying prospect to the supporters of the Iostitution of attaining the important objects they have united to promote. The Commit. tec fully expect that before the next annual meeting arrangements will be made for a public examination, such as will enable the Subscribers and Governors at large to witness the progress of their Institution in forming the minds and cultivating the talents of the young men who devote themselves, by their assistance, to the great objects of the Christian Ministry. Thus to bring forward the Students on the special plan of the Institution they have been encouraged, as occasions presented, to form the habit of preaching extempore. They have been thus occupied frequently, and in various places about London. The oppor. tunities for such employment of the Students are indeed likely to be numerous and increasing.
The Committee having thus endeavoured to bring before the Governors and Subscribers a view of the progress already made in promoting their design, consider it an incumbent duty to recommend to their consideration the pecuniary state of the Academy, as detailed in the Trcasu rer's Report, especially as there are, at present, several applications for admission from young men of promising talents and character. The disposal of these applications by the Committee, and even the future progress of the Institution, on its present contracted scale, must unavoidably depend on the additional support which may be afforded by the friends of the Unitarian cause. To contribute, in future, to --such support, by giving additional publicity to the Institution, the Committee beg leave to recommend that a Sermon be preached in London, or its neighbourhood, on the Sunday evening before each Annual Meeting of the Unitarian Academy, to explain and recommend its important objects.
While the Committee espress themselves thus solicitous for the further pecuniary support of the Institution, they have no doubt of receiving assistance equal to the occasion. I'he Unitarian Fund, now entering on the tenth year of its Establishment, has happily produced increasing opportunities for the services of Unitarian Ministers, even in places where, before the formation of that Society, an Unitarian was scarcely to be found. To provide such places with young men of respectable qualifications, as preachers, who shall also be able to undertake, where opportuwity serves, the oflice of School-masters, was the original design,